About Film Neorealism,read two short articles, then answer question in 400 words

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Please go through the two articles (in attachments), then answer the following questions in 400 word.

Bazin and Zavattini are both interested in seeing “reality” conveyed on screen, albeit in different ways. Bazin’s emphasis on the long take and deep focus might be considered a phenomenological realism, as this this kind of filmmaking reflects the way humans experience space and time. Zavattini, on the other hand, is primarily interested in social realism, focusing on actual, everyday problems of common people. But these two aspects may be related as well, with the long duration and ambiguity of the deep focus shot capturing certain social realities typically neglected in many classical Hollywood films.

With either/both of these aspects of “realism” in mind, address how you see this conveyed in Bicycle Thieves or any other film (there is a subcategory of contemporary indie films critics have called “neo-neorealism”) that may take up this approach to great effect.

Bazin, André. “The Evolution of the Language of Cinema.” In Film Theory and Criticism, Seventh Edition, edited by Leo Braudy and Marshall Cohen, 41–53. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
-tavattinii' Zavattini,cesare. "A Thesis on Neo-Realism.,, ln springtimein ltaly:A Readeron Neo-Realism, editedand transfated by Davidoverby,6T-79. Hamden,cr: Archon Books,1978. A T hesis ott N eo-Realism 4. A Thesis on Neo-Realism by CesareZavattini This essayis actually made up of three articles by Zavattini: "Alt'wrc idee sul cinema", Reuista del cinema italiano, December. 1952:"Tesi sul neorealismo", Emilia,2l November, I 953: " l I neorealismo secondo me" , first delivered at the Congressof Farma on Neo-Realism, December3,4,5, 1953, and later printed in Riuista del cinema italiano, 3, March I 954. Zavattini has several basic ideas about neo-realism and the c'inema ("which I will repeat until everyonelistens"). These tum up again and again in his articles and in the various interviews with him, often with very little modification in either phrasing or illustrative examples. Thus the three articles named have been edited together here to avoid the repetition which would have resulted in printing all three. No violence has been done to any o[ his ideas.This essayas it now stands encompasses his ccntral ideas; his examples impart the fiavour of the man himself. There is no doubt that our first, and most superficial, reaction to daily exisrenceis boredorn. Reality seemsdeprived of all interest as Iong as we cannot succeed in surtnounting and overcoming our rnoral and intellectual sloch. nt is, therefore,not surprising [hat the cinema has aiways felt the "natural" and practically inevitable necessity of inserting a story into reality in order to make it thrilling and spectacular.'It is evident [hat in this manner one could spontaneously escape frorn reality; it is as if nothing could be done to prevent the interferenceof the imagination. The rnost important characteristicof neo-realisrn,i.e. its essential innovarion, is, for me, the discovery that this need to usea story was just an unconscious means of masking human defeat in the faceof reality; imagination, in its own manner o[ [unctioning, rnerelysuperirnposesdeath schernesonto living events and situations. Yer, in fact, we are norv aware that reality is extremely rich. We simply had to.learn how to look at ir. The taik ilf the artist - the neo- 67 Sprtngtime in Italy realist artist at least - does not consist in bringing the audience to tearsand indignation by means o[ transference,but.,on the cont.rary, i t c ons is t sin br in g i n g th e m to re fl e c t(a n d th en, i f you w i l l , ro sti r up emotions and ihdignation) upon what they are doing and upon whar others are doing; that is, to think about reality precisely as it is. From a profound and unconscious lack of confidence in confronting reality, frorn an illusory and ambiguclus cvasion, we have gone o n t o an unlim ite d c o n fi d e n c ei n th i n g s , e vents,and i n men. . Naturally, this taking of sidesrequires us to dig deeply, to give reality the power and faculty of communicat.ion, the radiance, which, u p unt . il t he t im e o f n e o -re a l i s m ,w e d i d n ' t b el i evei r coul d possess. It has often been writ.ten that the war was the keystonefor neo-realism. This overwhelming event upset men's souls; film directorsn each in his own way, tried to transposet,hisoverwhelming emotion onto the screen.As we saw absolutely no reason for participating in it, the war seemedparticularly monstrous for us Italiaqrs.We had far more reasons for not becoming involved. This rebellion, however, w as not lim it ed to th a t p a rti c u l a r w a r; i t w ent much further. {t-w as the absolute - I would even say thc eternal - revelation that war always violates those fundamental human needs and values which are so dear to us. This revelation was, in my opinion, the starting p oint of a v as t h u ma n u p ri s i n g . You rnight reply that this revelation was not the distinction o[ Italy alone. tr would tend to agree.Nonetheless,those venyqualinies which rnany take to be the faults of our people, but which are a c t ually our es s e n ti a vl i rtu e s- e x tre m ei n d i v i dual i sm, a l ack of ovenweening social pride, and so on - urge us towards a full and passionate reaction against the suprerne evil of war. {t was not "historical man" who acted - that abstractcharacter in novels which follows a couJseof action that is unrelated to a specific time and deals with datesof past, presentand future wars indiscriminately - on the contrary, it was the real, deep thinking, hidden man who acted. You might object by pointing out t.hat "historical man" and the man without a label exist side by side. Thar is true enough, excepr rhar rhey co-exist uselully only when, by the principle of clear channels of communication, they find a comrnon level and merge; that is to say thar the former, with his awareness,and the latter, with his profoundly original drive to live, must be in neal conr.acr.T-he need ro 68 Tavattini/A Thesis on Neo-Realism live, when ir is rich and huppy, can transcendits limits more easily when, as in this case,it inspires and enlightens an entire fallen people who seerningly could no longer make the smallest contribution to humani ry. tr dare to think that.other peoples, even after the war, have shown that they cont.inuedto consider man as a historical subject,ashistorical rnaterial, with deterrnined, almost inevitable, actions. T'his is why they, unlike the Italians, did not give the cinema its freedorn.F'or them, everyt.hing ccntinued; for us, everything began; F'or them the war had been just another war; for us, it had been the last war. What wetre the discoveries and the consequencesof this rush of post-war pioneers, which wei-e new, not because they had never before been known, but becausethey had never been felt in such a collective and tenacious manner? The results were the endlesspossibility of study' ing rnan t.hat we see opening before us, a non-abstract and concrete study of rnan, as concrete as the rnen who provoked and underwent the war. We needed to know and u.oseehow theseterrible eventscould have occurred. The cinerna was the Erlostdirect and imrnediate way of rnaking this sort of study. nt was pneferableto other art forrns which did not possessa langr-lagewhich would readily expressour reactions against the lies of those old, generalizedideasin which we found our,selvesclothed at the outbreak of the war, and which had preventedus from atternpting the smallest rebellion. - This powerful desire of the cinema to see and to analyse, this i i hunger for reality, for truth, is a kind of concretehornage to other peoiple, that is, to all who exist. This, among ot.herthings, is what distinguishes neo-realisrn from the American cinema. [n effect, the .A.mericanposition is diametrically opposed to our own:whereas we are a[tracted by the tnuth, by the reality which touchesus and which we want to know and understanddirectly and thoroughly, the Arnericans continue to sat.isfythernselveswith a sweetenedversion of truth produced through transpositions. T-hat is why the Americans are undergoing a crisis; they have no idea what subjectsto use.This is not possible in ltaly, for here, there can never be a lack of truth. E,veryhour of the day, evenyplace, every person, can be portrayed if they are shown in a manner which reveals and ernphasizes the collective elements which continually shape them. 69 Springtrme in llaly This is why one cannot speak of a crisis of subjects(facts),but only of the possibility, as the casernay be, of a crisis of contenr (the interpretation of facts). T'his essential difference was vcry clearly expressedby an American producer who told rne: Tavatini/A TAesls on Neo-R.ealism I t is t he abs o l u tetru th . Bu t i t i s s ri l l n o t e nough. nt i s not enough to have the plane pas$by three times; it rnust pass by twenty gimes.We work, therefore, to extricate ourselvesfrom abstractions. In a novel, the protagonists were heroes;ihe shoesof the hero were special shoes.We, on the other hand, are trying to find out what our chanactershave in common; in my shoes,in his, in those of the rich, in those of the poor, we find the sarneelements: the sirne labour of man. Let us move on to style. F{ow can we expressthis reali[y (truth) in the cinema? First, I would like to repeat.what trhave often said: The contents always engender their ow{r expression, their own technique. Imagination, therefore,is all<;wed,but only on the condition that it exerciseitself within reality and not on the periphery. Let me be clear: I do not intend to give the impression that only "news items" matter to me. I have tried to concentrate on these with the intention of putting them together again in the most faithful way, using a bit of imagination, which comes from a perfect understanding of the event, sit.uation,or fact itself. Obviously, it would be more coherent for the carnera to catch them at the moment they develop. This is what trintend to do when Xmake my film on Italy.t It should never be forgotten, of coutrse,that any relat.ionship with an idea one wishes to expressimplies a choice which is part of the creative act, but that choice rnust be made in relationship with the subject on the spot rather than the subject being a reconstruction following an imaginatice choice. This is what I call the "cinema of encounter". This method of working should lead logically to two result.s:first, from an ethical point of view, directors would leave the studio in searchof direct contact with reality. Therefore, we will create a sys- tem of production which will bring with it the freshnessof collective awareness.T'he nurnber of filrns we rnake also plays an important part.. trf we rnake one hundred filrns a year which are inspired by these criteria, we would change the very conditions of production; if we only rnake Ehree,we will have to subrnit ro the conditions of production as they exise today. T'his awarenessof reality, which constitutes neo-realisrn, has two consequencesin terms of narrative construction: (l ) Whereas in the past, cinema por[rayed a situation frorn which a second was derived, and then a third from that, and so on, each scene Fi"q created only to be forgotten the next momenr, today, when we imagine a scene, we feel the need [o "stay" there inside it; we now know that it Fraswithin itself all chepotendal of being rebrn and of having important effects. We can calmly say:give us an ordinary situation and from it we will make a spectacle.Centrifugal force which constituted (botle frorn a technical and a moral point of view) the fundarnental aspects of traditional cinema has now transformed itself into centripetal force. (2) Whereas the cinerna always told of life's external aspects,today neo-realism affirms Lhat we should not be content with illusion, but should move toward analysis, or better, should move rowards a synthesis within analysis. F-or exarnple: let urstake two people who are looking for an aparr.ment. In the past.,the film-maker would have made that the starting point, using it as a simple and externai pretext to basesomethingelse on. Today, one canluse that simple situation of hunting for an apartment as the entire subject of the film. It must be understood, of coutrse,that this is true only if the situation is always emphasized with all the echoes,reflections, and reverberations which are present i n i t. We are, we recogrlize,still far frorn that necessaryuhd ttre analysis. Now we can only speak of anaiysis simply in opposition to the vulgar artificiality of current production. For the time being we have only an analyt.ic"attirude", but this attitude brings with it a powerful movement towards facts, a desire for comprehension, for adhesion, for participation, and for co-existence. TFris principle of analysis arises in ttre consideration of style, in the most narrow seiise, and is opposed to bourgeois synthesis. trn the 7A 7r In America,the sceneof a planepassingoveris shownin this machine-gunfire opens,the plane sequence:a plane passes, it passes again,and then again. falls.trnltaly: a planepasses, -Iavaninii Springtime in Italy bourgeois cinema, directors choose the most representative aspectsof a situation of well-being and privilege of a part.of trtalian culture. To understand critically the range of neo-realism, one mLlst stressthe role played by ltalian culture. Givcn the increasingly important collaboration of writers in the creation of the cinema, it could not kre otherwise. But this collaboration cannot lirnit itself to the furnishing of novels as a basis for film; wrirers should rather contribute to the enrichment of cinematic expression, an expressiorl rich with as rnuch potential as literary language. [f writers can involve thernselvesin a less tentative way than they usually do, they can bring great progressto the cinema and involve the whole of trtalianculture. It should, therefore, be clear that contrary to what was done before [he war, the neo-realist movemencrecognizedthat the cinema should take as its subject the daily existence and condition of the trtalian people, without introducing the coloration of the imagination, and thereby,force itself to analyzeit for whatever hurnan, historical, deterrnining and definite factors it encompasses. I believe that the world continues to evolve towards evil becausewe do not know the truth: we rernain unaware of reality. Thre most necessary task for a man today consists in attempting to resolve, as best he can, the problem of this knowledge and lack of awareness.That is why the most"urgent need of our tirnes is social contact, social awareness.But no matter how artistically successfulit rnay be, rnoral allegory is no longer enough. This awarenessand contact must be direct. .A hungry man, a downtrodden man, rnust be shown as he is, with his own first and last names. A story should never be constructed in which the hungry and the oppressed merely appear, for then everything changes, becomesless effective,and hr less moral. The true function of the arts has always been that of expressingthe needsof the times; it is towards this function that we should redirect them. No other means o[ expression has the potential which the cinema possesses for making things knowm directly, for making contact immediately, to the largest number of people. {t was, of course, natural that even those who understood such things were still obliged, for all sorts of reasons -- some valid, others not, to compose stories invented according to tradition, and even more nat.ural that they sought to add to the stories some elements of what they thernselveshad discovered. 72 A The.sts on N eo-Realism In effecr,r his is what neo- r ear ismis cur r enr ly in I t ar y. Roma citth aperta, paisd, Sciuscid., Ladri di biciclette, and,La terra trema are film.s which contain passagesof great significan.. rr,.y were inspired b.y possibiliry of relling eue"rything]but, in a certain the sense,rhey srill involve translation becius" ih.y ,Eir ,i".*, u"a o" not appl y the docum ent ar y spir it sim ply and f ully. m r ii*. t it Ll mbertol ), the analyt icarf act is m uch ; ; . " evidenr ,bur t heanar ysis is set within rhe framework of traditional narrati*re" have _We com-e ""i'f.i -rnc to real neo-realism. neo-iealir- af i;aiy is Iike an army prepared ro march. the sordiers are.prepared:ft.osseriini,De sica, viiconti. They rnusr lead the assaul [;i t i s r he only way r he war can be won. The im po. t ur r iiu. , i, that the mo'ement has begu'; now either we go forward to the very end, or we will ha'zernisseda great ,rpp".t,r'ity. Ahead of neo_rea_ lisrn v-astperspect.ivesare opening, peripectives beyona ir"ugi"*tion. we musr grasp "", .hurrce. {t wiil nor be easy.f-ransforming ".rrspectacleis everyday situations into not an easything to do; intensity of vision is required from both the director and the audience. Xt is a dialogue i' which one mus.t give life, reality, its hisrorical importance,w hi ch exist s in each inst ant . As for recenrproduc-tions,I can speak about those in which I was l i nvol ved. I a ssur e you t har t r do not hold st azt one t er m ini ur '* important example of a human document in my neo-realistic career. i T-heexistenceof a co-production2_reduced to pra.ti.alty nothiG;; i basic _and original inspiration, which madeih" firr, .:""..;ri"-;;i i the film an examinarion o-fa precise and limited time r"a;i;.-' i; tu{ynexr fjlm Italia mia has neo-rearistorigins in the ;;6;;;;." senseof the rerrn. trt began with rny need to kiow and to undenstand my own counrry thoroughly, and my absolute confidence in the adventuresand encounters x would meet. Aspectsof neo-rearism are contained in rhe central ideas of.Amore in cittd amd, siamo donne.zrn the latter, at least, there is a certain rnoral idea in the need for communication which inspires actors and their confessionsro the audience. nn the presence of these confessions, rhe audience should be able to Iiberare irself fnom rhe inferiority cornplex caused by rhe *yrnio ia"u of the " star" . Attacks on rhesefilms, rike the attacks on other films basedon a neo-realisticidea, indeed on neo-realism itself, have come in various 73 Springtime in ltaly Z-avattini/ A T hesis on N eo-Realism guises. Here are the principle ones: Neo-realism describes only misery. Neo-realisrrt can, and rnust, study misery as well as luxury. We have begun with rnisery becauseit is one of the most vivid realities of our time. I dety anyone to prove the contrary. To believe, or to feign belief, that after a half dozen films about poverty the theme has been exhausted is either an error or sophistry. The theme of poverty (of both the rich and the poor) isone to which a person could devote a lifetime. We have only just begun. {f the rich raised their eyebrows at Miracolo a NIiIano, which is only a fable, they will soon see better than that. n place myself arnong the rich. What riches we have are not simply money (which is only the most apparent aspect of richness); we are also rich in the injustice and violence which money engenders.There is also a rnoral position which might be counted as a man's riches. Neo-realism olf ers no solutions, shows no neu) roads, giues no conclusions; the films are totally euasiue.Xdeny this with all of my being. Every moment of each of our filrns is a continual response to such accusations. A.s for solutions, it is not up to the artist to exarnine them. It is enough for hirn to rnake the need urgently felt. Euery day occurrencesare not interesting; they do not constitute a dramatic spectacle. When a director evadesthe analysis of "every day occurrences" he obeys the more or lessexpresseddesiresof the capitalistic systemof cinema production; he gives in to the public's wish to escapereality; he is lazy. The putting together of one situation after another in a narrative line is not so very difficult. The analysis of a s it uat ion or a n a c ti o n i n d e p th i s e x tre mel y di ffi cul t. If i t i s done, however, it is dramatic and a spectacle. We have the illusion - call it that if you like - that with us something completely different and new is beginning. T'oday a man who suffers before my eyesis absolutely different from a man who suffered a hundred yearsago. n must concentrate all my attention on the man of today. The historical baggage that Xcarry within myself, and flrom which, by the way, tr neither can nor want. to free myself, rnust not prevent me from being what I wish to be, nor from using the means I have at hand to deliver this man from his pain. This man and this is one of my basic and fixed ideas - has a first narne and a lasl name. Ftreis part of society in a way that concerns us, rnake no rnistake about that. I feel his fascination.{ must feel it in such a way that n arn urgenrly obliged to speak to hirn or of him, but not as a characrer of rny irnagination's invention; it is exactly at that moment one must heware, for ir is rhem that ttre imagination attemp$ ro come between reality and rhe self. I have often had to explain that { do not wish to prohibit actors from playing in filrns. Of course actors have a place in films, it is simply thar rhey have veny little to do with neo-realistic cinema. The neoreanistic cinema does not ask those rnen in whom it is interested to have the talennsof actors; their professional apritudes have ro do with r the profession of being men. lfhey need to be made aware of this, of coutrse,which is the responsibility of the cinema. It is evident that this awarenesscan only be created or reinforced through the knowiedge we give them of themselves, knowledge which we will attain through neo-realisf.iccinerna. F{ow, then, does the imagination, the creative act, enter neo-realism? It is, of course, a very particular sort of imagination, and the creative act is a very new method of using that imagination. For example: a wornan goes to a shoe store to buy shoesfor her son. The shoes cost 7,000 lire. The wornan bargains to get them cheapen. The scenelasts ten rninutes, wtrereasXhave to rnake a filrn two hours long (we will discussthe comrnercial "rules" of distribution and exhibition which dictated that a filrn be of a certain length at another time ). What then do Edo? I analyze all the elements which go to rnake up the situation, what. happened beforehand, what will corne afterwards, and what is really happea'ringwhile the situation exists. The wornan buys the shoes, but what is happening to her son at. the mornen[? What is happening in trndia which rnight be related to this particular pair of shoes? The shoes cost 7,000 lire. How did the wornari get that rnoney? What pain have they cost her? What do they represent for her? Arad the shoe shop owner who sells them: who is he? What relationship is created between these two people? There ,might be two other sons also there eating and chattering. Would you like to hear their conversation? Here they are. And it goes on. i trt is the act of getting to the bottorn of things, of showing threrela- \ tionships between the situations and the process through which rhe situations corne into being. Xf we analyze the purchase of a pair of shoes, we see before us a compleN and vast world, rich in scope and possibilities, ri.ch in practical, social, econornic and psychological 74 t3 Sprtngtime in Italy motifs. The banal disappears, fon it never really existed. . I ,u* against exceptional persons, heroes. tr have always felt an instinctive hate rowards them. x feel offended by rheir pr.r.*.., excluded from their world as are millions of others like me. fue are all characters.Fleroescreate inferiority complexes throughout an audience. The time has come to tell each member of the uidi"rr.. that he is the rrue protagonist of life. The result woulcl be a constancemphasis on the responsability and dignity of every human being. This is exactly the ambition of neo-realir*, to strengther, .u.ryori., and to give everyone the proper awareness of a hum-an being. i The term neo-realisrn, in its larger sense,implies the elirnination ) of technical-professionalcollaboralion, including rhat of ,h. roru." writer. Manuals, grammars, syntax no longer haie any meaning, no more than the terms "first take", "reaction shot" and all the rest. Each of us will "direct" in his own way, "compose a scenario" in his own way. Irtreo-realism shattersall schemes,shuns all dogmas. There can be no "first takes" nor "reaction shot s" a priori. The"subj".1, tna adaptation, the direction cannor, in neo-reulir-, be three "distirrct phasesof the sarnework. xt is true that they are so today, but this is an anomaly. In neo-realism, the screenwrirer and the wriier of dialogue disappear; there will be no scenario writren beforehand, and no dialogue to adapt. we m us t c ome to te rm s w i th th e u n i q u e a uteur,thedi recton,but he will, in the long run, have litrle in common with either rhe rheatre on cinema directors of today. -.,Everything is in flux. Everything is moving. someone rnakes his film: everything is continually po.ribl. and evlrything is futiof infinite potentiality, not only during the shooting, but J"*"f *re editin_q,the.mixing, throughout thJ enrire pro".ii as welr. I have been working in the trtalian cinerna since lgg4. trknow rhar tr have conributed to the destruction of a few of the usual and traditional schemes. If I place myself arnong those who believe that neorealism is one of the most powerful fJrces to which we can address ourselves, it is not -by any lack of irnagination. on the contrary, I musr constantly pull myself to a hatrrwith both hands so as to refuse my imagination enrrance into my work. I have enough imagination in the traditional senseof the word to sell and resell, 6ur neo]realisrn requires us to allow our imagination ro exercise irself only ii-loco l6 T.avattini/ A Thesis on Neo-Realtsm and through reality, for the situations increasecheirnatural imaginative force when they are studiesin depth. Ir is only then that ,r.,.|.up become drarnatic spectacles,becauseit is then that they beco*. r"u.l ati ons. k-lory very well that one can make marvelous films like ^.I those of charlie chaplin, and rhat they are nor.neo-realistworks. I know very well that there are Americans, R.ussians,Frenchmen, and so forth, who have rnade masterpieces which bring honour to hurnanity. They have cerrainly nor wasred film. And c6d knows t r"u"y aiitinguished works they will conrinue to produce, depending "* rpo", their genius, using stars,studios, and the adaptations of novels. But , the men of the tralian cinema, in order to continue to search for and r to conserve their own style and inspiration, having once coura_l geo.uslyset ajar the doors of reality and truth, musl now open them wide. Notes Ital.ia ntia, a film which was never made. [t came fromzavattini's idea to make a film about a trip around the world, and then developed into a projec'rfor a film about-a journey rhroughout ltaly. He was particularly enthusiastic about the projeit in lg5l ancl 195h.His idei was ro move through various social environments [ilming brief episodesand fragmenrs of ttalian life, allowing all sorts of p"oil" to tiil their stories. In 1953,he describedthe project: "A time wili come when in the cinerna we will share a man'Jeveryday preoccupations, observe him doing rhe mosr ordinary tasks,and welulll follo* all of this with the same arrenrion the Greeks gave to their grear playwrights." 2 For reasons best known to himserf - his films represenredthe opposite end of the cinemaric specrrum from neo-realism- David o. betznick, throughout the Fifties, arrempred to interestvarious neo-realists in making films for him. In 194g,he tried to sign Roberto Rossellini to a conrracr, perhaps r.o"prorecr" Ingrid Bergman whom he had ,.discovered" for American films in 1939;Rossellini refused, going back to Italy to make stromboli and severarother films with Bergrian, but rvithout selznick. The producer rhen approached De sica ii the early Fifties. the'result was stazione terminJ iu.s. title: Indiscretion of an 77 Springtime in ltaly A.merican utife), with a script by zavattini, di rected by De sica, ancl star_ ring Jennifer Jones, who was rhen both Mrs. Setzriick and Selznick's most valuable star. The 1954 film had a huge budget (for Ialy and De sica), two major Flollywood stars (Montgomery Ctift f,tayed Miss 3ones,s lover;, and "additional dialogue" by Truman bupor". whaieuer Zavatrini-De sica's original intent (or that of Selzniik, for rhat matrer), ttre film becamean over-produced,. semi-glossy merodrama of hystericar ,a;i: tery in Rome's central train stati,on. -ihere were three versions of the film when it was refeased:in Europe outside or lialv, irre film was shortened by about half an hour; in dmerica it was shoitened by one third; the trtalian version maintained the original length. but was u"r1i"fr dubbed into Italian. The film was a criiical and fi"nancial failure in all three versions. This film, however, marked rhe beginning of De sica andz.avattini,s move away from neo-realisrn towardi .o*"die, and melodramas *ith big budgets and slars. 7-avattini produced (with R iccardo Ghione and Marco F-erreri) Amore in cittd, and collaborated on one of the episodes (wi;[ Franco nl"r.riii "storia di caterina" . siamo donne w.as. also an episode filrn p""i"liv written by zavanini and Luigi chiarini. lt'he idea was r.o have several stars "play" themselves(Ingrid Bergman, Anna Magnani, Alida valli, and others) in short "rev_eritory" ^rrd "realistic" air..t"J uy several directors (R.ossellini, visconti, and others). "frirod., The episodes ranged from interesting personality srudies to fully scripred r"a cial "star turns". "riifil 78

Tutor Answer

School: New York University


Surname 1
Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
Film Neorealism
Neorealism is defined as a trend in the film industry, rather than an actual school or group
of theoretically motivated and like-minded directors and scriptwriters (Marcus 115). Essential
innovation is one of the critical characteristics of neo-realism which is the discovery that is
needed to link imagination to reality to impose deaths schemes onto living events and situations
creating the aspect of fiction in films.
From the early days through the 1960’s, films tend to divide into opposing camps ...

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