Literature Review

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In this assignment, students will pull together the change proposal project components they have been working on throughout the course to create a proposal inclusive of sections for each content focus area in the course. At the conclusion of this project, the student will be able to apply evidence-based research steps and processes required as the foundation to address a clinically oriented problem or issue in future practice.

Students will develop a 1,250-1,500 word paper that includes the following information as it applies to the problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational need profiled in the capstone change proposal:

  1. Background
  2. Problem statement
  3. Purpose of the change proposal
  4. PICOT
  5. Literature search strategy employed
  6. Evaluation of the literature
  7. Applicable change or nursing theory utilized
  8. Proposed implementation plan with outcome measures
  9. Identification of potential barriers to plan implementation, and a discussion of how these could be overcome
  10. Appendix section, if tables, graphs, surveys, educational materials, etc. are created

Review the feedback from your instructor on the Topic 3 assignment, PICOT Statement Paper, and Topic 6 assignment, Literature Review. Use the feedback to make appropriate revisions to the portfolio components before submitting.

Background section is present, complete, and incorporates additional relevant details and critical thinking to engage the reader.

Problem statement is present, complete, and incorporates additional relevant details and critical thinking to engage the reader.

Purpose of change proposal is present, complete, and incorporates additional relevant details and critical thinking to engage the reader.

PICOT is present, complete, and incorporates additional relevant details and critical thinking to engage the reader.

Literature search strategy is present, complete, and incorporates additional relevant details and critical thinking to engage the reader.

Literature evaluation is present, complete, and incorporates additional relevant details and critical thinking to engage the reader.

Theory utilization content is present, complete, and incorporates additional relevant details and critical thinking to engage the reader.

Implementation plan is present, complete, and incorporates additional relevant details and critical thinking to engage the reader.

Identification of potential barriers to plan implementation with a discussion component is present, complete, and incorporates additional relevant details and critical thinking to engage the reader.

Appendices are present, complete, and incorporates additional relevant details and critical thinking to engage the reader.

Evidence of incorporation of research critique feedback and revision is comprehensive and thoroughly developed.

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

All format elements are correct.

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

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Running head: PICOT STATEMENT 1 Running head is not in correct APA format, it must be in the same font (Times New Roman 12 preferred) and must be no longer than 50 characters and should say Running head: TITLEINALLCAPS no spaces PICOT Statement May 6, 2018 PICOT STATEMENT 2 PICOT statement: One of the main challenges in healthcare has been lack of coordination. Nurses are one of the main professionals when it comes to healthcare, they, therefore, have a huge role to play since they are in charge of taking significant care of patients. Care coordination refers to having better communication as well as the interaction of care across all the professionals in healthcare. All the patient needs have to be addressed and every medical condition attended to. when patients get to the hospitals they end up spending a lot of time while others leave even without being attended to because the providers do not know what exactly they are supposed to be doing. However, if there is better coordination this is likely to change. The PICOT question, in this case, is: Will improving coordination of health care result in better patient care? How will it improve the mental health and lead to healthier people by the year 2020? Population- the population for the study are the patients suffering from mental health. Using these patients will be good because mentally ill patients require a lot of care and attention. It will then be possible to identify where the professionals are falling short. Intervention- this is the coordination of care. The hospital will have to come up with ways in which the health professionals can be better organized. Comparison- this is the unattended patients and the long hours spent in the waiting areas or in the hospitals in general. Outcome- the outcome here will be improved care. If the nurses and the other healthcare providers are able to work together and communicate well then, the patients will be well taken care of. Time- the period for this intervention is 2020. If there is proper coordination of care will there be healthier people come 2020? This period is enough to know if the intervention and other programs put in place really work. 3 PICOT STATEMENT There are quite many reasons why the coordination should be improved. To start with, the healthcare facility can get sued after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was passed. This is going to assist in improving the care that the patients get and also ensure the satisfaction of the patient as well. The time in which they spend in the hospitals will also be reduced since there will be someone to attend to them immediately after they get to the facilities (Hofmarcher et al., 2007). Many things have changed in health care, for instance, the medical practices have advanced, there is the use of technology, and the delivery is now sophisticated so there is no reason as to why healthcare should be lagging behind when it comes to coordination. One of the things that can be done is to use an electronic health record. This will help in a great way in reducing the fragmentation of care. The patient’s information will be well organized and it can be retrieved easily upon the patient’s arrival to the hospital. This will also ensure that all the providers have the same information about the patient. With care coordination, there will be no misdiagnosis. The patients are also going to receive all the information that they need for their treatment (O'Malley et al., 2009). The healthcare providers are able to know the needs of the patients and they are communicating with the others in good time leading to the patient receiving the best care they need. All APA papers should have a formal conclusion, please remember this going forward. References PICOT STATEMENT 4 Hofmarcher, M. M., Oxley, H., & Rusticelli, E. (2007). Improved health system performance through better care coordination. OECD Health Working Papers, (30), 0_1. O'Malley, A. S., Tynan, A., Cohen, G. R., Kemper, N., & Davis, M. M. (2009). Coordination of care by primary care practices: strategies, lessons, and implications. Research briefs: center for studying health system change, (12), 1-16. The assignment instructions asked you address the following in this paper: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Evidence-Based Solution Nursing Intervention Patient Care Health Care Agency Nursing Practice Each of these components should have been a separate heading in your paper and thoroughly addressed using the rubric as your guide. Please note that even though there are errors in your paper, I am aware you are trying to implement Coordination of Care, but to get full points, you have to meet all the requirements of the rubric. Also, since Week 9 the student is graded on having implemented instructor feedback from weeks 1-8, make sure to read each area so you can improve and write an effective paper in Week 9. Thank you & keep working, you will see how it comes together at the end. Running head: NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW Nursing Literature Review May 27, 2018 Introduction 1 NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW 2 Children with special health care needs have not fully met the requirements for care coordination. Coordination among the nurses for mental health patients has been the concern for various stakeholders including the federal government. A need to have a system in which patients’ data can be transferred from one healthcare delivery setting to another electronically in an efficient way to ensure relevant and accurate clinical decisions. With an efficient care coordination system, the resources of the healthcare provider as well as the patient's time are preserved. Efficient and accurate sharing of patient data facilitates diagnosis and treatment from all the providers involved. Incentives to the primary care practices are offered to encourage all efforts required towards the improvement of the patient care coordination (Foster et al., 2018). Children diagnosed with anxiety are mainly victims of unmet need for care coordination. This vulnerable population will best be if an intervention embarks on the identification and enhancement of the family-based supported in addition to a coordinated care system of the healthcare practitioners. The result of the uncoordinated care is poor patient outcomes. Concerns are also raised on the use of technology in healthcare as a focus on the effectiveness of care coordination (McAllister et al., 2018). The focus of the literature review is on the comparison of the various research questions raised and the limitations established for the effective implementation of policies for coordinated care. Comparison of Research Questions There is a clear distinction between children with mental health conditions who receive a coordinated care and those who don't. The further focus on research is not whether coordination is essential but rather on how to implement it effectively. With an approximate of 40% of the children who express the need for care coordination not receiving it an alternative to reinforce the care coordination such as extensive family support and its effectiveness become paramount NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW 3 to the children (Brown et al., 2014). What factors hinder the care coordination? Many efforts made by the various stakeholders including incentives to the practitioner's care coordination remain a phenomenon in policy development. Difficulties sending and receiving information electronically is a barrier for the effective coordination among the health care practitioners (Cohen, & Adler-Milstein, 2015). Other such as competing priorities and the financial costs involved significantly hinder the coordination. Care coordination effectiveness is dependent on the investment that is affected in the whole process. The entire process requires highly informed health practitioners with other unpaid caregivers who must integrate efficiently to provide highquality healthcare. This defines the need to have efficient systems as coordinated care almost demand the practitioners and the unpaid caregivers to make personal costs toward its effectiveness (Daveson et al., 2014). Comparison of Sample Population To determine the need for care coordination the population choice was on the children aged between 2 to 17 was chosen. This represents the population that would extensively seek medical attention on every mental issue that the parents identified. Using a population of 57500000 children the outcome measures are reliable. It represents what is best for a diversified community seeking coordinated care. 43.2% of the people with a need for care coordination providing an outcome of 41.2 % as unmet need mean then that 1 million of the population within that year did not efficiently meet the care coordination needs even when they prevalently sought for them. To determine the barriers that the health practitioners encounter in focus for care coordination (Cohen, & Adler-Milstein, 2015) use 328 primary care practices and the outcome between October 2013 and March 2014. One of the focuses to the practitioners was the use of electronic measures to transfer information to other practitioners. Using the practitioners to 4 NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW conduct the survey reinforce the research done earlier by Brown et al., 2014 on the patients. To determine the factors that would enhance care coordination the population integrated 56patients to 27 unpaid caregivers. Through this population, coordination must be deliberate, and the stakeholders must show full commitment and sacrifice to achieve the desired results. Comparison of the Limitations of the Study According to the research conducted by Brown et al., (2014) on the need for care coordination the research fails to identify what is the alternative approach and its outcome to the population that has no prevalence for care coordination. This research focuses on the population in which care coordination is prevalence and not the one to which it's available and inefficient. The outcome of the results in general and has no specific platform for further research and the factors that hinder care coordination. (Cohen, & Adler-Milstein, 2015) emphasizes the need for information and not the actual commitment by the health practitioners to give efficient healthcare to the patients. The population choice was limited to a single state while the different state has different mechanisms of coordination. Davison et al., 2014 research is limited to the observational data that would enhance the trustworthiness of the findings. The study would have been enhanced more with a more significant contribution by the unpaid caregivers. The research outcome has limitations on the actual investment required for a given population that would provide adequate information. Conclusion The care coordination of healthcare services dramatically improves the patient's outcome and help save time and other resources. It's even more useful when dealing with a large population of patients such as children who must significantly seek care (Wu et al., 2017). One NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW of the solutions established in the previous research is the electronic health records systems. Having up to date patient data as well as the outcome of discoveries will improve the efficiency of the services by the caregivers. From the research outcome care coordination would require a voluntary commitment by the caregivers. Policy makers need to standardize the operations to incorporate care coordination as the primary approach to health care providing the resources required. I recommend research to correctly identify the current efforts to care coordination and the quantifiable results. The basis for further research is to improve the efficiency of the care coordination practices. References 5 NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW 6 Brown, N. M., Green, J. C., Desai, M. M., Weitzman, C. C., & Rosenthal, M. S. (2014). Need an unmet need for care coordination among children with mental health conditions. Pediatrics, 133(3), e530-e537. Cohen, G. R., & Adler-Milstein, J. (2015). Meaningful use care coordination criteria: Perceived barriers and benefits among primary care providers. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 23(e1), e146-e151. Daveson, B. A., Harding, R., Shipman, C., Mason, B. L., Epiphaniou, E., Higginson, I. J., & Dale, J. R. (2014). The real-world problem of care coordination: a longitudinal qualitative study with patients living with advanced progressive illness and their unpaid caregivers. PloS one, 9(5), e95523. Foster, S. D., Hart, K., Lindsell, C. J., Miller, C. N., & Lyons, M. S. (2018). Impact of a low intensity and broadly inclusive ED care-coordination intervention on linkage to primary care and ED utilization. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. McAllister, J. W., McNally, R. K., Rodgers, R., Mpofu, P. B., Monahan, P. O., & Lock, T. M. (2018). Effects of a Care Coordination Intervention with Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities and Their Families. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP. Wu, F. M., Shortell, S. M., Rundall, T. G., & Bloom, J. R. (2017). The role of health information technology in advancing care management and coordination in accountable care organizations. Health care management review, 42(4), 282-291. I see multiple errors in the paper which are repetitive errors which I have already given you feedback on in previous assignments. Is there a reason why you are choosing to ignore instructor feedback NURSING LITERATURE REVIEW for integration into your assignments? I try to give students as much feedback as possible on how to write these papers and cover all the elements in the first eight weeks of the class so the Week 9 paper is a successful compilation of all of your work because that paper is worth 30 percent of your grade for the class or 300 points. Please review all feedback above and make sure going forward you use the feedback to create your future assignments. Thank you. 7
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