literature review- Specific instructions (Please only accept if you have done one before)

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Question description


I am attaching my bibliography as that is what my literature review is based off of. Please reference to it.


My public policy is trying to improve boot camps :Juvenile public policies are believed to reduce the number of repeated offenders and to lower operational cost and are strongly supported by politicians and the public; however, many studies show that they are ineffective in reducing future crimes and cost.


**3-4 pages

-Using your annotated bibliography from Week 2, write a literature review of 3–4 pages. Many peer-reviewed academic journal articles contain a literature review section. Research to find and read several of these.

The literature review is not a listing of abstracts or simple paraphrasing. If your introduction and literature review are combined, ensure that each specific point in establishing the importance of your topic is supported by citations of proper sources. The points you are emphasizing are a reflection of the research and findings that you have developed around your chosen topic. Your ultimate paper is your own unique perspective, and in the literature review you are assembling related research to support your own work.

Assignment Guidelines

  • Using your annotated bibliography from Week 2, conduct a literature review of your selected sources.
  • Your literature review should be 3–4 pages in length.

Remember to use APA style for all references and citations.

Crime Prevention Bianca Lopez Colorado Technical University A National Study Comparing the Environments of Boot Camps With Traditional Facilities for Juvenile Offenders [Scholarly project]. (2001). In National Institute of Justice Research In Brief F. Retrieved May 30, 2018, from https://www.prisonpolicy.org/scans/187680.pdf This article compares the pros and cons of juvenile boot camps and the positive experience one has when they visit different boot camps. It suggest that in order for boot camps to be effective that the staff needs to provide to every individual needs; however, many just manage them by groups, which is why in the long run it has not seemed to be effective in the future for these young kids. Studies have shown that programs that have provided correctional treatment in behavior have been successful. This relates to my public policy as it demonstrates the pros and cons that appear to be taking place in more than one boot camp. Besemer, S., Farrington, D. P., & Bijleveld, C. C. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5342201/ This article discusses how labeling may be a factor that plays a role in crime especially with juveniles. It discusses why young children who are raised my convicted parents are most likely to follow their footsteps and commit crimes since that is what they see. Unfortunately, it is until unclear study wise as to the why behind it for sure, so I do not count this as a reliable source. It is an argumentative paper as to why researches believe that labeling affects those who are not. It then goes on to discuss a theory that people’s behavior is influenced by the label attached to it by society. I can see this being true for juveniles as they seem to be easily peer-pressured. Blue, R. (2009, February). Is Regulation the Answer? [Scholarly project]. In Is Regulation the Answer? Retrieved May 29, 2018, from https://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/publishing/criminal_justice_section_ newsletter/crimjust_juvjust_newsletterjune09_june09_pdfs_bootcamps.authcheckd am.pdf This article discusses the abuse that boot camps have that vary across the country. It states that some are very harsh mentally, physically, and emotionally. It stresses that although there are some that have this negative affect that still some boot camps are beneficial to juveniles but need to implement an after care strategy as well. It stresses that the programs need to improve overall as a whole. This article relates to my public policy as I am also looking for the negatives and not only positives. I have to look from both sides of views in order to prefect a successful boot camp. CAUSATION IN CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORIES AND RESEARCH. (1985). Retrieved May 23, 2018, from Causation in Criminological Theories and Research: https://www.ufmg.br/ieat/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Mark-Stafford.pdf This article discusses different theories of crime causation. It also informs the readers that there is not actual definition of cause as it can vary or there can be multiples reasons why something happened; therefore, we simply cannot have one definition of a cause. This university specifically tested different crimes students had committed between delinquency and drug users between religious denominational identification vs nonreligious. The results ended up being that the religious had less delinquency and drug use than those who did not consider themselves religious. I find this article to be useful as they actually had a survey students took for proof of what the article was discussing. Don M. Gottfredson, “Criminological Theories: The Truth as Told by Mark Twain,” in William S. Laufer and Freda Adler, eds., Advances in Criminological Theory, Vol. 1 (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1989), p. 1. This book discusses how theory is based on scientific methods. It informs us readers that a lot of people believe in theories because it is backed up by proof through many experiments and researches; however, this section of the book states that theories lack justifiable generality because there is not one theory that fits all. I agree with this especially because my focus for this class is boot camps. According to research boot camps do not help children in the long run, but when you speak to them most say they found it helpful. Gender Disparities in the Juvenile Justice System. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://juvjustice.org/blog/598 This article covers the rates of crimes rates for boys against girls and why they should be separated my gender. Chandlee Kuhn, states that girls are more likely to experience different abuse sexually, mentally, physically and emotionally than boys have; therefore, they should not be placed in programs with boys that may make them feel uncomfortable. Girls are also known to usually not commit as much violent crimes as boys do. 90 percent of girl’s arrests are from fighting or disorderly behavior. The issue that it speaks about is how the programs have yet developed specific programs for girls that address their needs as adults. I personally believe that this is article is in favor of woman and emotional support. It goes into percentages and data that backs up the cases reported of abuse and so on. The credibility seems reliable. Gültekin, K. (2012). Is juvenile boot camp policy effective? International Journal of Human Sciences / Uluslararası İnsan Bilimleri Dergisi, 725-740. doi:10.14687/ijhs.v9i1.1978 This Journal has an interesting point of view as the researchers believe that boot camps have not been overall successful only because of the simple fact that it is not a long enough program for juveniles. It discusses all three different types of boot camps and what training to expect. They have a hypothesis that it may be less cost effective but that it does not work in the long run. Although this journal provides great examples I would not rely on its credibility as far as it being less cost effective as they have not done enough research on that side of things. The journal overall relates to my public policy ass it provides examples of juvenile boot camps in the ways it is effective and not effective. The negatives will help me figure out how to improve boot camps in my public policies. Kramer, L. (2018, March 16). Why Is Ethics Important in Criminal Justice? Retrieved from https://legalbeagle.com/6386561-ethics-important-criminal-justice.html This article discusses why ethics plays an import role in criminal justice. It explains how the criminal justice system has to have morals they follow that separate wrong from right in order to punish those who need to serve time for wrong doings. It also covers how without ethics one may be able to pay off a judge instead of actually serving time for the crime committed. The article mentions how we expect our government to act in our best interest; therefore citizens are more likely to support the policies that are set in place to provide safety all around. Wingate Wilderness Therapy. (2016, March 03). Retrieved from https://www.wingatewildernesstherapy.com/Boot-Camps-For-TroubledTeens/Illinois-IL/ This boot camp webpage discusses in detail what the schedule looks like for a juvenile on a day to day basis. This program seems to have been a lot more successful than other boot camps with reducing juveniles from reoffending. It states that these juveniles have been transitioning into adult hood and have made better life choices. As far as the creditability goes I believe they should provide success stories and compare themselves to other boot camps to provide evidence that this information is in fact true. Peters, M., Thomas, D., Zamberlan, C., & Associates, C. (2017). Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention [Scholarly project]. In A Publication of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved May 29, 2018, from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/164258.pdf These experts in juvenile delinquency went above and beyond in this reading as they provide statics, experiments, and figures they have done in order to find out what boot camps do well in and what they could use work in. This reading addresses the issue of boot camps right from the start and then jumps right into what boot camps goals are actually supposed to be. A lot of their studies they found when evaluating in individual is that boot camp was positive for them. As you read on the experts give examples of how they can improve overall so that there is evidence of this as a whole. I do find this information creditable as it has multiple researches and doctors who have collaborated their time and effort into their findings. This specific article has provides charts and figures that seem to back up different researches they have done. I find this source to be creditable as I have figures to reference to.

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Mercury_H
School: University of Maryland

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