Read different articles and answer all the questions


Question Description

WEEK 6 (May 8 & 10) Advertising and Commercialization

  • What role does advertising continue to play in our economy, society, and culture?
  • How did we end up surrounded by advertising? (and constantly trying to avoid it?)
  • What impact does advertising have on communication, institutions, and power?
  • How should we understand advertising as a system or institution?
  • How is the advertising system morphing in the digital age? Are we morphing along with it?

Our discussion of the advertising system starts with the market model of media and continues with rise of broadcasting. As we saw in the previous section, advertising-supported radio began in 1922 when AT&T experimented with “selling time” to advertisers on its NYC station, WEAF (Czitrom, p. 75). In his chapter about the history of radio, Czitrom draws a connection between advertising-supported radio and the rise of consumer culture broadly speaking: “The triumph of commercial broadcasting represented a substantial victory for the ideology of consumption in American life….Advertisers sold not merely products but a way of life: happiness through buying, personal fulfillment from the purchase” (pp. 76-77).

6. What does advertising-supported Internet look like? How important is advertising to the way the Internet works, and the ways we use it?

(1) Deborah Cohen. May 25, 2017. More Is More. The New York Review of Books. Vol. LXIV, No. 9. pp. 42-44.

This article is a review of a book by Frank Trentmann called Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers.

7. What does Trentmann argue was important in this modern transformation of people into consumers?

8. What is his answer to the question Deborah Cohen poses: “How did we come to be such voracious, irrepressible consumers?”

(2) Joseph Turow. 2011. Introduction. The Daily You: How the New Advertising Industry is Defining Your Identity and Your Worth. Yale U Press, pp. 1-12.

9. What does Turow argue is the central driving force of the advertising industry of the 21st century?

10. What does this reading suggest about how advertising-supported media has changed since the broadcasting era? What is different about the advertising system in the digital age?

(3) Kate Kaye. May 9, 2016. You Are What You Play: Spotify Expands Data Use. Advertising Age.

11. What is Spotify’s business model, and what does it have to do with the advertising-supported Internet?

12. What does it mean for “music streaming behavior” to be “a new currently for advertisers”?

13. What is Spotify’s relationship to companies like Esurance?

14. What is the main benefit to users in paying for Spotify’s premium service?

WEEK 7 (May 15 & 17) The Political Economy of the Internet / INTERNET SEARCH

Robert McChesney. 2013. EXCERPT FROM Ch 5: The Internet and Capitalism II: The Empire of the Senseless? Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism is Turning the Internet Against Democracy. The New Press, pp. 146-158.

In this excerpt from Ch 5 of Digital Disconnect, Robert McChesney continues the discussion of the advertising system in the digital age.

  • How did developers of the Internet feel about potential commercial applications?
  • What drove the commercialization of the Internet?
  • How do people feel about the extent to which companies are collecting data about their online activities?
  • What do Google’s critics suggest that it’s doing wrong in the business of Internet search?
  • Why is the EU suing Google?
  • What does European Union Competition Commissioner Margrethe Vestager suggest that Google is doing to warrant being sued by the EU?

WEEK 8 (May 22 & 24) Net Neutrality / Intellectual Property

(1) What Worked in the Fight for Net Neutrality. The Gettysburg Project on Civic Engagement. 2015.

21. What do the Net Neutrality advocates want?

22. What do the Internet Service Providers want?

23. Where does the Federal Communications Commission stand right now? How does that differ from the previous FCC, if at all?

(2) Gillian Doyle. 2013. Ch 7: Copyright. Understanding Media Economics. 2nd Ed. Sage, pp. 121-140.

24. What are the 2 entitlements that copyright recognizes for authors/creators?

WEEK 9 (May 29 & 31) The Entertainment and Culture Industries

Charles R. Acland. Consumer Electronics and the Building of an Entertainment Infrastructure. In Lisa Parks and Nicole Starosielski (Eds.) Signal Traffic. U of Illinois Press, pp. 246-265.

In this article, Charles Acland is looking at how the consumer electronics business became more tightly integrated with the blockbuster entertainment industry in the digital age, after an initial period when it was assumed that the Internet and new digital devices were disrupting the established dominance of the Hollywood film and television industries. Although charting ownership structure remains important for understanding these industrial strategies and relationships, Acland takes another approach.

25. What does he turn his attention to instead?

Acland also expands the media industry concept of the “tentpole” film (a film that serves as financial and promotional centerpiece or franchise for a slate of releases), to introduce the concept of “technological tentpoles” (works that promote both cross-media products as well as “new generations of devices, platforms and hardware” p 247).

26. What is an example of a “technological tentpole”?

Guest Lecture: Prof. Shawna Kidman

27. What is the length of copyright?

28. Why are there so many superhero movies?

WEEK 10 The Journalism Crisis

Nicole S. Cohen. Entrepreneurial Journalism and the Precarious State of Media Work. The South Atlantic Quarterly. July 2015, pp 513-533.

29. What is meant by “entrepreneurial journalism”?

30. Why is Nichole Cohen skeptical of the move to promote “entrepreneurial journalism”?

31. What a kind of model of media production is promoted by characterizing journalists as entrepreneurs, according to Cohen?

32. In what ways is being a “freelance” journalist empowering, and in what ways is it disempowering?

Guest Lecture: Prof. Dan Hallin

33. What was the U.S. news media like in its “golden age”?

34. What were the “special market conditions” that created what appeared to be a “natural harmony” between privately owned media and the public interest?

35. What are the forces that have contributed to the current crisis in journalism?

36. What are some possible solutions?

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Yale University Press Chapter Title: Introduction Book Title: The Daily You Book Subtitle: How the New Advertising Industry Is Defining Your Identity and Your Worth Book Author(s): Joseph Turow Published by: Yale University Press. (2011) Stable URL: JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at Yale University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Daily You This content downloaded from on Sat, 05 May 2018 15:45:28 UTC All use subject to Introduction At the start of the twenty-first century, the advertising industry is guiding one of history’s most massive stealth efforts in social profiling. At this point you may hardly notice the results of this trend. You may find you’re getting better or worse discounts on products than your friends. You may notice that some ads seem to follow you around the internet. Every once in a while a website may ask you if you like a particular ad you just received. Or perhaps your cell phone has told you that you will be rewarded if you eat in a nearby restaurant where, by the way, two of your friends are hanging out this very minute. You may actually like some of these intrusions. You may feel that they pale before the digital power you now have. After all, your ability to create blogs, collaborate with others to distribute videos online, and say what you want on Facebook (carefully using its privacy settings) seems only to confirm what marketers and even many academics are telling us: that consumers are captains of their own new-media ships. But look beneath the surface, and a different picture emerges. We’re at the start of a revolution in the ways marketers and media 1 This content downloaded from on Sat, 05 May 2018 15:45:28 UTC All use subject to 2 Introduction intrude in—and shape—our lives. Every day most if not all Americans who use the internet, along with hundreds of millions of other users from all over the planet, are being quietly peeked at, poked, analyzed, and tagged as they move through the online world. Governments undoubtedly conduct a good deal of snooping, more in some parts of the world than in others. But in North America, Europe, and many other places companies that work for marketers have taken the lead in secretly slicing and dicing the actions and backgrounds of huge populations on a virtually minute-by-minute basis. Their goal is to find out how to activate individuals’ buying impulses so they can sell us stuff more efficiently than ever before. But their work has broader social and cultural consequences as well. It is destroying traditional publishing ethics by forcing media outlets to adapt their editorial content to advertisers’ public-relations needs and slice-and-dice demands. And it is performing a highly controversial form of social profiling and discrimination by customizing our media content on the basis of marketing reputations we don’t even know we have. Consider a fictional middle class family of two parents with three children who eat out a lot in fast-food restaurants. After a while the parents receive a continual flow of fast-food restaurant coupons. Data suggest the parents, let’s call them Larry and Rhonda, will consistently spend far more than the coupons’ value. Additional statistical evaluations of parents’ activities and discussions online and off may suggest that Larry and Rhonda and their children tend toward being overweight. The data, in turn, result in a small torrent of messages by marketers and publishers seeking to exploit these weight issues to increase attention or sales. Videos about dealing with overweight children, produced by a new type of company called content farms, begin to show up on parenting websites Rhonda frequents. When Larry goes online, he routinely receives articles about how fitness chains emphasize weight loss around the holidays. Ads for fitness firms and diet pills typically show up on the pages with those articles. One of Larry and Rhonda’s sons, who is fifteen years old, is happy to find a text message on his phone that invites him to use a discount at an ice cream chain not too far from his house. One of their daughters, by contrast, is mortified when she receives texts inviting her to a diet program and an ad on her Facebook page inviting her to a clothing store for hip, oversized women. What’s more, people keep sending her Twitter messages about weight loss. In the meantime, both Larry and Rhonda are getting ads from check-cashing services and payday-loan companies. And Larry notices sourly on auto sites he visits that the main articles on the home page and the ads throughout feature entry-level and used models. This content downloaded from on Sat, 05 May 2018 15:45:28 UTC All use subject to Introduction His bitterness only becomes more acute when he describes to his boss the down-market Web he has been seeing lately. Quite surprised, she tells him she has been to the same auto sites recently and has just the opposite impression: many of the articles are about the latest German cars, and one home-page ad even offered her a gift for test-driving one at a dealer near her home. This scenario of individual and household profiling and media customization is quite possible today. Websites, advertisers, and a panoply of other companies are continuously assessing the activities, intentions, and backgrounds of virtually everyone online; even our social relationships and comments are being carefully and continuously analyzed. In broader and broader ways, computergenerated conclusions about who we are affect the media content—the streams of commercial messages, discount offers, information, news, and entertainment—each of us confronts. Over the next few decades the business logic that drives these tailored activities will transform the ways we see ourselves, those around us, and the world at large. Governments too may be able to use marketers’ technology and data to influence what we see and hear. From this vantage point, the rhetoric of consumer power begins to lose credibility. In its place is a rhetoric of esoteric technological and statistical knowledge that supports the practice of social discrimination through profiling. We may note its outcomes only once in a while, and we may shrug when we do because it seems trivial—just a few ads, after all. But unless we try to understand how this profiling or reputation-making process works and what it means for the long term, our children and grandchildren will bear the full brunt of its prejudicial force. The best way to enter this new world is to focus on its central driving force: the advertising industry’s media-buying system. Media buying involves planning and purchasing space or time for advertising on outlets as diverse as billboards, radio, websites, mobile phones, and newspapers. For decades, media buying was a backwater, a service wing of advertising agencies that was known for having the lowest-paying jobs on Madison Avenue and for filling those jobs with female liberal arts majors fresh out of college. But that has all changed. The past twenty years have seen the rise of “media agencies” that are no longer part of ad agencies, though they may both be owned by the same parent company. Along with a wide array of satellite companies that feed them technology and data, media agencies have become magnets for well-remunerated software engineers and financial statisticians of both sexes. In the United States alone, media-buying agencies wield more than $170 billion of their clients’ campaign funds; they use these funds to This content downloaded from on Sat, 05 May 2018 15:45:28 UTC All use subject to 3 4 Introduction purchase space and time on media they think will advance their clients’ marketing aims. But in the process they are doing much more. With the money as leverage, they are guiding the media system toward nothing less than new ways of thinking about and evaluating audience members and defining what counts as a successful attempt to reach them. Traditionally, marketers have used media such as newspapers, magazines, radio, billboards, and television to reach out to segments of the population through commercial messages. These advertisers typically learned about audience segments from survey companies that polled representative portions of the population via a variety of methods, including panel research. A less prestigious directmarketing business has involved contacting individuals by mail or phone. Firms have rented lists of public data or purchase information that suggests who might be likely customers. The emerging new world is dramatically different. The distinction between reaching out to audiences via mass media and by direct-response methods is disappearing. Advertisers in the digital space expect all media firms to deliver to them particular types of individuals—and, increasingly, particular individuals— by leveraging a detailed knowledge about them and their behaviors that was unheard of even a few years ago. The new advertising strategy involves drawing as specific a picture as possible of a person based in large part on measurable physical acts such as clicks, swipes, mouseovers, and even voice commands. The strategy uses new digital tracking tools like cookies and beacons as well as new organizations with names like BlueKai, Rapleaf, Invidi, and eXelate. These companies track people on websites and across websites in an effort to learn what they do, what they care about, and who their friends are. Firms that exchange the information often do ensure that the targets’ names and postal addresses remain anonymous—but not before they add specific demographic data and lifestyle information. For example: t3BQMFBG JT B GJSN UIBU DMBJNT PO JUT XFCTJUF UP IFMQ NBSLFUFST iDVTUPNJ[F your customers’ experience.” To do that, it gleans data from individual users of blogs, internet forums, and social networks. It uses ad exchanges to sell the ability to reach those people. Rapleaf says it has “data on 900+ million records, 400+ million consumers, [and] 52+ billion friend connections.” Advertisers are particularly aware of the firm’s ability to predict the reliability of individuals (for example, the likelihood they will pay their mortgage) based on Rapleaf ’s research on the trustworthiness of the people in those individuals’ social networks. This content downloaded from on Sat, 05 May 2018 15:45:28 UTC All use subject to Introduction t" DPNQBOZ DBMMFE /FYU +VNQ SVOT FNQMPZFF EJTDPVOU BOE SFXBSE programs for about one-third of U.S. corporate employees. It gets personal information about all of them from the human relations departments of the companies and supplements that information with transactional data from the manufacturers it deals with as well as from credit companies. Armed with this combination of information, Next Jump can predict what people want and what they will pay for. It also generates a “UserRank” score for every employee based on how many purchases a person has made and how much he or she has spent. That score plays an important role in determining which employee gets what product e-mail offers and at what price. t" GJSN DBMMFE5IF %BJMZ .F BMSFBEZ TFMMT BO BE BOE OFXT QFSTPOBMJ[BUJPO technology to online periodicals. If a Boston Globe reader who reads a lot of soccer sports news visits a Dallas Morning News site, the Daily Me’s technology tells the Dallas Morning News to serve him soccer stories. Moreover, when an ad is served along with the story, its text and photos are instantly configured so as to include soccer terms and photos as part of the advertising pitch. A basketball fan receiving an ad for the same product will get language and photos that call out to people with hoop interests. These specific operations may not be in business a few years from now. In the new media-buying environment companies come and go amid furious competition. The logic propelling them and more established firms forward, though, is consistent: the future belongs to marketers and media firms— publishers, in current terminology—that learn how to find and keep the most valuable customers by surrounding them with the most persuasive media materials. Special online advertising exchanges, owned by Google, Yahoo!, Microsoft, Interpublic, and other major players, allow publishers to auction and media agencies to “buy” individuals with particular characteristics, often in real time. That is, it is now possible to buy the right to deliver an ad to a person with specific characteristics at the precise moment that that person loads a Web page. In fact, through an activity called cookie matching, which I discuss in detail later, an advertiser can actually bid for the right to reach an individual whom the advertiser knows from previous contacts and is now tracking around the Web. Moreover, the technology keeps changing. Because consumers delete Web cookies and marketers find cookies difficult to use with mobile devices, technology companies have developed methods to “fingerprint” devices permanently and allow for persistent personalization across many media platforms. This content downloaded from on Sat, 05 May 2018 15:45:28 UTC All use subject to 5 6 Introduction The significance of tailored commercial messages and offers goes far beyond whether or not the targeted persons buy the products. Advertisements and discounts are status signals: they alert people as to their social position. If you consistently get ads for low-priced cars, regional vacations, fast-food restaurants, and other products that reflect a lower-class status, your sense of the world’s opportunities may be narrower than that of someone who is feted with ads for national or international trips and luxury products. Moreover, if like Larry and Rhonda you happen to know that your colleague is receiving more ads for the luxury products than you are, and more and better discounts to boot, you may worry that you are falling behind in society’s estimation of your worth. In fact, the ads may signal your opportunities actually are narrowed if marketers and publishers decide that the data points—profiles—about you across the internet position you in a segment of the population that is relatively less desirable to marketers because of income, age, past-purchase behavior, geographical location, or other reasons. Turning individual profiles into individual evaluations is what happens when a profile becomes a reputation. Today individual marketers still make most of the decisions about which particular persons matter to them, and about how much they matter. But that is beginning to change as certain publishers and data providers— Rapleaf and Next Jump, for example—allow their calculations of value to help advertisers make targeting decisions. In the future, these calculations of our marketing value, both broadly and for particular products, may become routine parts of the information exchanged about people throughout the media system. The tailoring of news and entertainment is less advanced, but it is clearly under way. Technologies developed for personalized advertising and coupons point to possibilities for targeting individuals with personalized news and entertainment. Not only is this already happening, the logic of doing that is becoming more urgent to advertisers and publishers. Advertisers operate on the assumption that, on the internet as in traditional media, commercial messages that parade as soft (or “human interest”) news and entertainment are more persuasive than straightforward ads. Publishers know this too, and in the heat of a terrible economic downturn even the most traditional ones have begun to compromise long-standing professional norms about the separation of advertising and editorial matter. And in fact many of the new online publishers—companies, such as Demand Media, that turn out thousands of text and video pieces a day—never really bought into the This content downloaded from on Sat, 05 May 2018 15:45:28 UTC All use subject to Introduction old-world ideas about editorial integrity anyway. What this means is that we are entering a world of intensively customized content, a world in which publishers and even marketers will package personalized advertisements with soft news or entertainment that is tailored to fit both the selling needs of the ads and the reputation of the particular individual. The rise of digital profiling and personalization has spawned a new industrial jargon that reflects potentially grave social divisions and privacy issues. Marketers divide people into targets and waste. They also use words like anonymous and personal in unrecognizable ways that distort and drain them of their traditional meanings. If a company can follow your behavior in the digital environment—an environment that potentially includes your mobile phone and television set—its claim that you are “anonymous” is meaningless. That is particularly true when firms intermittently add off-line information such as shopping patterns and the value of your house to their online data and then simply strip the name and address to make it “anonymous.” It matters little if your name is John Smith, Yesh Mispar, or 3211466. The persistence of information about you will lead firms to act based on what they know, share, and care about you, whether you know it is happening or not. All these developments may sound more than a little unsettling; creeped out is a phrase people often use when they learn about them. National surveys I have conducted over the past decade consistently suggest that although people know companies are using their data and do worry about it, their understanding of exactly how the data are being used is severely lacking. That of course shouldn’t be surprising. People today lead busy, even harried, lives. Keeping up with the complex and changing particulars of data mining is simply not something most of us have the time or ability to do. There are many great things about the new media environment. But when companies track people without their knowledge, sell their data without letting them know what they are doing or securing their permission, and then use those data to decide which of those people are targets or waste, we have a serious social problem. The precise implications of this problem are not yet clear. If it’s allowed to persist, and people begin to realize how the advertising industry segregates them from and pits them against others in the ads they get, the discounts they receive, the TV-viewing suggestions and news stories they confront, and even the offers they receive in the supermarket, they may begin to suffer the effects of discrimination. They will likely learn to distrust the companies that have put them in this situation, This content downloaded from on Sat, 05 May 2018 15:45:28 UTC All use subject to 7 8 Introduction and they may well be incensed at the government that has not helped to prevent it. A comparison to the financial industry ...
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Tutor Answer

School: Duke University


Running head: INTERNET


Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation


WEEK 6: Advertising and Commercialization

What role does advertising continue to play in our economy, society, and culture?

Advertising is the practice of seeking attention from the public for people to know more
about a product or service .This is mainly done by paid announcements in newspaper ,on the
radio and television and online platforms like You tube .Since the business world is competitive
,advertising is used as one the ways to introduce a business , to build a brand and hence promote
healthy competition between companies with the same products .This is because advertising
delivers strategic information and increases awareness within a given target market.

In addition, advertising is important for the society because it helps in educating people.
There are some social issues like child labor, smoking and family planning which advertising
deals with. Advertising is part of our everyday life as it plays a very important role in our culture
because it reflects our lifestyles by showing us trends for example in clothing and cars.
Basically, advertising is a very efficient way of communicating with the customers and every
company is always seeking to advertise.

How did we end up surrounded by advertising? (And constantly trying to avoid it?)

Advertising has become part of our lives as many firms use adverts as one core lead
aspect to be ahead their competitors. This is mostly because it is a marketing tactic that can be
controlled since it allows you to target ideal customers and therefore, get you a far greater
connection. Adverts add credibility to a message and the perception that a firm can afford
advertising is enough to sell prospects making it easier to get attention.



Although, advertising has a positive impact, most people try to avoid them because some
advertisements lack personal touch and paying attention to the message is not compulsory for the is often difficult to know the effectiveness of an advertising message since there is
no accurate feedback of its impact. Advertising message are sometimes standardized and cannot
be easily changed to cater for different target audience. Due to the increase in the volume of
advertising, many messages do not get noticed therefore becoming ineffective.

What impact does advertising have on communication, institutions, and power?

Advertising is a very artistic way of communicating to the people both the young and the
old. The language of advertising is normally very positive and it takes into account the rational
and emotional aspects of the consumer. Institutions that advertise are able to create an image,
enhance reputation, encourage goodwill also promote sales. Institutional advertising promotes
the image of the company. Institutions that advertise are able to get recognition before the public
and hence promote the brand. Also, through advertising, employees develop a sense of belonging
as well as seek fans and friends therefore promoting the institution.

Moreover, competent institutional advertising plays a very huge role in the future model
of the brand by ensuring the strategies are projected to the clients. Through advertising, people in
power are able to communicate to the citizens. As a result, the governments has been able to set
common standards for example, the levels of chemicals that are toxic therefore establishing
common goals that affect the entire country.

How should we understand advertising as a system or institution?



A system is an organized procedure in which something is done. Advertising is a system
because it consists of a workflow of various activities starting from bookings, to layout design,
execution of the advert for example, publishing and later invoicing. This system eases the
advertising operation of publishers and other media entitles resulting to reduction of cost. An
institution is a humanly designed method of handling certain problems of existence. In particular,
advertising as an institution is designed to provide information on goods and services.

Furthermore, advertising is a technique used to grab attention and to engage people who
have a certain market gap or perhaps to alert consumers to a certain problem. A creative
advertising brief always has a problem that the consumer has and a solution that the product or
service provides. Good advertising solves problems of the consumers by giving concrete reasons
for buying a specific product. If consumers are convinced that a certain product will make their
lives better, they will buy it.

How is the advertising system morphing in the digital age? Are we morphing along with it?

Advertising is gradually undergoing transformation especially in this digital age. In the
past, the channels used for advertising were mainly traditional media such as newspapers, radio
and the television. Due to development of technology however, the internet has provided a fairly
new medium for advertisers since it attracts a wider variety of industries. Online advertising is
also more interactive and offers an opportunity to reach the younger potential consumers who
have a preference for online communication.

Furthermore, advertising techniques have changed and adapted as the advancements in
technology occur. Companies continue to innovate and develop new marketing strategies for



their products in order to stay current. As a result, our technology his impacted every aspect of
our daily lives since there is improved home entertainment due to the growth of internet and
social networks, convenience in education because of the access of huge amounts of information,
convenience of travelling, improved communication and more.

What does advertising-support Internet look like? How important is advertising to the way
the Internet works, and the ways we use it?

Advertising–support internet is advertising on various internet platforms. I involve
having pop ups and short videos that come before others on video streaming websites such as
you tube. While it started out after broadcasting, it has since leapfrogged it in terms of revenue
generated as pointed out by the Internet Advertising Bureau (2017). Notably, it takes the same
form of advertising where publishers are involved. Advertisement methods include emails, news
feed ads, pop-up ads, text marketing, search engine marketing, sponsored content and links, web
banners and interstitial marketing, where the advert is displayed as the intended content is
loading. Trends in internet marketing include social media, use of adware, affiliate marketing
and development of online marketing platforms.

Social media marketing is taking a pivotal role in internet marketing owing to the huge
target market it reaches. However, internet advertisements tend to slow internet speeds and
consumers detest most of the kinds of advertisements. It creates a sense of insecurity and lack of
privacy. People are opting for more private browsers where ads are blocked or they always avoid
viewing advert related media altogether.



What does Trentmann argue was important in this modern transformation of people into

Trentmann digs deep into history in quest of expounding on the course of consumerism.
His argument on consumer transformation lies in the transformation of the general culture. He
first states that acquisition of affluence through both industrialization and colonization in the
name of resource tapp...

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