Complete work sheet

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Complete a worksheet by using the information provided in the slide chapter. Please use your own word and make your answer nice and clear.

CHAPTER FIVE THE HEART OF THE MATTER KING’S COLLEGE CORE273 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • The Respiratory System functions to obtain oxygen and eliminate CO2 waste. • Offers an interface with the blood for transport of the gases. • Respiratory tract includes: • Nose • Pharynx • Larynx • Trachea • Bronchi • Bronchioles • Lungs: specifically the Alveoli Air doesn’t passively move through this pathway! It needs to be pulled and pushed. The diaphragm and intercostal muscles are essential for this. MECHANISM OF BREATHING • Inhalation: breathing in or “pulling” of air. • Brings oxygen into the lungs. • Nervous system stimulates respiratory muscles in response to high CO2. • Diaphragm contracts and drops. • Intercostal muscles contract and expand ribs/lungs outward. • Vacuum created pulls air into the body. • Exhalation: breathing out or “pushing” of air. • Removes carbon dioxide from the body. • Opposite of inhalation. • Muscles relax, thoracic cavity shrinks, air is pushed out of the body. MECHANISM OF GAS EXCHANGE • Alveoli are clusters of air sacs making up the lungs. • They are wrapped in capillaries. • Gas diffuses across very thin walls of these structures. • High O2 concentration in lungs → low concentration in blood. • Oxygen moves into blood and binds to hemoglobin on red blood cells. • Hemoglobin is a protein containing iron which O2 binds to. • High CO2 concentration in blood → low concentration in lungs. • Carbon dioxide moves into lungs and is expelled. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from areas of high to areas of low concentration. These concentration gradients dictate movement of many things within the body! BLOOD • Not only does blood carry O2 and CO2 on red blood cells, it: • Transports hormones and nutrients. • Delivers other toxins to organs for removal and detoxification. • Carries antibodies and white blood cells to fight invaders. • Platelets and proteins for clotting and inflammation. • Blood is moved through the body via: • The heart which acts as a pump to push the blood. • Blood vessels which are the pathway the blood takes. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: THE HEART • The heart is an organ made of thick, muscular walls. • Cardiac muscle which is involuntary; can beat on its own! • Its own electrical system enables this! • There are four chambers of the heart. • Right and left atria (top), right and left ventricles (bottom). • There are four valves to ensure blood moves in one direction. • Right and left atrioventricular (AV) valves. • Right is also known as tricuspid, left is bicuspid or mitral. • Right semilunar (or pulmonary) valve. • Left semilunar (or aortic) valve. CARDIAC CONDUCTION • Electrical impulses in the heart are generated by pacemaker cells. • Contract quickly and generate electricity. • Located in the sinoatrial (SA) node. • Gap junctions between cells direct the impulse along the right path. • • From SA node, around atria – atria will contract. • Gather impulse at AV node, down and around ventricles – ventricles contract. This pathway can be detected by an electrocardiogram. • P wave: SA node and atrial contraction. • QRS wave: atrial relaxation, AV node, ventricular contraction. • T wave: ventricular relaxation, end of cycle. MOVEMENT OF BLOOD THROUGH HEART • Two circuits that occur simultaneously. • Both atria contract at the same time; ventricles at the same time. • Pulmonary circuit: blood enters right side of heart via superior and inferior vena cava. • • Right atrium → Right AV valve → Right ventricle → Right semilunar valve → Pulmonary arteries → LUNGS where oxygen is collected. Systemic circuit: blood enters left side of heart via pulmonary veins. • Left atrium → Left AV valve → Left ventricle → Left semilunar valve → Aorta → BODY BLOOD VESSELS • Arteries: branch from heart, carry blood away from heart. • Thick elastic and muscular walls to withstand high pressure. • Arterioles: “little arteries”. • Capillaries: form networks where gas/nutrient exchange occurs. • Smallest vessels, thinnest walls. • Venules: “little veins” moving back toward heart. • Veins: carry blood back to the heart, large in diameter but not thick. • Must move blood in one direction and often against gravity! • One-way valves, skeletal muscle pump, and respiratory pump help! HEMOSTASIS: STOPPING BLOOD LOSS • If blood vessels are damaged they must be repaired quickly! • Vascular spasm: smooth muscle in wall contracts to reduce blood flow. • Platelet plug formation: platelets become “sticky” and cover wound. • Coagulation: “blood clotting”. Fibrin wraps around platelet plug to secure.
Worksheet Four CORE273 SUM18 NAME: The Heart of the Matter 1. List the structures of the respiratory tract. 2. Describe the processes of inhalation and exhalation in terms of muscle contraction and rib/lung size. 3. Where does gas exchange occur in the lungs, and how? 4. List two functions of the blood other than carrying oxygen. 5. Name the four chambers and four valves of the heart. 6. Put the structures of the right side of the heart in order based on how blood moves through them. Write a “1” next to the first structure the blood enters, “2” next to the second, and so on. a. Lungs ____ b. Right ventricle ____ c. Right AV valve ____ d. Pulmonary arteries ____ e. Right atrium ____ f. Right semilunar valve ____ 7. In “On the Move” we learned that cardiac muscle tissue is involuntary. What does that mean? 8. Define the following and describe their structure and function: a. Arteries: b. Capillaries: c. Veins:

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