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Explain the theological origins of the theory of human dignity. The theory of human dignity has its theological origins in the creation stories found in the book of Genesis. These stories portray the human beings as the best creation among all other creatures. The creation story also states that God made human beings in His image and gave them power over all other creatures. Why do Christians believe that God sent Jesus? To saves us from our sins and grant us an everlasting life with God. Who does Jesus choose to primarily associate with and why? Jesus chose to associate with tax collectors like Levi and other sinners instead of the righteous people. He associates with sinners because he came to save sinners, as they need Him more than the righteous. Is Kant’s conception of the human similar to or different from CST? Explain Kant’s concept of human beings is similar to CST. The Kantian ethical theory states that the morality of a person’s action can be assessed by only the judgment of other rational creatures since human beings are unique and dignified. Explain in your own words the two categories of people that Gabriel Marcel proposed. Which category do you think you fall into? The two categories of people that Gabriel Marcel proposed are those who are available and those who are unavailable. The first one are those who think that they are not superior to others and believe in equality. The unavailable ones are those who view other people as superior to them. They underestimate themselves and think that others are better than them. I view myself as an available person. Explain how CST links human dignity with labor. CST link human dignity with labor as humans are not only made in the image of God, but they are also assigned the duty to take care of God’s creation and control it. How does the concept of human dignity challenge the belief that advances in technology lead to better, happier lives? Based on the human dignity concept, one may conclude that advances in technology will destroy our future generations. Chapter2: 1.What are the limits of the concept of human dignity? When we talk about communities, societies, and associations, we tend to realize the limits of human dignity since what individuals perceive as good may not be good enough for the society. 2. Why can it be difficult to speak of a “common good” today? The individualistic culture of the western people makes it hard for the nations to share the goodness. This makes talking about common goodness hard due to the corporations conducting business in our economy. 3.What recent events in business have led some to reconsider the concept of the common good? What happened to big companies like Lehman Brothers, CITI Banks, Enron, WorldCom, HealthSouth, Sachs, Banks, and Bank of America led many to doubt the concept of common good. 4.In what way are utilitarian logic and stakeholder theory inadequate renditions of the common good theory? The theory of utilitarian logic and stakeholder are nonfactors of the theory of common good because they work on the assumptions of individualistic on human and society. An utilitarian knows what makes people happy as well as the society. This applies to investors too, since they want to make more money on their investments. 5.What forces in your life focus more on individualism and what forces (if any) taught you to be concerned about the communities that you belong to? Since I am studying to have a great future, my studies have made me focus on individualism while religion has taught me to be concerned more about those around me. 6. What is the role of various communities in creating who people in their lives? Different communities are made up of individuals who are interconnected. 7. How does the common good tradition view the human person? The human person is perceived by common good tradition as a person who is integrated into social relationship network and not as a competing individual. 8.How does the common good tradition understand the individual self? Human nature is interdependent; therefore the conceptions of humans being social are placed first, and those of individuals are secondary. 9. What are the origins in Western culture of the concept of the human as an individual? The theory of John Locke influenced the human as an individual concept since it originated during the Enlightenment era. 10. In footnote #4 on page 63, there is a discussion of the role of the common good in Locke’s thought. What is the claim that Brian Stiltner is making? Brian Stiltner claims that the theories of Locke’s about the individual liberties and the limited constitutional state were formulated in a theoretical context without the central concerns of the common good. 11. Why does the conception of the human person differ within a religious context than the Enlightenment claims? Human beings are tied to their specific roles in the community, and this makes their conception lack individualism in the community because many religions are based on the premodern communities. 12. What is the point of the discussion of Lebron James on page 64? Lebron James is a talented man whose achievements and rewards are not tied to the society or his team rather they belong to him alone. The point of view on how people perceive the individual conception is different from before. When using the communitarian theory, many will say that LeBron's success was due to the support of his fans and the NBA. 13. If you were going to make a communitarian argument about how you’ve gotten to where you are today—what would you list as those networks/forces that have gotten you to where you are today? I am where I am due to the unending support of both my loving parents and our supportive government. I would not be where I am today if not for the support of these two parties. 14. What is one reason given in the chapter for the creation and perpetuation of the “selfmade businessperson?” The key driving element that drives a self-made business person is motivation. The communitarian argument argues. Otherwise, business people are successful due to the support of parties, individuals or organizations like banks, which are related to that particular business sector. 15. How did Jacques Maritain think that people could discern the common good? Maritain believed that people could discern the common good by closely monitoring the human community experience. 16. How does the Catholic tradition understand the community? What is it and what is it not? The Catholic tradition believes that individuals are not a collection rather they are a group of people where real relationships exist. 17. How is the understanding of the common good as a mere aggregation of all private goods qualitatively different from Aristotle and Aquinas’s notions of the common good? Aquinas and Aristotle believe the common goods of the society should be considered as an independent species of good which is are both richer and higher in goodness and better than any other form of human good. 18. How are the goods of individuals and the goods of community-related? The community goods and the individual goods are related in the way that the good found in a person comes from the good in the community. 19. Explain how the common good can be understood to have a teleological dimension. The common good has an ideological dimension because it is the goal of perfection or the final cause. The society is ordered from this kind of good since it has a purpose. 20. What two general meanings of the common good does the author propose? (1) Order of all parts towards one another or a whole in the universe. (2) The universal goods in which all things participate, seek and communicate. 21. What two meanings can the common good of the political community have that correlate to the general meanings discussed above? (1) The individual virtuous activity result as the benefit that follows individuals looking for their ultimate good of virtue and happiness. (2) The unity of good that is different from a simple aggregate of individual goods in the society 22. What is the “descriptive” aspect of the common good? The common good descriptive aspect forces its viewers to view the social world as a mutual relationship made up of a complex web. 23. What is the “prescriptive” aspect of the common good? The common good Prescriptive aspect persuades people to always do the greater good even in the circumstance of competition for individual goods. 24. What is the role of “cooperation” in the Catholic conception of the common good? Cooperation is the key to strength and goodness in the society. Cooperation can be defined as the undivided force within a society, where people come together towards meeting the same goals. 25. Do you agree with the ancient Roman proverb that it is better to live poor in a rich empire than rich in a poor one? Explain I disagree, living a rich life in a poor empire will make me happy and boost my ego because I will always have the feeling of being luckier than everybody around me. Living poor in a rich empire will always make me feel sad; I will always question myself where I am not as successful as the rest of the empire. 26. What is the relationship between the common good and happiness? Happiness is a state of being satisfied while common good is being happy which is brought by happiness, people who experience common good do so by living a virtuous life. 27. What are 3 main problems that plague attempts to realize the common good? (1) Common good is plagued by Sheer complexity as well as scale of numerous business issues. (2) Existence of global market scarcity as well as competition for inadequate resources in any given economy (3) Finding a single description of common good is difficult. 28. What three reasons does David Hollenbach, SJ, give for why people fear strong notions of the common good? (1) Fear that already existing strong ideas might compete with common good and lead to great violence (2) Majorities might be oppressed by powerful minorities who hold opposing views of common good. (3) Fear that outright tyranny of a powerful group that has visions of perfect societies like the Germany Nazi’s. 29. Why does Hollenbach think that “morality write small,” where people try to be nonjudgmental and tolerant is problematic? Hollenbach believes that narrow-minded and lenient viewpoint governs the American ethical landscape, obfuscating the better moral objectives for the good of all people including societal impartiality and fairness. 30. What are 4 insights from the common good tradition that can be helpful in business ethics? (1) Common good satisfies desires of persons they cannot satisfy on their own and enterprises can mean more to their workers and the society more than money. (2) Cooperation in business among people involved gives better results instead of selfcenteredness. (3) The standards the businesses impose bring vital moral weight as persons relate themselves in the communal nature of the corporation. 31. CEO pay case study: a. How does the expansion of executive pay in deteriorating economic times affect the common good? Giving more pay to CEOs when the economic crisis is bad for the common good. This is true especially when the company survives the crisis because the government used the tax money of the people to save the company but still billions of dollars went to the CEOs and nothing for the shareholders who invested money in the company. b. What principles does the common good offer that might suggest a different approach to executive compensation? Common good believes in the principle of doing what is right for the community of or for the employees. This means that the compensation of the executives should not be too much and they should be willing to give up some of their compensation to give to the employees who work harder than or just as hard as them c. How would executive compensation be administered if it were ordered toward achieving the common good? It would be administered in a fair manner and just similar with other countries and not 100 times or 1000 times more. d. If you owned a Fortune 500 company, what would be the most important qualifications for your executive positions? What qualities would you look for in job candidates for CEO? The most important qualifications are skills and knowledge in the industry, business ethics, great communication skills, leadership, and great work ethics 32. Employee-ownership case study: a. Using the common good as the standard, how does the employee-owned business model compare to the other traditional models of capitalist ownership? The employee-owned business model will benefit the common good as it benefits all employees without exceptions unlike in traditional models capitalist ownership in which the people who put in the biggest amount of money will make the biggest profit and those who do not have money will not have any profit. b.What benefits and risks do you see in the employee-ownership model in comparison to other traditional models of ownership? The benefits will be more motivation for employees to work because they know the more they put their effort and become more productive, the more they will be rewarded. They will own their job and will love the company. The risks arise when the business is losing money and employees realize they are losing money as well instead of gaining so they will not feel motivated anymore and might resign or get their remaining money if possible. c. If you owned a business, under what conditions might you consider shifting to the employee-ownership model? I can use the employee-ownership model but it will be optional for all employees. All employees can have their own shares to the company but they will not be forced. They should also know that it is possible not to have any profits sometimes and there are risks involved in ownership. d. Do you think employee-ownership might someday become popular, or even dominate in the capitalist marketplace? Why or why not? I think they will become popular only for those stable companies that the employees can trust they money and be sure that it will grow instead of depreciate. I think it will not dominate in the capital market because most capitalists want to have more money and they can only do that once they limit the shares to people who have big money to share. If many employees will join buy each employee only offers very little like $10 - $1,000, that will be just more paperwork instead of having a few shareholders who have millions of dollars each. In any way, employeeownership will benefit more people as long as the company is stable an

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masterjoe
School: UC Berkeley

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Running Head: PARAPHRASING

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Explain the theological origins of the theory of human dignity.
The theory of human dignity has its theological origins in the creation stories found in the book
of Genesis. These stories portray the human beings as the best creation among all other creatures.
The creation story also states that God made human beings in His image and gave them power
over all other creatures.
Answer
The book of genesis, describes the human creation, and the theory of human dignity, by
representing man as God’s perfect creation. Moreover, the book of Genesis describes how God
created man in his image, and directed him to take charge of all the plants and animals on earth.

Why do Christians believe that God sent Jesus?
To saves us from our sins and grant us an everlasting life with God.
Answer
To save mankind, and give them an eternal life.

Who does Jesus choose to primarily associate with and why?
Jesus chose to associate with tax collectors like Levi and other sinners instead of the righteous
people. He associates with sinners because he came to save sinners, as they need Him more than
the righteous.
Answer
Jesus came to the world, to save the sinners such as the tax collectors. These tax
collectors included the Levites, who wanted Jesus more than the righteous; therefore Jesus
decided to associate with them.
Is Kant’s conception of the human similar to or different from CST? Explain

PARAPHRASING

3

Kant’s concept of human beings is similar to CST. The Kantian ethical theory states that the
morality of a person’s action can be assessed by only the judgment of other rational creatures
since human beings are unique and dignified.
Answer
There are similarities between Kant’s and CST theory, because they both state that
human beings are exclusive and exalted, hence the decency of a person’s action can be evaluated
logically by other creatures.

Explain in your own words the two categories of people that Gabriel Marcel proposed.
Which category do you think you fall into?
The two categories of people that Gabriel Marcel proposed are those who are available and those
who are unavailable. The first one are those who think that they are not superior to others and
believe in equality. The unavailable ones are those who view other people as superior to them.
They underestimate themselves and think that others are better than them.
I view myself as an available person.

Answer
Gabriel Marcel, made a proposal to two groups of people that is individuals who were
available, and those who were absent. Those available consider equality, and perceive
themselves as not superior to other people. By contrast, those who fall on the unavailable
category, underestimate themselves, and perceive other people as more superior.
I fall under the available category.

Explain how CST links human dignity with labor.
CST link human dignity with labor as humans are not only made in the image of God, but they
are also assigned the duty to take care of God’s creation and control it.

PARAPHRASING

4

Answer
CST bonds human’s self-esteem with labor, because man not only controls and takes care
of God’s creation, but is also made in God’s image.

How does the concept of human dignity challenge the belief that advances in technology
lead to better, happier lives?
Based on the human dignity concept, one may conclude that advances in technology will destroy
our future generations.
Answer
Regarding the idea of human dignity, one may determine that the future generation of
mankind, will be destroyed by the advancement in technology.

Chapter2:

1.What are the limits of the concept of human dignity?
When we talk about communities, societies, and associations, we tend to realize the limits of
human dignity since what individuals perceive as good may not be good enough for the society.
Individual’s perception of what is good may not be good enough for the society, because
we tend to realize the limits of human dignity, when we talk about associations, communities,
and societies.
2. Why can it be difficult to speak of a “common good” today?
The individualistic culture of the western people makes it hard for the nations to share the
goodness. This makes talking about common goodness hard due to the corporations conducting
business in our economy.

PARAPHRASING

5

Answer
The discourse about common goodness is difficult, because of the companies undertaking
businesses in our country. These corporations subscribe to the western culture, thus posing a
challenge for countries to share goodness.

3.What recent events in business have led some to reconsider the concept of the common
good?
What happened to big companies like Lehman Brothers, CITI Banks, Enron, WorldCom,
HealthSouth, Sachs, Banks, and Bank of America led many to doubt the concept ...

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