Running Head: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
1. Identify an Environmental Health Concern/problem related to your emphasis
A common environmental health concern within industrial hygiene is asbestos. Asbestos
is the name given to a cluster of naturally occurring minerals utilized in specific items, for
example, vehicle brakes and building materials (Oury, 2016). Before, it was an attractive
additive to numerous items because of its resistance to heat, quality, and sturdiness. Numerous
common materials for building utilized today contain this substance. Such materials include
fireproofing materials, joint compound, and pipe insulation. Asbestos fibers are extremely
aerodynamic and naturally occurring which implies that everybody is exposed to them. To be a
critical health concern, these fibers must be inhaled in high doses over a longer time period,
gathering in the lungs. Through more and more exposure, the risk of illness additionally
increases. Subsequently, measures to limit exposure and thusly reduce the accumulation of
asbestos fibers will minimize the danger of unfavorable health outcomes (Oury, 2016). Asbestos
is only a health hazard if ends up airborne.
2. With the concern and problem, list evidence on health effects of the environmental
hazard. Provide references to support your statements.
The human health impacts from the long-haul and unsafe exposure to asbestos are very
well documented. Asbestos fibers are inhaled easily and carried into the lower areas of the lungs
where they can cause fibrotic lung infection and changes in the covering of the chest cavity.
These infections can prompt diminished respiratory capacity and death. Long-haul exposure to
asbestos fibers likewise heightens the danger of mesothelioma and lung cancer (Oury, 2016).
There have additionally been a few studies on the impacts of asbestos exposure on the immune
system. Most research shows that the function of the immune system is reduced in workers with
asbestosis. Researchers are yet to determine whether the changes in the functionality of the
immune system are the reason or the aftereffect of the asbestosis. In employees exposed to
asbestos but are yet to develop clinical indications of asbestosis, there is usually no notable
change in the functionality of their immune system. Exposure to asbestos may be a factor that is
present in the development of an uncommon condition known as retroperitoneal fibrosis (Oury,
2016). This disease is the manifestation of a fibrous mass behind the layer covering the stomach
cavity, which can bring about the failure of the kidneys. There are various case reports as well as
a case-control study which shows that exposure to asbestos might be an imperative risk factor for
this rare illness.
3. Identify uncertainty in estimating health effects of the environmental hazard using
page 12 of Reading Material _ Epidemiology of Environmental Health as the guide.
When outlining epidemiologic studies, there are a couple of issues that should be taken
into consideration: potential sources of bias, expense, efficiency, and feasibility. Epidemiological
studies, as opposed to controlled clinical trials, frequently experience the confounding bias
because of unmeasured and measured confounders. Confounding happens when the outcome of a
disease has all the earmarks of being associated with an exposure simply because of its
connection with some other risk factors of the ailment (Chiang & Su, 2015). For instance, in
epigenetic epidemiology, age is a potential confounder since the methylation methods of the
DNA change with age and age is a risk factor for many illnesses. At the study design phase, the
effects of confounding can be reduced by randomization, restriction, and matching. The impact
of confounding can likewise be addressed amid data analysis by performing regression,
standardization, and stratification modeling.
Estimating the health impacts of environmental hazards such as asbestos has been an
extraordinary challenge in studies on epidemiology because of the intricate pattern of long-haul
exposures and the need to gather repeated and accurate data on individual exposure in expansive
populaces. Errors in measurement, for example, misclassification of the status of exposure, can
exist regardless of the design of the study (Chiang & Su, 2015). Such an error generally prompts
attenuation of the main effects when the blunder is non-differential. This sort of misclassification
happens when the exposure misclassification does not rely upon ailment status or when the
misclassification of malady does not rely up...