Review worksheet

timer Asked: Jun 13th, 2018
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Please answer the work sheet. to answer it you have to read the following slides. Read the slides carefully before doing the worksheet. Make your answer clear and nice. Make sure that your answer is fron the slides and make it your own words.

CHAPTER ONE UNDER THE MICROSCOPE KING’S COLLEGE CORE273 QUALITIES OF LIVING THINGS • Require energy and raw materials. • Have a metabolism. • Respond to their environment. • Maintain homeostasis. • Maintenance of a relatively constant environment. • Grow and reproduce. • Are capable of evolving. • Made of different molecules than non-living things. • Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. CHEMISTRY OF LIVING THINGS • Carbon atoms form bonds with other atomic elements. • Molecules result: Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. • These molecules come together to form elements of the cell. THE LIVING CELL • Smallest unit exhibiting all characteristics of life. • Divided by structural organization: • Prokaryotic: no membrane-bound nucleus, and few (if any) organelles. • • Example: bacteria Eukaryotic: membrane-bound nucleus, many organelles. • Example: human cells EUKARYOTIC ORGANELLES • Organelles “little organs” carry out cell’s vital life functions. • Nucleus: “brain” of the cell. Holds DNA to direct cell activities. • Ribosomes: produces protein. • Endoplasmic Reticulum • Rough: ribosomes on membrane help produce protein. • Smooth: no ribosomes, produces primarily lipids. • Golgi Apparatus: refines, ships, and packages products from ER. • Mitochondria: “powerhouse” of cell. Produces ATP molecules. • Vesicles: membrane bound “bubbles”. • Storage, secretory, endocytic. • Lysosomes and Peroxisomes TISSUES OF THE HUMAN BODY • Groups of similar cells come together to form tissues. • There are four primary types of tissues: • Epithelial: covers body cavities, lines organs, and surfaces. • • Connective: supports and connects. • • Loose, dense, cartilage, adipose, bone, and blood. Muscular: contracts for forms of movement. • • Glandular epithelium secretes products. Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Nervous: transmits and generates impulses for “communication”. ORGANS AND ORGAN SYSTEMS • Organs are self-contained combinations of tissues with specific vital functions. • Organ Systems are combinations of multiple organs working together for larger function of life. HOMEOSTASIS • Each system responds to several others within the body. • Makes adjustments to compensate for stress placed on other systems. • Works to maintain relative balance in our internal environment. • Negative Feedback Loops • Controlled variable: specific element being monitored. • Sensors: special receptors that monitor variables. • Control center: receives input from sensors, determines response. • Effectors: carries out necessary response to bring balance.
CHAPTER TWO HOLDING IT TOGETHER KING’S COLLEGE CORE273 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM • Primarily skin, hair, and nails. • Epidermis: the top, visible layer of the skin. • “Your epidermis is showing!” • Dermis: below the epidermis. • Has nerves, blood vessels, glands, and smooth muscle. • Hypodermis: primarily fat and other connective tissue. • Subcutaneous meaning “under the skin”. • Not a primary layer of skin, but has important functions! • Insulation, protection, energy storage. EPIDERMIS • Epidermis • Stratified squamous epithelium. • • Can be thick or thin (more or less layers). Cells continuously made and replaced. • Basal cells: actively dividing keratinocytes. • Keratinocytes: produce hard, waterproof protein known as keratin. • Die out and dry as they rise to the skin’s surface. • Forms primary line of defense! • Gives skin color and protection from sun. • • Melanocytes: produce dark melanin pigment. Some immune cells stationed throughout. DERMIS • Dermis • Regulates and detects temperature. • • Sweat glands, thermoreceptors, erector pili muscle. Gives skin its shape and pliability. • Collagen and elastin fibers. • Dermal papillae for fingerprints. • Has ample blood supply for all cells in tissue. • Nerves and receptors take in sensory stimuli. • Aids in protection and immunity. • Oil (sebum) limits growth of bacteria/fungi. • Blood supply brings in other immune cells. SKELETAL SYSTEM • There are approximately 206 bones in the body. • Bone is connective tissue made of collagen fibers (strong), calcium, and phosphate. • Living cells called osteocytes are stationed throughout the bony matrix. • This system functions to: • Give body support and shape. • Aid in body movement. • Store minerals (99% of body’s calcium). • Produce new blood cells. • Red bone marrow inside bones. BONE FORMATION • Bone begins as a cartilage mold. • Chondroblasts lay down hyaline cartilage during development. • Incoming blood supply brings in osteoblasts which are cells that build bone. • Lay down mineral matrix, release enzymes to harden it into bone (ossification). • Osteoblasts get “stuck” and mature into osteocytes which remain in and maintain bone. • Mold is not entirely ossified when baby is born! STRUCTURE OF BONE • Osteons are units of compact bone. • Cylinders within cylinders of bone tissue. • Central canal: holds blood vessels and nerves. • Canaliculi: “little canals” between central canal and cells. • Osteocytes in lacuna: bone cells in hollow spaces. • Get nutrition/communication via canaliculi. • There is also spongy bone. • Porous and web-like from trabeculae. • Space for storage, extra strength without extra weight. • Periosteum is strong connective tissue around bone. BONE GROWTH • Bone grows as it continues to ossify. • Lengthening via the growth plate up to ages 18-21. • Also called the epiphyseal plate. • Chondroblasts on outer side of plate lay down new cartilage. • Osteoblasts on inside of plate ossify cartilage. • • Plate slowly moves and bone elongates. All mediated by hormones (esp. Growth hormone). • Hormones subside, chondroblasts stop, osteoblasts finish ossification. • Plate becomes epiphyseal line and is completely bone. • No more lengthening will occur! BONE GROWTH • Once bones stop growing longer: • • Changes in mass. • Changes in mineral deposition and storage. • Hormonal shifts. Changes in shape. • Response to weight-bearing shifts. • Posture, exercise, bone damage. • Old bone continuously replaced with new. • Balance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts (bone-breaking cells). BONES OF THE BODY • Bones range in shape and size. • They come together to form our skeleton. • Axial skeleton: bones along the midline. • • Bones of skull, vertebral column, thoracic. Appendicular skeleton: all other bones. • Pectoral girdle and upper limbs. • Pelvic girdle and lower limbs. Blue = Axial Tan = Appendicular JOINTS (ARTICULATIONS) • Held together by dense connective tissue ligaments. • Classified by mobility • Fibrous (immobile) • • Cartilaginous (slightly mobile) • • Ex: suture joints in skull. Ex: joints connecting ribs to sternum. Synovial (mobile) • Ex: knees, shoulders, etc. • Held together with joint capsule. • Synovial membrane, synovial fluid, hyaline cartilage to cushion joint/reduce friction. • Muscles and tendons offer more stability and potential for movement.
CHAPTER THREE ON THE MOVE KING’S COLLEGE CORE273 MUSCULAR SYSTEM • Carries all of the body’s movements. • Voluntary skeletal muscle; conscious thought to activate. • Attached to bones via tendons. • Origin: where muscle is “anchored”. • Insertion: attachment that is “pulled” on. • Muscles can only pull, not push. • Antagonist muscles work in opposition. • Perform different actions to maintain balance/stability. • Synergist muscles work together. • Help each other to perform same action. MUSCLE ORGANIZATION • Whole muscle is a bundle of fascicles. • Fascia is connective tissue covering. • Fascicles are bundles of muscle cells/fibers. • Muscle cells are bundles of myofibrils. • Actin and myosin filaments. • Myofibrils are arranged in sarcomeres. • Sarcomere: basic contractile unit of muscle. MUSCLE CONTRACTION • Nerve impulse stimulates muscle cell. • Stimulation releases calcium. • Calcium activates myofibril filaments. • Sliding filament mechanism. • Sarcomere shortens and muscle contracts. • When signal ends, it relaxes and lengthens. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTRACTION • Strength of contraction. • Number of motor units activated. • More units = stronger contraction, less = weaker. • Pace of contraction. • Twitch is a term for the entire cycle of contraction. • “Fast-twitch”: contracts quickly, uses energy quickly, fatigues quickly. • Supports short bursts of activity. • “Slow-twitch”: contracts slowly, uses energy slowly, fatigues slowly. • Supports activity for longer lengths of time. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTRACTION • Dynamics of a contraction. • Isotonic contraction: muscle length changes, muscle tension does not. • Eccentric contraction: muscle elongates during contraction. • Concentric contraction: muscle shortens during contraction. • PRODUCE MOVEMENT! • Isometric contraction: stays the same length; tension increases. • Considered isostatic because it produces NO MOVEMENT. OTHER MUSCLE TYPES • Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. • Involuntary: no conscious effort. • Relaxes as much as it contracts. • Generates own electrical impulse. • Smooth muscle is found in many internal organs. • Involuntary. • Can contract for long periods of time. • Does not simply “shorten and lengthen”. • Filaments arranged at angles, not in sarcomeres. NERVOUS SYSTEM • Processes sensory input, produces action output. • Central Nervous System: brain and spinal cord. • Peripheral Nervous System: all other nerves, receptors, effectors. • Neurons: basic cells of the nervous system with three main parts. • Cell body: where nucleus and organelles are. • Dendrites: receiving end of information. • Axon: sending end of information. • Myelin sheath: fatty deposits of insulation around axon with gaps between. • SPEEDS UP electrical impulses via “saltatory conduction”. • Electrical impulse “jumps” down axon. Depolarization describes the “sending of a message”. It is a chemical shift (- to +) along the cell membrane. NEURON SYNAPSES • Neurons meet at a gap between the axon and dendrite called the synapse. • Axon terminal holds neurotransmitters; these are chemical messengers. • When the “message” gets to the end of the axon, neurotransmitters are released. • Diffuse across the synapse. • Bind to next neuron (dendrites). • Cause depolarization in subsequent neuron if excitatory. • If inhibitory, depolarization does not occur or is stopped. Presynaptic: “sending” neuron. Postsynaptic: “receiving” neuron. SENSORY PATHWAY • Sensory receptors throughout the body pick up on stimuli. • Taste, touch, smell, sight, sound, proprioception (body position), pain, temp., etc. • Receptors depolarize sensory neurons sending this information towards the CNS. • Sensory neurons at similar body levels gather into nerves to enter the spinal cord through spinal nerves. • Ascending interneurons then carry the sensory information to the brain. • Information from left to right side, vice versa. • Cranial nerves bypass the spinal cord and enter the brain directly. SPINAL REFLEXES BEFORE BRAIN • Sometimes, when pain information reaches the spinal cord, it needs to be responded to immediately! • Interneurons in spinal cord send out a fast, involuntary motor response or spinal reflex to get us away from the harmful stimulus. • Brain is not initially “in the loop”, but is “filled in” after. BRAIN REGIONS AND FUNCTION • The brain processes and integrates sensory information. • It is directed to the appropriate region based on nature. • Determines an appropriate motor response. • Hindbrain: most primitive and similar between species. • Medulla oblongata: automatic/involuntary processes. • Cerebellum: coordination of movement. • Forebrain: thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and cerebrum. • Thalamus: receives, processes, transfers. “Receptionist”. • Hypothalamus/pituitary gland: hormones and homeostasis. • Cerebrum: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes (see diagram for functions). MOTOR PATHWAY • Descending interneurons carry motor response back out to the body via cranial or spinal nerves. • Nerves branch out into neurons and synapse with effectors. • These are glands and muscles that can carry out the “orders”. • Two primary motor pathways: • Somatic: activates skeletal muscle and spinal reflexes. • Autonomic: activates various involuntary tissues/organs. • Sympathetic: our response to perceived threats. “Fight or Flight”. • Parasympathetic: our relaxation response. “Rest and Digest”.
Chapter Two: Holding it Together Integumentary System What are the characteristics of the epidermis? Describe keratinocytes vs. melanocytes. What are the characteristics of the dermis and which structures contribute to them? Skeletal System How many bones are in the human body? How is bone is formed? What is the primary structural unit of compact bone. What are the characteristics of spongy bone? Describe the different bone cells; osteocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast. What are the bones of the axial skeleton? What are the bones of the appendicular skeleton? What structures connect bones together at joints? Chapter Three: On the Move Muscular System What are the differences between skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle? List the phases of muscle contraction. Nervous System What are the different parts of a neuron? What is the function of the myelin sheath? Describe depolarization. List out the sensory pathway (from receptors to brain). What is the function of the hypothalamus? What is the function of the medulla oblongata? What are the frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes of the brain in control of? List out the motor pathway (from brain to effectors). Compare somatic vs. autonomic, and parasympathetic vs. sympathetic. CORE273 SUM18 First Summer Session Exam #1 Study Guide Chapter One: Under the Microscope What are the qualities of living things? Describe prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells. List the organelles and their functions. List and describe the four primary tissue types. List the components of a negative feedback loop and their role.

Tutor Answer

School: UC Berkeley


Chapter One: Under the Microscope
What are the qualities of living things?
Living things have various qualities which are: they need raw materials and energy, undergo metabolism, can
respond to their environment. Living things can maintain homeostasis which means they can maintain a
constant internal environment despite changes in the external environment, undergo growth and reproduction,
can evolve and are made of various molecules to include proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids.
Describe prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cells have a nucleus that is not bound by a membrane and have few organelles or none, and an
example is bacteria. On the other hand, eukaryotic cells have a nucleus which is secured by a membrane and
poses many organelles like the ribosomes, mitochondria, and vesicles among others and an example is a human
List the organelles and their functions.
The organelles of eukaryotic cells are: The Nucleus which is the cell's brain holds it directs DNA and all cell
activities. The ribosomes are responsible for energy production, Endoplasmic reticulum which are rough and
smooth. The rough assist in the production of proteins while the smooth produces lipids primarily. The Golgi
apparatus is another organelle whose function is to refine, ship and package products form the endoplasmic
reticulum. The Mitochondria acts as the cell's powerhouse and is involved in the production of ATP molecules.
The other organelles are the vesicles which serve as storage, endocytic and secretory organelles and contain
lysosomes and peroxisomes.
List and describe the four primary tissue types.
The first tissue type is epithelial which covers the cavities of the body, lines surface s and organs and the
glandular epithelium is involved in the production of secretions. The second tissue type is the connective tissue
whose function is to support and connect and is classified into loose, dense, adipose, cartilage, blood and bone.
Thirdly is the Muscular tissue which contracts to allow various forms of movement and includes the cardiac,

smooth and skeletal muscles. Lastly is the nervous tissue which provides communication by transmitting and
generating impulses.
List the components of a negative feedback loop and their role.
There are four components of a negative feedback loop which are: the controlled variable which is the element
that is specifically being monitored, the sensors which are receptors that are special and are used for variable
monitoring. The other is the control center which is given input by the sensors and determines response and the
Effectors whose role is to carry out response that is necessary to bring about balance
Chapter Two: Holding it together
Integumentary System
What are the characteristics of the epidermis?
The epidermis is the top layer of the skin that is visible. It is made up of stratified squamous epithelium which
can be thin or thick. Its cells which include the basal cells and the keratinocytes are continuously made and
replaced. The epidermis is the primary defense line, gives color to the skin and protects it from the sun. Also
contains Melanocytes. The epidermis also contains some immune cells that are stationed throughout.

Describe keratinocytes vs. melanocytes.
Keratinocytes are cells that die out and dry as they rise to the surface of the skin. They produce a protein that is
hard and waterproof known as keratin. Melanocytes, on the other hand, produce melanin pigment that is dark
which gives the skin its color and protects it from the sun.
What are the characteristics of the dermis and which structures contribute to them?
The dermis detects and regulates temperature via the help of the sweat glands, erector pili muscle, and
thermoreceptors. This layer also gives shape and pliability to the skin through the elastin and collagen fibers and
dermal papillae which is responsible for fingerprints. The dermis has a blood supply that is ample for all the
cells and takes in sensory stimuli via the action of nerves and receptors. The dermis also aids in immunity and
protection through the production of sebum that limits the growth of fungi and bacteria and the abundant blood
supply also brings in other cells that are immune.

Skeletal System
How many bones are in the human body?
The body contains around 206 bones
How bone is is formed?
Bone formation begins with a mold of cartilage where hyaline cartilage is laid down by chondroblasts during
development. Osteoblasts, which are cells that build bone, are brought in by incoming blood supply. Mineral
matrix is laid down by the osteoblasts, which also release enzymes to harden it into bone, a process known as
ossification. Osteoblasts ...

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