About Documentary, read the article and answer questions in 300 words.

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Please go through the article, then answer:

Berger’s essay presents a broad range of rich insights into the relationships between humans and animals. I welcome your response to any aspects you find interesting, surprising, or confusing. In particular, I encourage you to consider animals in relation to language, metaphor, and mortality/immortality, as well as the ways in which animals are sentimentalized and mediated (in zoos, documentaries, children’s books, etc.) in postindustrial societies.

How does Berger’s understanding of the modern, industrialized person’s relationship to the animal provide some possible insights into Treadwell’s (and/or Herzog’s) view of the grizzly bear?

Why Look at Animals? For Gilles A illaud John Berger, "Why Look at Animals?" in About Looking (New York: Pantheon, 1980), 1-28. ISBN: 9780394739076 The 19th century, in western Europe and No rth America, saw the beginning o f a process, today being completed b y 20th century corporate capitalism, by which every tradition which has previously mediated between man and nature was broken. Before this rupture, animals constituted the first circle o f what surrounded man. Perhaps that already suggests too great a distance. They were with man at the centre of his wo rld . Such centrality was o f course economic and productive. Whatever the changes in productive means and 1 1 W H Y L OOK A T A NI M A L S ? who, th ro u g h o u t h ist o ry, h a s re ma in e d f a milia r w i t h animals and maintained the wisdom which accompanies that familiarity: the middle and small peasant. Th e basis of this wisdom is an acceptance of the dualism at the very origin of the relation between man and animal. The rejection of this dualism is probably an important factor in opening the way to modern totalitarianism. Bu t I do not wish to go beyond the limit s o f th a t unprofessional, unexpressed b u t f u n damental question asked of the zoo. The zoo cannot b u t disappoint. Th e public purpose o f zoos is to offer visitors the opportunity of looking at animals. Yet nowhere in a zoo can a stranger encounter the look of an animal. A t the most, the animal's gaze flickers and passes on. Th e y look sideways. Th e y look b lin d ly beyond. Th e y scan mechanically. T h e y have been immu n ise d t o e n counter, because nothing can any more occupy a central place in their attention. Therein l i e s t h e u l t i ma t e consequence o f t h e i r marginalisation. That look between animal and man, which may have played a crucial role in the development of human society, and with which, in any case, all men had always lived u n til less than a century ago, has been extinguished. Looking at each animal, the unaccompanied zoo visitor is alone. As for the crowds, they belong to a species which has at last been isolated. This historic loss, to which zoos are a monument, is now irredeemable for the culture o f capitalism. 1977 26 USES OF P H O TO G R A P H Y

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