please answer the questions in the attached document

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Question Description

Identify Environmental Health Hazards and Problems

  • Identify an Environmental Health Concern/problem related to your emphasis (general environmental health, industrial hygiene, occupational health, or hazardous waste management) and provide background about the hazards and environmental health problem.You can use the format of Cases I and II as a guide to develop a description of the background.List references used to identify the concern and problem
  • With the concern and problem, list evidence on health effects of the environmental hazard. Provide references to support your statements.
  • Identify uncertainty in estimating health effects of the environmental hazard using page 12 of Reading Material _ Epidemiology of Environmental Health as the guide.
  • Identify the key steps of a systematic review of the environmental concern/problem identified in your assignment.
  • List sources/databases for you to use in collecting information for conducting a systematic literature review.
  • Define high-risk groups.Is there any possible high-risk groups associated with the environmental concern and problem identified in your assignment?

Exposure Assessment

  • What is the purpose of exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology?
  • What are the differences between ambient monitoring and biological monitoring?

3.What type of biological monitoring indicates an internal exposure dose?

4.Please identify the conditions as either direct or indirect measurement

4.1A researcher may collect personal breathing zone samples to assess concentrations of doses of volatile organic compounds inhaled by an individual.

4.2John collected questionnaires to characterize exposure.

4.3Roberto used survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to estimate lead exposure to children in the U.S..

4.4Jennifer collected urine samples to detect dimethylarsinic acid in order to characterize arsenic exposure from well water consumption.

5. List five types of data to estimate exposure concentrations.Please rank the data from best to poorest assessment by using 1 to 5.

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Assignment 2 Identifying Environmental Health Hazards and Problems Exposure Assessment Due June 5, 2018, 11:59 p.m. Identify Environmental Health Hazards and Problems 1. Identify an Environmental Health Concern/problem related to your emphasis (general environmental health, industrial hygiene, occupational health, or hazardous waste management) and provide background about the hazards and environmental health problem. You can use the format of Cases I and II as a guide to develop a description of the background. List references used to identify the concern and problem 2. With the concern and problem, list evidence on health effects of the environmental hazard. Provide references to support your statements. 3. Identify uncertainty in estimating health effects of the environmental hazard using page 12 of Reading Material _ Epidemiology of Environmental Health as the guide. 4. Identify the key steps of a systematic review of the environmental concern/problem identified in your assignment. 5. List sources/databases for you to use in collecting information for conducting a systematic literature review. 6. Define high-risk groups. Is there any possible high-risk groups associated with the environmental concern and problem identified in your assignment? Exposure Assessment 1. What is the purpose of exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology? 2. What are the differences between ambient monitoring and biological monitoring? 3. What type of biological monitoring indicates an internal exposure dose? 4. Please identify the conditions as either direct or indirect measurement 4.1 A researcher may collect personal breathing zone samples to assess concentrations of doses of volatile organic compounds inhaled by an individual. 4.2 John collected questionnaires to characterize exposure. 4.3 Roberto used survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to estimate lead exposure to children in the U.S.. 4.4 Jennifer collected urine samples to detect dimethylarsinic acid in order to characterize arsenic exposure from well water consumption. 5. List five types of data to estimate exposure concentrations. Please rank the data from best to poorest assessment by using 1 to 5. ...
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Tutor Answer

RyanTopTutor
School: UC Berkeley

Attached.

Running Head: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Environmental Health
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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

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1. Identify an Environmental Health Concern/problem related to your emphasis

A common environmental health concern within industrial hygiene is asbestos. Asbestos
is the name given to a cluster of naturally occurring minerals utilized in specific items, for
example, vehicle brakes and building materials (Oury, 2016). Before, it was an attractive
additive to numerous items because of its resistance to heat, quality, and sturdiness. Numerous
common materials for building utilized today contain this substance. Such materials include
fireproofing materials, joint compound, and pipe insulation. Asbestos fibers are extremely
aerodynamic and naturally occurring which implies that everybody is exposed to them. To be a
critical health concern, these fibers must be inhaled in high doses over a longer time period,
gathering in the lungs. Through more and more exposure, the risk of illness additionally
increases. Subsequently, measures to limit exposure and thusly reduce the accumulation of
asbestos fibers will minimize the danger of unfavorable health outcomes (Oury, 2016). Asbestos
is only a health hazard if ends up airborne.

2. With the concern and problem, list evidence on health effects of the environmental
hazard. Provide references to support your statements.

The human health impacts from the long-haul and unsafe exposure to asbestos are very
well documented. Asbestos fibers are inhaled easily and carried into the lower areas of the lungs
where they can cause fibrotic lung infection and changes in the covering of the chest cavity.
These infections can prompt diminished respiratory capacity and death. Long-haul exposure to
asbestos fibers likewise heightens the danger of mesothelioma and lung cancer (Oury, 2016).
There have additionally been a few studies on the impacts of asbestos exposure on the immune
system. Most research shows that the function of the immune system is reduced in workers with

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

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asbestosis. Researchers are yet to determine whether the changes in the functionality of the
immune system are the reason or the aftereffect of the asbestosis. In employees exposed to
asbestos but are yet to develop clinical indications of asbestosis, there is usually no notable
change in the functionality of their immune system. Exposure to asbestos may be a factor that is
present in the development of an uncommon condition known as retroperitoneal fibrosis (Oury,
2016). This disease is the manifestation of a fibrous mass behind the layer covering the stomach
cavity, which can bring about the failure of the kidneys. There are various case reports as well as
a case-control study which shows that exposure to asbestos might be an imperative risk factor for
this rare illness.

3. Identify uncertainty in estimating health effects of the environmental hazard using
page 12 of Reading Material _ Epidemiology of Environmental Health as the guide.

When outlining epidemiologic studies, there are a couple of issues that should be taken
into consideration: potential sources of bias, expense, efficiency, and feasibility. Epidemiological
studies, as opposed to controlled clinical trials, frequently experience the confounding bias
because of unmeasured and measured confounders. Confounding happens when the outcome of a
disease has all the earmarks of being associated with an exposure simply because of its
connection with some other risk factors of the ailment (Chiang & Su, 2015). For instance, in
epigenetic epidemiology, age is a potential confounder since the methylation methods of the
DNA change with age and age is a risk factor for many illnesses. At the study design phase, the
effects of confounding can be reduced by randomization, restriction, and matching. The impact
of confounding can likewise be addressed amid data analysis by performing regression,
standardization, and stratification modeling.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

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Estimating the health impacts of environmental hazards such as asbestos has been an
extraordinary challenge in studies on epidemiology because of the intricate pattern of long-haul
exposures and the need to gather repeated and accurate data on individual exposure in expansive
populaces. Errors in measurement, for example, misclassification of the status of exposure, can
exist regardless of the design of the study (Chiang & Su, 2015). Such an error generally prompts
attenuation of the main effects when the blunder is non-differential. This sort of misclassification
happens when the exposure misclassification does not rely upon ailment status or when the
misclassification of malady does not rely up...

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