worksheet assignment

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Work sheet assignment please do it based on the slides provided below. read the slides carefully and answer the work sheet based on the slides.


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CHAPTER SEVEN FIT AND HEALTHY KING’S COLLEGE CORE273 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM • Helps our bodies determine what should be there and what should not. • All cells have antigens on their cell membranes. • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) shows cells are “ours”. • If a cell displays foreign antigens that don’t match ours, it is considered a pathogen. • Abnormal/cancerous cells • Bacteria • Viruses • Fungal infections • Parasites LYMPHATIC SYSTEM • Extracellular fluid in tissues picked up by lymph vessels. • This lymph circulates via vessels to lymph nodes. • Hold white blood cells to cleanse lymph. • Blood itself cleaned by the spleen. • Tonsils and adenoids hold cells to protect the throat from infection. • Thymus nurtures immune cells to maturity. FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE • Physical and chemical barriers meant to keep pathogens from getting into the body. • Tears, saliva, earwax. • Mucus and cilia. • Urination, defecation, vomiting. • Regions of acidic pH. • Normal flora bacteria in gut. • Skin is the PRIMARY defense. SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE • Non-specific defenses: activated no matter what is causing damage/infection. • Inflammation: caused by mast cells or basophils releasing histamines. • Blood vessels dilate and become “leaky”; WBC’s and other defenses are released into damaged tissue. • Complement proteins: group of plasma proteins circulating to help. • Mark invaders for phagocytes and form complexes to damage invading cells. • Phagocytes: cells that perform the “eating” of other cells and debris. • Neutrophils (“small eater”) and Monocytes (“big eater”). SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE • Granulocytes: cells with granules carrying chemicals/enzymes. • Neutrophils (“little eater”), eosinophils (kill parasites), basophils (release histamines). • Monocytes: “big eaters” that also alert lymphocytes. • Called Macrophages when stationed in tissues. • Dendritic cells engulf pathogens and display antigens as antigen presenting cells (APC). • Natural killer cells: attack any cells that have become infected or abnormal. • Interferon: “interferes” with viral reproduction by warning other cells of infection. • Fever: increase in body temperature. • Macrophage releases pyrogens which travel to hypothalamus to cause higher temp. • Need a balance! High enough will inhibit pathogens, too high denatures our proteins! THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE • Lymphocyte cells activated to fight specific antigens. • • • B-Cells: develop in the bone marrow. • Antibodies. • Memory cells. T-Cells: develop in the thymus gland. • Cytotoxic cells. • Helper cells. • Suppressor cells. • Memory cells. Both types of cells undergo selection during maturation; negative interaction with “self” cells causes apoptosis (cell death) or suppression. This is to ensure our body’s safety. B-CELL ACTIVATION • Antigen presenting cell (APC) presents invading antigens to B-cells. • B-cells are cloned into memory cells and plasma cells. • Plasma cells multiply and release antibodies. • Antibodies bind to invaders presenting the matching “wanted” antigen. • Clump microbes together, attract phagocytes, neutralize pathogen. • Memory cells are saved in tissue for future encounters. T-CELL ACTIVATION • Antigen presenting cell displays enemy antigen to T-cells. • The “matching” T-cell clones itself: • Helpers: release cytokines and help stimulate immune response. • Cytotoxic or Killers: kill cells displaying the enemy antigen. • DIFFERENT FROM NATURAL KILLER CELLS! • Natural killers look for “strange” antigens. • Cytotoxic killers look for specific antigens. • Perforin pokes holes in invader, granzyme digests their parts. • Regulator or Suppressors: calm the immune system. • Memory cells: stored for future encounters. SIGNIFICANCE OF MEMORY CELLS • Primary immune response • Body recognizes foreign antigen. • Lag time of 3-6 days after antigen appears. • Produce and proliferate T-cells and B-cells. • Memory cells for that antigen formed and saved. • Secondary immune response • Pathogen re-infects. • Memory cells activated immediately of its presence. • Unnecessary to go through “lag time” again. • Symptoms may not emerge!
Worksheet Six CORE273 SUM18 NAME: Fit and Healthy 1. How do antigens function? 2. Overall, what is the significance of the lymphatic system? 3. List three mechanisms in the first line of defense and explain how they help to protect us. 4. Discuss the following mechanisms of the second line of defense: a. Inflammation: b. Interferon: c. Fever: 5. How do B-cells and T-cells differ? Give three examples minimum. 6. What is the significance of memory cells?

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School: UC Berkeley

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