Running head: PICOT STATEMENT
Running head is not in correct APA format, it must be in the same font (Times New Roman 12
preferred) and must be no longer than 50 characters and should say Running head:
TITLEINALLCAPS no spaces
May 6, 2018
PICOT statement: One of the main challenges in healthcare has been lack of coordination.
Nurses are one of the main professionals when it comes to healthcare, they, therefore, have a huge
role to play since they are in charge of taking significant care of patients. Care coordination refers
to having better communication as well as the interaction of care across all the professionals in
healthcare. All the patient needs have to be addressed and every medical condition attended to.
when patients get to the hospitals they end up spending a lot of time while others leave even
without being attended to because the providers do not know what exactly they are supposed to be
doing. However, if there is better coordination this is likely to change. The PICOT question, in
this case, is: Will improving coordination of health care result in better patient care? How will it
improve the mental health and lead to healthier people by the year 2020?
Population- the population for the study are the patients suffering from mental health. Using these
patients will be good because mentally ill patients require a lot of care and attention. It will then
be possible to identify where the professionals are falling short.
Intervention- this is the coordination of care. The hospital will have to come up with ways in which
the health professionals can be better organized.
Comparison- this is the unattended patients and the long hours spent in the waiting areas or in the
hospitals in general.
Outcome- the outcome here will be improved care. If the nurses and the other healthcare providers
are able to work together and communicate well then, the patients will be well taken care of.
Time- the period for this intervention is 2020. If there is proper coordination of care will there be
healthier people come 2020? This period is enough to know if the intervention and other programs
put in place really work.
There are quite many reasons why the coordination should be improved. To start with, the
healthcare facility can get sued after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was passed.
This is going to assist in improving the care that the patients get and also ensure the satisfaction of
the patient as well. The time in which they spend in the hospitals will also be reduced since there
will be someone to attend to them immediately after they get to the facilities (Hofmarcher et al.,
2007). Many things have changed in health care, for instance, the medical practices have advanced,
there is the use of technology, and the delivery is now sophisticated so there is no reason as to why
healthcare should be lagging behind when it comes to coordination.
One of the things that can be done is to use an electronic health record. This will help in a
great way in reducing the fragmentation of care. The patient’s information will be well organized
and it can be retrieved easily upon the patient’s arrival to the hospital. This will also ensure that
all the providers have the same information about the patient. With care coordination, there will
be no misdiagnosis. The patients are also going to receive all the information that they need for
their treatment (O'Malley et al., 2009). The healthcare providers are able to know the needs of the
patients and they are communicating with the others in good time leading to the patient receiving
the best care they need.
All APA papers should have a formal conclusion, please remember this going forward.
Hofmarcher, M. M., Oxley, H., & Rusticelli, E. (2007). Improved health system performance
through better care coordination. OECD Health Working Papers, (30), 0_1.
O'Malley, A. S., Tynan, A., Cohen, G. R., Kemper, N., & Davis, M. M. (2009). Coordination of
care by primary care practices: strategies, lessons, and implications. Research briefs:
center for studying health system change, (12), 1-16.
The assignment instructions asked you address the following in this paper:
Health Care Agency
Each of these components should have been a separate heading in your paper and thoroughly
addressed using the rubric as your guide. Please note that even though there are errors in your
paper, I am aware you are trying to implement Coordination of Care, but to get full points, you
have to meet all the requirements of the rubric. Also, since Week 9 the student is graded on
having implemented instructor feedback from weeks 1-8, make sure to read each area so you can
improve and write an effective paper in Week 9.
Thank you & keep working, you will see how it comes together at the end.
Running head: NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW
Nursing Literature Review
May 27, 2018
NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW
Children with special health care needs have not fully met the requirements for care
coordination. Coordination among the nurses for mental health patients has been the concern for
various stakeholders including the federal government. A need to have a system in which
patients’ data can be transferred from one healthcare delivery setting to another electronically in
an efficient way to ensure relevant and accurate clinical decisions. With an efficient care
coordination system, the resources of the healthcare provider as well as the patient's time are
preserved. Efficient and accurate sharing of patient data facilitates diagnosis and treatment from
all the providers involved. Incentives to the primary care practices are offered to encourage all
efforts required towards the improvement of the patient care coordination (Foster et al., 2018).
Children diagnosed with anxiety are mainly victims of unmet need for care coordination. This
vulnerable population will best be if an intervention embarks on the identification and
enhancement of the family-based supported in addition to a coordinated care system of the
healthcare practitioners. The result of the uncoordinated care is poor patient outcomes. Concerns
are also raised on the use of technology in healthcare as a focus on the effectiveness of care
coordination (McAllister et al., 2018). The focus of the literature review is on the comparison of
the various research questions raised and the limitations established for the effective
implementation of policies for coordinated care.
Comparison of Research Questions
There is a clear distinction between children with mental health conditions who receive a
coordinated care and those who don't. The further focus on research is not whether coordination
is essential but rather on how to implement it effectively. With an approximate of 40% of the
children who express the need for care coordination not receiving it an alternative to reinforce
the care coordination such as extensive family support and its effectiveness become paramount
NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW
to the children (Brown et al., 2014). What factors hinder the care coordination? Many efforts
made by the various stakeholders including incentives to the practitioner's care coordination
remain a phenomenon in policy development. Difficulties sending and receiving information
electronically is a barrier for the effective coordination among the health care practitioners
(Cohen, & Adler-Milstein, 2015). Other such as competing priorities and the financial costs
involved significantly hinder the coordination. Care coordination effectiveness is dependent on
the investment that is affected in the whole process. The entire process requires highly informed
health practitioners with other unpaid caregivers who must integrate efficiently to provide highquality healthcare. This defines the need to have efficient systems as coordinated care almost
demand the practitioners and the unpaid caregivers to make personal costs toward its
effectiveness (Daveson et al., 2014).
Comparison of Sample Population
To determine the need for care coordination the population choice was on the children
aged between 2 to 17 was chosen. This represents the population that would extensively seek
medical attention on every mental issue that the parents identified. Using a population of
57500000 children the outcome measures are reliable. It represents what is best for a diversified
community seeking coordinated care. 43.2% of the people with a need for care coordination
providing an outcome of 41.2 % as unmet need mean then that 1 million of the population within
that year did not efficiently meet the care coordination needs even when they prevalently sought
for them. To determine the barriers that the health practitioners encounter in focus for care
coordination (Cohen, & Adler-Milstein, 2015) use 328 primary care practices and the outcome
between October 2013 and March 2014. One of the focuses to the practitioners was the use of
electronic measures to transfer information to other practitioners. Using the practitioners to
NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW
conduct the survey reinforce the research done earlier by Brown et al., 2014 on the patients. To
determine the factors that would enhance care coordination the population integrated 56patients
to 27 unpaid caregivers. Through this population, coordination must be deliberate, and the
stakeholders must show full commitment and sacrifice to achieve the desired results.
Comparison of the Limitations of the Study
According to the research conducted by Brown et al., (2014) on the need for care
coordination the research fails to identify what is the alternative approach and its outcome to the
population that has no prevalence for care coordination. This research focuses on the population
in which care coordination is prevalence and not the one to which it's available and inefficient.
The outcome of the results in general and has no specific platform for further research and the
factors that hinder care coordination. (Cohen, & Adler-Milstein, 2015) emphasizes the need for
information and not the actual commitment by the health practitioners to give efficient healthcare
to the patients. The population choice was limited to a single state while the different state has
different mechanisms of coordination. Davison et al., 2014 research is limited to the
observational data that would enhance the trustworthiness of the findings. The study would have
been enhanced more with a more significant contribution by the unpaid caregivers. The research
outcome has limitations on the actual investment required for a given population that would
provide adequate information.
The care coordination of healthcare services dramatically improves the patient's outcome
and help save time and other resources. It's even more useful when dealing with a large
population of patients such as children who must significantly seek care (Wu et al., 2017). One
NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW
of the solutions established in the previous research is the electronic health records systems.
Having up to date patient data as well as the outcome of discoveries will improve the efficiency
of the services by the caregivers. From the research outcome care coordination would require a
voluntary commitment by the caregivers. Policy makers need to standardize the operations to
incorporate care coordination as the primary approach to health care providing the resources
required. I recommend research to correctly identify the current efforts to care coordination and
the quantifiable results. The basis for further research is to improve the efficiency of the care
NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW
Brown, N. M., Green, J. C., Desai, M. M., Weitzman, C. C., & Rosenthal, M. S. (2014). Need an
unmet need for care coordination among children with mental health
conditions. Pediatrics, 133(3), e530-e537.
Cohen, G. R., & Adler-Milstein, J. (2015). Meaningful use care coordination criteria: Perceived
barriers and benefits among primary care providers. Journal of the American Medical
Informatics Association, 23(e1), e146-e151.
Daveson, B. A., Harding, R., Shipman, C., Mason, B. L., Epiphaniou, E., Higginson, I. J., &
Dale, J. R. (2014). The real-world problem of care coordination: a longitudinal qualitative
study with patients living with advanced progressive illness and their unpaid
caregivers. PloS one, 9(5), e95523.
Foster, S. D., Hart, K., Lindsell, C. J., Miller, C. N., & Lyons, M. S. (2018). Impact of a low
intensity and broadly inclusive ED care-coordination intervention on linkage to primary
care and ED utilization. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.
McAllister, J. W., McNally, R. K., Rodgers, R., Mpofu, P. B., Monahan, P. O., & Lock, T. M.
(2018). Effects of a Care Coordination Intervention with Children with
Neurodevelopmental Disabilities and Their Families. Journal of developmental and
behavioral pediatrics: JDBP.
Wu, F. M., Shortell, S. M., Rundall, T. G., & Bloom, J. R. (2017). The role of health information
technology in advancing care management and coordination in accountable care
organizations. Health care management review, 42(4), 282-291.
I see multiple errors in the paper which are repetitive errors which I
have already given you feedback on in previous assignments. Is
there a reason why you are choosing to ignore instructor feedback
NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW
for integration into your assignments? I try to give students as
much feedback as possible on how to write these papers and cover
all the elements in the first eight weeks of the class so the Week 9
paper is a successful compilation of all of your work because that
paper is worth 30 percent of your grade for the class or 300 points.
Please review all feedback above and make sure going forward you
use the feedback to create your future assignments.
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