International Film Comparison Paper

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Choose two films from the list; one film from France and one from Mexico. After watching the films use the knowledge you have learned thus far in class to compare and contrast the two films.

You will need to compare and contrast several elements of the films, and develop a multi- perspective analysis of local, global, international, and communication issues throughout the films. You will then write a 4-5 double-spaced page paper (APA format) that analyzes and exposes what you learned from the course about the given films.

As each of these films were directed/written by individuals outside of the United States, some things to consider when writing the paper about the various cultures and countries are (do not be limited by these items and make sure you explain each component you choose in detail):

  •  Film Structure
  •  Cinematography
  •  Design
  •  Editing
  •  Acting
  •  Sound
  •  Genre
  •  Visual effects
  •  Etc.

PowerPoint Presentation Prepared by: Stephen Prince Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Chapter 1: Film Structure This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. The Production Process ▪ Pre-Production ▪ Production ▪ Post-Production © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1 The production process. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pre-Production ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Script Hiring of cast and crew Set design and costume design Pre-plan cinematography Rehearsals © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Production ▪ Shooting and sound recording of scenes © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Post-Production ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Editing of sound and image Music scoring Foley ADR Digital effects Color timing (Digital/Lab) Release prints © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Camera Position ▪ Long shot ▪ Establishing shot ▪ Medium shot ▪ Close up ▪ Conveying emotion © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Camera Angle ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Low Medium High Tilt © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Camera Lens ▪ Focal length and depth of field ▪ Lens types: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Wide angle Normal Telephoto Zoom © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Camera Lens, cont’d ▪ Wide angle ▪ Large angle of view and depth of field ▪ Telephoto ▪ Smaller angle of view and depth of field ▪ Zoom ▪ Variable focal length creates illusion of camera movement © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Camera Movement (Types) ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Pan and tilt Dolly/tracking Boom/crane Steadicam ▪ Handheld © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Camera Movement (Functions) ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Reveal action (enlarge perspective) Emphasize detail (concentrate perspective) Create drama and excitement Convey ideas © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Film Structure and Viewer Perception ▪ The impression of motion on screen ▪ Cinema’s dual capability: ▪ Perceptual correspondence ▪ Perceptual transformation ▪ Cinema builds upon – and goes beyond – the visual and social experiences of its viewers © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. The Camera and Human Perception: Cinema’s Dual Capability ▪ Transforming Visual Reality ▪ Corresponding with Visual Reality © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Extension: How Movies Create the Impression of Motion on the Screen ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Shutter Persistence of vision Flicker fusion Beta movement © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.6: Successive events perceived as apparent motion. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
PowerPoint Presentation Prepared by: Stephen Prince Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Chapter 2: Cinematography This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Collaboration and previsualization ▪ Cinematographer and Director ▪ References in other visual fields ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Architecture Painting Photography Other films © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Film Stock ▪ Selection enables cinematographer to control ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Color reproduction Light sensitivity Contrast levels Sharpness Grain and resolution © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Extension: What is Light and Color? ▪ Wavelengths ▪ Properties of color ▪ Saturation ▪ Intensity ▪ The Gray Scale © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Extension: What is Light and Color? Figure 2.2: Additive mixing. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Extension: What is Light and Color? Figure 2.2: Subtractive mixing. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Aspect Ratio ▪ Classical Hollywood ratio (1.33:1) ▪ Widescreen ratios (1.85:1, 2.35:1) ▪ Anamorphic widescreen ▪ Super 35 (Variable ratios) ▪ Nonanamorphic ▪ Video conversion ▪ Pan-and-scan ▪ Letterbox (hard matte) © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.4: Standard aspect ratios. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lighting Design ▪ Realistic lighting ▪ Simulates a source visible on screen ▪ Practical ▪ Pictorial lighting ▪ Emphasizes visual effects more than source simulation ▪ Thematic symbolism © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Hard and Soft Light ▪ Hard light ▪ Directional ▪ High contrast, fast falloff ▪ Soft light ▪ Diffuse, non-directional ▪ Slow falloff, lower contrast © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lighting set-ups: High and Low Key ▪ Classic 3-point lighting: ▪ Key, fill, back lights ▪ High key: ▪ Low ratio between key and fill ▪ Even illumination, few shadows ▪ Low key: ▪ High ratio between key and fill ▪ Large areas of frame left underexposed ▪ Shadows © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.5: Three-point lighting. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lighting Continuity ▪ Continuity across shots ▪ Stylistic limitations ▪ Shooting on location ▪ Continuity within shots ▪ Camera movement © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Color Cinematography ▪ Convey symbolic meaning ▪ Establish narrative organization ▪ Convey mood and tone © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Cinematography and the Digital Domain ▪ Digital Capture ▪ Digital Intermediate ▪ Digital grading ▪ Compositing of live action and digital effects ▪ Cinematography provides the live action components ▪ Motion control camerawork ▪ Greenscreening ▪ Computer-generated images (CGI) © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Visual Style and Design Quotations ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Repetition of visual conventions Lighting conventions Color designs Shot innovations © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
PowerPoint Presentation Prepared by: Stephen Prince Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Chapter 3: Production Design This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. What the Production Designer Does ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Reading the script Visualizing the look Setting the budget Sketches (Visual concepts) Issues of character and story Digital previsualization Scouting locations (recces) Supervises production crew © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Creating a Unified Design ▪ Interplay of all design elements within a shot ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Layout of sets Architectural styles and building materials Coloring and texture of buildings Costumes © 2013, 2010,2007, 2007 Pearson © 2010, 2004 Education, PearsonInc. Education, Inc. ▪ Basic tools of production design: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Sets Costumes Matte Paintings Miniatures © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Sets ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interior Exterior Miniatures Large scale set design ▪ Ken Adam © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Ken Adam ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Dr. Strangelove Barry Lyndon Dr. No Goldfinger © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Costumes ▪ Details of period or setting ▪ Color and spectacle ▪ Commentary on the characters © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Matte Paintings ▪ Extend scope and size of sets ▪ Tromp l’oeil ▪ 3D Digital Matte ▪ Matte painting camera projected onto wireframe geometry of 3D digital scene elements ▪ Simulating perspective changes produced by camera movement © 2010, 20072004 Pearson Education,Education, Inc. © 2013, 2010, 2007, Pearson Inc. The Design Concept ▪ Detailed visual concept ▪ Organizes the way that sets and costumes are built, dressed, and photographed © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Digital Effects ▪ Digital components of production design ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Pre-visualization Digital grading Greenscreen soundstage CGI environments ▪ Zodiac © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
PowerPoint Presentation Prepared by: Stephen Prince Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Chapter 4: Acting This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Acting in Film vs. Theater Five unique characteristics that shape film acting © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. ▪ Lack of rehearsal ▪ Budgetary factors create shortage of time ▪ Director attitudes ▪ Shooting Out of Continuity ▪ Economies of time and cost determine shooting order of scenes ▪ Shooting close-ups and coverage © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. ▪ Amplification of gesture and expressions ▪ Camera and microphone magnify performance ▪ Encourage restrained style of performance ▪ Minimalist styles ▪ Clint Eastwood © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. ▪ Lighting, Lenses and Effects Work ▪ Hitting the mark ▪ Performer should know how camera reads scene ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Depth of field Lens angle of view Contrast range – lighting falloff Camera movement ▪ Greenscreening ▪ Playing to nonexistent sets and characters ▪ Scene fully assembled during post-production compositing © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson ©2010 Pearson Education Education, Inc. ▪ Lack of a live audience ▪ Can’t calibrate performance according to audience response ▪ Chaplin ▪ Other comedy © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Stars ▪ The Star Persona ▪ Composite personality established across many films ▪ Greater than the performance in any single film ▪ Personality stars and Character stars © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Technical Acting ▪ Dominant style of screen performance during 1930s-1950s ▪ Lack of introspection ▪ Creation of character from the ‘outside’ ▪ James Cagney and White Heat (1949) ▪ Imitating the sounds rather than feeling the emotions © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Method ▪ Method Acting ▪ Brought to cinema in the 1950s by new generation of actors ▪ Paul Newman, Shelly Winters, Montgomery Clift ▪ Marlon Brando ▪ On the Waterfront (1954) ▪ The Godfather (1972) ▪ Last Tango in Paris (1973) © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Method ▪ Internalized, richly psychological performance style ▪ Formal training at New York’s Actor’s Studio ▪ Emotional memory and sense recall exercises ▪ Emphasis on inhabiting the character psychologically © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. The Actor as an Element of Visual Design ▪ Unique body language of the performer ▪ Choreographing performance ▪ Integrating it with lighting, camera position and movement ▪ Typage ▪ Social ▪ Psychological © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Performance, Emotion and Audience Response ▪ Interpretive response ▪ Facial and gestural components ▪ Influences emotional response ▪ Emotional response ▪ Empathy © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
PowerPoint Presentation Prepared by: Stephen Prince Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Chapter 5: Editing This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Linear and Nonlinear Systems ▪ Linear ▪ Editors work directly on celluloid film ▪ Must search sequentially for shots ▪ Nonlinear ▪ Performed on digital video using computer and keyboard ▪ Provides instant access to footage © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Visual Transitions (between shots) ▪ Cut ▪ Most commonly used transition ▪ Fade ▪ Signals change of time or place ▪ Dissolve ▪ Signals change of time or place © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Editing ▪ Editing helps create ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Continuity Dramatic focus Tempo, rhythm, mood Narration and point of view © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Rules of Continuity Editing ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Matching to the master shot Eyeline matching Shot-reverse shot series The 180-degree rule © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.1: The 180-degree rule. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Continuity Editing ▪ Continuity editing furnishes perceptual correspondence ▪ Facilitates the viewer’s perception of an edited sequence ▪ Errors of continuity ▪ Mis-matched elements in a series of shots ▪ Subverting continuity editing © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Alternatives to Continuity Editing ▪ Jump cuts ▪ Montage ▪ The Soviet tradition ▪ Contemporary montage ▪ Thematic montage ▪ Sequence shots (long takes) © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
International Film Comparison Paper Watch the following films: France (Choose One) Title: Amélie Release Date: February 8th, 2002 Genre: Comedy, Romance Directed by: Jean-Pierre Jeunet Written by: Guillaume Laurent & Jean-Pierre Jeunet Available On: NETFLIX Language: French (English Subtitles) Synopsis: Amélie is an innocent and naive girl in Paris with her own sense of justice. She decides to help those around her and, along the way, discovers love. Nominated for 5 Academy Awards Best Screenplay, Best Art Direction, Best Cinematography, Best Sound, Best Foreign Language Film Title: Mustang Release Date: June 17th, 2015 Genre: Drama Directed By: Deniz Gamze Ergüven Written By: Deniz Gamze Ergüven & Alice Winocour Available On: NETFLIX Language: Turkish (English Subtitles) Synopsis: When five orphan girls are seen innocently playing with boys on a beach, their scandalized conservative guardians confine them while forced marriages are arranged. Nominated for 1 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Mexico (Choose One) Title: Y Tu Mamá También Release Date: April 26th, 2002 Genre: Adventure, Comedy, Drama Directed By: Alfonso Cuarón Written By: Alfonso Cuarón & Carlos Cuarón Available On; NETFLIX Language: Spanish (English Subtitles) Synopsis: In Mexico, two teenage boys and an attractive older woman embark on a road trip and learn a thing or two about life, friendship, sex, and each other. Nominated for 1 Academy Award for Best Screenplay Title: Amores Perros Release Date: April 13th, 2001 Genre: Drama, Thriller Directed By: Alejandro González Iñárritu Written By: Guillermo Arriaga Jordán Available On: NETFLIX Language: Spanish (English Subtitles) Synopsis: A horrific car accident connects three stories, each involving characters dealing with loss, regret, and life's harsh realities, all in the name of love. Nominated for 1 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Choose two films from the list; one film from France and one from Mexico. After watching the films use the knowledge you have learned thus far in class to compare and contrast the two films. You will need to compare and contrast several elements of the films, and develop a multiperspective analysis of local, global, international, and communication issues throughout the films. You will then write a 3-5 double-spaced page paper (APA format) that analyzes and exposes what you learned from the course about the given films. As each of these films were directed/written by individuals outside of the United States, some things to consider when writing the paper about the various cultures and countries are (do not be limited by these items and make sure you explain each component you choose in detail):          Film Structure Cinematography Design Editing Acting Sound Genre Visual effects Etc. Be sure to write your paper in APA format citing the text when necessary. Include introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion. The paper will be submitted to the Turnitin.com dropbox on Blackboard. Be sure to write your paper in APA format citing the text when necessary. Include an Abstract, introduction, body paragraphs, conclusion and reference page. The paper will be submitted to the Turnitin.com dropbox on Blackboard.
Essay/Paper Rubric UPDATED Rubric Essay/Paper Rubric UPDATED Essay/Paper Rubric UPDATED Criteria Ratings This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContent 30.0 pts Excellent The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the course material by thoroughly and correctly: (1) addressing the relevant content; (2) identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; (3) using correct terminology; (4) explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims; and (5) (where necessary or useful) substantiating points with several accurate and original examples. (40 points) This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeReasoning 30.0 pts 26.0 pts Good exemplary understanding of the course material by thoroughly and correctly: (1) addressing the relevant content; (2) 23.0 pts identifying and explaining all of Acceptable 20.0 pts the key concepts/ideas; (3) The essay illustrates rudimentary Unacceptable using correct terminology; (4) understanding of the course The essay illustrates poor explaining the reasoning behind material by: (1) mentioning, but understanding of the course key points/claims; and (5) not fully explaining, the relevant material by (1) failing to address (where necessary or useful) content; (2) identifying some of or incorrectly addressing the substantiating points with the key concepts/ideas (though relevant content; (2) failing to several accurate and original failing to fully or accurately identify or inaccurately examples. (40 points) The essay explain many of them); (3) using explaining/defining key illustrates solid understanding terminology, though sometimes concepts/ideas; (3) ignoring or of the course material by inaccurately or inappropriately; incorrectly explaining key correctly: (1) addressing most and (4) incorporating some key points/claims and the reasoning of the relevant content; (2) claims/points, but failing to behind them; and (4) incorrectly identifying and explaining most explain the reasoning behind or inappropriately using of the key concepts/ideas; (3) them (or doing so inaccurately). terminology. (20 points) using correct terminology; (4) (30 points) explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and (5) (where necessary or useful) substantiating some points with accurate examples. (35 points) Excellent The essay reflects expert reasoning by: (1) synthesizing material; (2) making connections between relevant ideas/claims/points; (3) presenting an insightful and thorough evaluation of the relevant issue or problem; (4) identifying and discussing important nuances in the relevant material; and (5) identifying and discussing key assumptions and/or implications. (40 points) 29.0 pts Good The essay reflects fairly strong reasoning by: (1) synthesizing material, (2) making appropriate connections between some of the key ideas/claims/points; (3) accurately evaluating the issue/problem; and (4) identifying ad discussing key assumptions and/or implications. (35 points) 26.0 pts 20.0 pts Acceptable Unacceptable The essay reflects basic reasoning The essay reflects by: (1) synthesizing some of the substandard or poor material, though remains vague reasoning by: (1) failing to and undeveloped; (2) making a synthesize the material or few connections between doing so inaccurately; (2) ideas/claims/points, but ignoring failing to make connections or inaccurately connecting others; between ideas/claims/points (3) evaluating the issue/problem or doing so inaccurately; and at a very basic/superficial level; (3) failing to evaluate the and (4) ignoring assumptions and issue or problem. (20 points) implications. (30 points) Pts 30.0 pts 30.0 pts Essay/Paper Rubric UPDATED Criteria This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting Grammar and Mechanics Total Points: 70.0 Ratings 10.0 pts 7.0 pts 9.0 pts Excellent Acceptable Good The essay is clear, and The essay is often unclear and The essay is mostly clear as a concise as a result of: (1) difficult to follow due to: (1) result of: (1) appropriate use appropriate and precise use of some inappropriate terminology of terminology and minimal terminology; (2) absence of and/or vague language; (2) vagueness; (2) minimal tangents and coherence of ideas sometimes being number of tangents and lack of thoughts; and (3) logical fragmented, wondering and/or repetition; and (3) fairly good organization of ideas and repetitive; and (3) poor organization (4) complete thoughts. (4) complete organization. (4) incomplete sentences, few spelling errors sentences, free of spelling sentences, has spelling errors and grammar mistakes, (5) errors and uses correct and uses acceptable grammar, follows correct formatting grammar, (5) follows correct (5) barely follows correct style with minimal mistakes, formatting style, (6) falls formatting style, (6) does not fall (6) falls between the minimum between the minimum and between the minimum and and maximum page maximum page requirement. maximum page requirement. (10 requirement. (15 points) (20 points points) Pts 5.0 pts Unacceptable The essay does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to: (1) inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; (2) reliance on disjointed and incomprehensible thoughts and clauses; and (3) lack of recognizable organization. (4) no sentence structure, many spelling errors and unacceptable grammar, (5) does not follow correct formatting style, (6) does not fall between the minimum and maximum page requirement. (5 points) 10.0 pts
PowerPoint Presentation Prepared by: Stephen Prince Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Chapter 1: Film Structure This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. The Production Process ▪ Pre-Production ▪ Production ▪ Post-Production © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1 The production process. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Pre-Production ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Script Hiring of cast and crew Set design and costume design Pre-plan cinematography Rehearsals © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Production ▪ Shooting and sound recording of scenes © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Post-Production ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Editing of sound and image Music scoring Foley ADR Digital effects Color timing (Digital/Lab) Release prints © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Camera Position ▪ Long shot ▪ Establishing shot ▪ Medium shot ▪ Close up ▪ Conveying emotion © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Camera Angle ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Low Medium High Tilt © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Camera Lens ▪ Focal length and depth of field ▪ Lens types: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Wide angle Normal Telephoto Zoom © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Camera Lens, cont’d ▪ Wide angle ▪ Large angle of view and depth of field ▪ Telephoto ▪ Smaller angle of view and depth of field ▪ Zoom ▪ Variable focal length creates illusion of camera movement © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Camera Movement (Types) ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Pan and tilt Dolly/tracking Boom/crane Steadicam ▪ Handheld © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Camera Movement (Functions) ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Reveal action (enlarge perspective) Emphasize detail (concentrate perspective) Create drama and excitement Convey ideas © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Film Structure and Viewer Perception ▪ The impression of motion on screen ▪ Cinema’s dual capability: ▪ Perceptual correspondence ▪ Perceptual transformation ▪ Cinema builds upon – and goes beyond – the visual and social experiences of its viewers © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. The Camera and Human Perception: Cinema’s Dual Capability ▪ Transforming Visual Reality ▪ Corresponding with Visual Reality © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Extension: How Movies Create the Impression of Motion on the Screen ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Shutter Persistence of vision Flicker fusion Beta movement © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.6: Successive events perceived as apparent motion. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2: Cinematography This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Collaboration and previsualization ▪ Cinematographer and Director ▪ References in other visual fields ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Architecture Painting Photography Other films © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Film Stock ▪ Selection enables cinematographer to control ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Color reproduction Light sensitivity Contrast levels Sharpness Grain and resolution © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Extension: What is Light and Color? ▪ Wavelengths ▪ Properties of color ▪ Saturation ▪ Intensity ▪ The Gray Scale © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Extension: What is Light and Color? Figure 2.2: Additive mixing. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Extension: What is Light and Color? Figure 2.2: Subtractive mixing. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Aspect Ratio ▪ Classical Hollywood ratio (1.33:1) ▪ Widescreen ratios (1.85:1, 2.35:1) ▪ Anamorphic widescreen ▪ Super 35 (Variable ratios) ▪ Nonanamorphic ▪ Video conversion ▪ Pan-and-scan ▪ Letterbox (hard matte) © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.4: Standard aspect ratios. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lighting Design ▪ Realistic lighting ▪ Simulates a source visible on screen ▪ Practical ▪ Pictorial lighting ▪ Emphasizes visual effects more than source simulation ▪ Thematic symbolism © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Hard and Soft Light ▪ Hard light ▪ Directional ▪ High contrast, fast falloff ▪ Soft light ▪ Diffuse, non-directional ▪ Slow falloff, lower contrast © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lighting set-ups: High and Low Key ▪ Classic 3-point lighting: ▪ Key, fill, back lights ▪ High key: ▪ Low ratio between key and fill ▪ Even illumination, few shadows ▪ Low key: ▪ High ratio between key and fill ▪ Large areas of frame left underexposed ▪ Shadows © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.5: Three-point lighting. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Lighting Continuity ▪ Continuity across shots ▪ Stylistic limitations ▪ Shooting on location ▪ Continuity within shots ▪ Camera movement © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Color Cinematography ▪ Convey symbolic meaning ▪ Establish narrative organization ▪ Convey mood and tone © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Cinematography and the Digital Domain ▪ Digital Capture ▪ Digital Intermediate ▪ Digital grading ▪ Compositing of live action and digital effects ▪ Cinematography provides the live action components ▪ Motion control camerawork ▪ Greenscreening ▪ Computer-generated images (CGI) © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Visual Style and Design Quotations ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Repetition of visual conventions Lighting conventions Color designs Shot innovations © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 3: Production Design This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. What the Production Designer Does ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Reading the script Visualizing the look Setting the budget Sketches (Visual concepts) Issues of character and story Digital previsualization Scouting locations (recces) Supervises production crew © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Creating a Unified Design ▪ Interplay of all design elements within a shot ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Layout of sets Architectural styles and building materials Coloring and texture of buildings Costumes © 2013,© 2010, 20072007, Pearson2004 Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 2010, Pearson ▪ Basic tools of production design: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Sets Costumes Matte Paintings Miniatures © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Sets ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interior Exterior Miniatures Large scale set design ▪ Ken Adam © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Ken Adam ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Dr. Strangelove Barry Lyndon Dr. No Goldfinger © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Costumes ▪ Details of period or setting ▪ Color and spectacle ▪ Commentary on the characters © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Matte Paintings ▪ Extend scope and size of sets ▪ Tromp l’oeil ▪ 3D Digital Matte ▪ Matte painting camera projected onto wireframe geometry of 3D digital scene elements ▪ Simulating perspective changes produced by camera movement © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson The Design Concept ▪ Detailed visual concept ▪ Organizes the way that sets and costumes are built, dressed, and photographed © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Digital Effects ▪ Digital components of production design ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Pre-visualization Digital grading Greenscreen soundstage CGI environments ▪ Zodiac © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
PowerPoint Presentation Prepared by: Stephen Prince Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Chapter 4: Acting This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Acting in Film vs. Theater Five unique characteristics that shape film acting © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. ▪ Lack of rehearsal ▪ Budgetary factors create shortage of time ▪ Director attitudes ▪ Shooting Out of Continuity ▪ Economies of time and cost determine shooting order of scenes ▪ Shooting close-ups and coverage © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. ▪ Amplification of gesture and expressions ▪ Camera and microphone magnify performance ▪ Encourage restrained style of performance ▪ Minimalist styles ▪ Clint Eastwood © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. ▪ Lighting, Lenses and Effects Work ▪ Hitting the mark ▪ Performer should know how camera reads scene ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Depth of field Lens angle of view Contrast range – lighting falloff Camera movement ▪ Greenscreening ▪ Playing to nonexistent sets and characters ▪ Scene fully assembled during post-production compositing © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson ©2010 Pearson Education Education, Inc. ▪ Lack of a live audience ▪ Can’t calibrate performance according to audience response ▪ Chaplin ▪ Other comedy © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Stars ▪ The Star Persona ▪ Composite personality established across many films ▪ Greater than the performance in any single film ▪ Personality stars and Character stars © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Technical Acting ▪ Dominant style of screen performance during 1930s-1950s ▪ Lack of introspection ▪ Creation of character from the ‘outside’ ▪ James Cagney and White Heat (1949) ▪ Imitating the sounds rather than feeling the emotions © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Method ▪ Method Acting ▪ Brought to cinema in the 1950s by new generation of actors ▪ Paul Newman, Shelly Winters, Montgomery Clift ▪ Marlon Brando ▪ On the Waterfront (1954) ▪ The Godfather (1972) ▪ Last Tango in Paris (1973) © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Method ▪ Internalized, richly psychological performance style ▪ Formal training at New York’s Actor’s Studio ▪ Emotional memory and sense recall exercises ▪ Emphasis on inhabiting the character psychologically © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. The Actor as an Element of Visual Design ▪ Unique body language of the performer ▪ Choreographing performance ▪ Integrating it with lighting, camera position and movement ▪ Typage ▪ Social ▪ Psychological © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Performance, Emotion and Audience Response ▪ Interpretive response ▪ Facial and gestural components ▪ Influences emotional response ▪ Emotional response ▪ Empathy © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 5: Editing This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Linear and Nonlinear Systems ▪ Linear ▪ Editors work directly on celluloid film ▪ Must search sequentially for shots ▪ Nonlinear ▪ Performed on digital video using computer and keyboard ▪ Provides instant access to footage © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Visual Transitions (between shots) ▪ Cut ▪ Most commonly used transition ▪ Fade ▪ Signals change of time or place ▪ Dissolve ▪ Signals change of time or place © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Editing ▪ Editing helps create ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Continuity Dramatic focus Tempo, rhythm, mood Narration and point of view © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Rules of Continuity Editing ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Matching to the master shot Eyeline matching Shot-reverse shot series The 180-degree rule © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.1: The 180-degree rule. © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Continuity Editing ▪ Continuity editing furnishes perceptual correspondence ▪ Facilitates the viewer’s perception of an edited sequence ▪ Errors of continuity ▪ Mis-matched elements in a series of shots ▪ Subverting continuity editing © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Alternatives to Continuity Editing ▪ Jump cuts ▪ Montage ▪ The Soviet tradition ▪ Contemporary montage ▪ Thematic montage ▪ Sequence shots (long takes) © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6: Sound This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Contemporary Sound Design ▪ Digital approaches facilitate complex sound editing ▪ Bass or low frequency sound is an aggressive part of contemporary sound design ▪ Sound design is often subliminal (not overtly noticed by viewers) © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Evolution of Film Sound ▪ 1930s-1970s ▪ Optical track, usually monaural ▪ 1950s ▪ Magnetic stereo track on select widescreen films ▪ 1976 ▪ Dolby Stereo four-channel matrix ▪ 1992-1999 ▪ Six-channel digital track (Dolby, DTS, SDDS) ▪ 1999 – Present ▪ Seven-channel digital track ▪ “Lossless” formats – Dolby TrueHD, DTS-HD MA © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.1, 6.2 © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Sound ▪ Dialogue ▪ Speech ▪ Voice-over narration ▪ ADR and Dialogue Mixing ▪ Sound effects ▪ Ambient sound ▪ Foley ▪ Music © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Creating Movie Music ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Spotting Cue sheet Composition Performance and recording Contemporary trends in film scoring ▪ Popular songs vs. Film scores © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Movie Music ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Setting the scene Adding emotion Serving as background filler Creating continuity Emphasizing climaxes/catching the action © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Sound Design ▪ Blends realistic and synthetic sounds ▪ Differences between sound and image ▪ Perception of image and sound ▪ Structuring time ▪ Codes: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ The sound hierarchy Sound perspective Sound bridges Off-screen sound Sound montage © 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 8: Visual Effects This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. ©2013, 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Cinema as a Composited Medium ▪ Effects shots involve the combining (compositing) of image elements that have been created separately ▪ Visual effects are storytelling tools ▪ Found in fantasy films as well as comedies and realistic dramas ©2013, 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Mattes ▪ Matte – a mask for creating composites ▪ In-camera mattes ▪ Travelling mattes ▪ Male matte ▪ Female matte ©2013, 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Other techniques ▪ Glass paintings ▪ Hanging foreground miniatures ▪ Mirrors ▪ The Schufftan process ©2013, 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Hollywood Studio Era ▪ “Backlot” filmmaking ▪ Rear-screen projection ▪ Optical printing ▪ Image artifacts ▪ Motion control ▪ The Dupy Duplicator ©2013, 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Star Wars: impact ▪ Revived the tradition of matte painting ▪ Computerized motion control ▪ Pointed toward the digital effects future ©2013, 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. The Digital Era ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Rendering Multi-pass compositing Camera mapping Digital matte painting The digital backlot ©2013, 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Stereoscopic 3D movies ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Binocular disparity, convergence Positive parallax Negative parallax Stereographer ▪ Depth score ©2013, 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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