Many regions close to the equator experience an equatorial climate. These regions include, the
Amazon Basin (South America), the Congo Basin (Africa), Malaysia, Indonesia and some areas
in northern Australia.
Characteristics of Equatorial Climates
Regions with this climate experience high temperatures all year round. The average monthly
temperatures are about 26 – 28 degrees Celsius. The annual temperature range (the difference
between the average temperature of the hottest and coldest months) is very small. The annual
temperature range may be as low as 3 degrees Celsius. The diurnal or daily temperature range
(the difference between the highest temperature in the day and the lowest temperature at night) is
usually greater. Humidity is usually very high.
Another major characteristic of this climate is the high rainfall. These regions usually experience
2000 mm of rainfall or more in a year. Rainfall is high for most of the year. Many equatorial
regions are affected by the ITCZ. As the ITCZ passes over these areas it brings heavy rainfall
and thunderstorms. In some areas, the ITCZ causes two periods of very heavy rainfall every year.
One occurs when the ITCZ crosses these areas on its way north and another occurs when it
crosses these areas again on its way south. The climograph below shows the rainfall and
temperature pattern of an area which experien...