Impact of my Methodology

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Having identified the strengths and weaknesses of your research program and resources in previous discussions, you will explore the impact of your methodology on your conclusions. For example,

  • What assumptions does your model make, and when might those assumptions not hold?
  • Are the results of the quantitative analysis consistent with your a priori expectations? If not, why?

Be sure to address items such as upside and downside risks to the analysis as well as pertinent social and political factors.

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1 ECO 700 Capstone Milestone #1 Wanda Martinez Overview of the problem Justification Expected benefits Statistical technique Testable hypothesis Overview of the problem The odor, taste and overall quality of the tap water is a priority, because this is attached to the health of my family and thousands of other households. The fatbergs are the consequence of the fry oils disposition (Chugthai & Zayed, 2008), if we are not aware of that situation we can be part of the problem pouring the greases and fry oil over the sewers, that creates a big mass of “soap” but not the one that would be nice, but the one that clogged our sewers and creates backups that could be affecting our own houses. Alternatively, to reducing the release into the sewer, fry oil can be recycled to produce bio-diesel and energy (Lee et al., 2017). Justification My Research project is a personal challenge for me in many aspects, the first thing is because I’m very concerned about the water quality in my town, personally I would like to make sure that I’m not part of the problem but that I can be a part of the solution of our water quality. Expected benefits The expected benefits of that research project are as many as we can see through the conservation of our tap water in good shape for safety drink, the texture and safety of water for household use, the conservation of our health, the conservation of our life, the conservation of our property values. The creation of bio-diesel for airplanes and other transportation. The economic growth overall. Statistical technique The dependent variable is the amount of fat accumulated in the sewers; the independent variables are the amount of fry oil released into the sewers and the amount of fry oil recycled to produce biodiesel. If is not fry oil, is not possible to make bio-diesel from that used oil. The statistical techniques used in the project involve univariate and multivariate regression methods. These techniques will help determine whether or not there is any relationship between the amounts of fry oil 2 Testable hypothesis The testable hypothesis states that the amount of fry oil accumulated in the sewers in the form of fatbergs increases with the amount of fry oil released into the sewers and decreases with the amount of fry oil recycled to produce bio-diesel and energy. References Chughtai, F., & Zayed, T. (2008). Infrastructure Condition Prediction Models for Sustainable Sewer Pipelines. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 22(5), 333-341. doi:10.1061/(asce)0887-3828(2008)22:5(333) Lee, J., Jung, J. M., Park, C., Jeon, B. H., Wang, C. H., Lee, S. R., & Kwon, E. E. (2017). Rapid conversion of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) into biodiesel without pre-treatment of FOG. Journal of Cleaner Production, 168, 1211-1216. Milestone #2 ECO 700 Overview: Milestone Two is your detailed roadmap of what you intend to do and how you will do it. A well-written proposal integrates what you learned all throughout the program and shows how you intend to apply the skills and knowledge you acquired over the past few months. Writing a proposal also helps you formulate the justification for your methodology and helps you anticipate what you may find in your research. Prompt: Employing feedback from the previous modules, write a final draft of the research proposal. Essentially, it will be an elaboration of the economic problem paper you created for Milestone One. This report should be professionally written and contain the following elements: Research goal(s) The research goals of my job is to probe how many gallons of cooking oils is recycling and how many gallons of biodiesel is processed in North Texas. If we have the amount of gallons of biodiesel we can see the people’s willingness to cooperate with their environment avoiding to pour their cooking oils into their sewers, avoiding contamination and other future health problems. Relevant audiences and why the research is relevant to them The relevant audiences and why this is relevant to them are the citizens of the North Texas towns that pertain to Denton County and the people who are related to the waste management and recycling company, plus my Economics Professor Dr. Kanth and my graduate school peers. Strategies and tactics employed The strategies and tactics employed are: 1-Collecting, data apply 4 questions. Asking if they recycled cooking oils, their gender, their education level and their place of residency. 2-Taking the data sample from Solid waste & Recycling Department on the City of Denton Texas 3-I was trying hard to be in touch with the Solid Waste & Recycled Department and they has been very happy to help me, but the point on how faster I can get the data is a constraint to me on that 4 week of the course. Evaluation process The evaluation process Data needs Cost of needed research Timeline Guidelines for Submission: Your submission should be 5 to 10 pages in length and should use double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. Citations should be formatted according to APA style. 1 Milestone 2 Module #4 Wanda Martinez Southern New Hampshire University 05/27/2018 2 MILESTONE 2 PROPOSAL Milestone 2 proposal Introduction Today, the world seems to shift to the use of better and efficient sources of fuel. In the US for example, the various companies that manufacture fuels as well as independent individuals engage in various activities that see them produce environmentally friendly fuel. The initially presented cases of the impacts the universally used fuels bring to the environment act as the ultimate driving force towards the establishment of better and efficient alternatives. As a result, people from the different parts of the globe including Texas among others today work in the attempt to come up with the most durable and reliable alternatives to implement. In Texas, for example, research shows that the area comprises of many people who engage in the recycling of the various cooking oils in the attempt to produce biofuels used in the different areas of application. One of the final products obtained in the process includes biodiesel. Although the production process includes a series of steps, in the long run, it plays a huge part in enabling the affected people to come up with effective as well as reliable sources of fuel which in the end help in reducing the overall environmental pollution. This research proposal seeks to identify the overall number of gallons that individuals recycle in the formation of the final product which in this case includes biodiesel from cooking as well as vegetable and also animal oils (Shu et al. 2010). It then follows that one can make biodiesel from used cooking oil which in the past most entities regarded as a waste. This proposal will examine a target audience which includes the residents who stay in North Texas while considering the other critical factors essential to undertake such research. This proposal acts as a guiding path that forms the essential foundation for performing the future research concerning looking into the presented study more profoundly. MILESTONE 2 PROPOSAL 3 Goals Primarily, every project requires a set of specific goals to complete. The formulation of these goals comes from the need to come up with the ultimate solution to the underlying problem. This section which comprises of the proposal which offers a better way for form the basis for performing future research will examine the various elements critical in the production of biodiesel as a renewable fuel. The primary goal of this proposal includes the need to identify the approximate percentage of people in North Texas who use biodegradable fuels as compared to the other universally consumed sources. The second goal includes the desire to identify the total number of gallons of biodiesel that the people in North Texas produce within a given period of time. Thirdly, this proposal seeks to help the future researcher outline and identify the total number of gallons of cooking oils that the region selected recycles while comparing it to the overall consumption rate in the various entities such as homes. This analysis will act as the ultimate way that would help to come up with conclusive findings concerning the possibility of the people living in the areas directing the used cooking as well as other types of food-related oils into the sewers as waste without recycling them. With such goals in mind, I may then come up with the best tactics to use while collecting the figures as well as facts. The future research will include the statistical, theoretical and also experimental aspects which in the long run will help in coming up with the correct pieces of information regarding the underlying problem statement. The following section addresses the target audiences in this case. MILESTONE 2 PROPOSAL 4 Target audience After considering the basics of the use of cooking and other forms of food-related oils concerning the manufacturing of biodiesel, this section intends to look at the underlying target audiences whom I, the researcher will focus on. Well, this proposal aims at addressing and also focusing on the population living in North Texas. Specifically, the research looks at the population residing in Denton County. The primary reason for the selection of this population comes from the fact that the region comprises a large number of people who own vehicles among other entities that may use diesel. In addition to the overall ownership of motor gadgets, the region boasts a large number of restaurants as well as households which translates into high usage and consumption of cooking and other food-related oils. The population, in this case, seems to move away from the other forms of fuels towards greener sources of energy. The previously presented facts about the impacts of using biodegradable sources of fuel act as a guiding path for the population to adopt better as well as effective practices that may in the long run help in the preservation of the environment. This research will act as a wakeup call to the population by helping them to identify their overall lifestyles as well as their resulting impacts on the environment. The other significant audience, in this case, includes the relevant waste management and recycling firms within the region. These entities will use the provided findings and statistics to their own economic benefits which in the long run will play a huge role in changing the perception of the population. Other than the school as well as peers, this research focuses on the relevant stakeholders in the environmental matters which will provide to them the most important as well as valid findings concerning the use of recycled cooking oils to produce biodiesel used as an alternative to the MILESTONE 2 PROPOSAL 5 commercial fuels and also the opportunity to avoid the growth of fatbergs on the sewers and water pipes. (Issariyakul & Dalai, 2014). Strategies and tactics to use Conducting research requires adequate initial planning. I, the researcher, in this case, must prepare early enough. Preparations come in a variety of ways. For instance, I will consider identifying and documenting the various techniques, tactics as well as methodologies to follow in the collection of the required information. The selection of the right tactics as well as techniques to use in this case must follow the overall nature of the research in context. Like mentioned above, this research will comprise of various types of data. For example, the researcher must collect the theoretical information about the possible history of the recycling of cooking oils in the region and also the past experiences of the population in making their biodiesel products. The second type of data to consider in the research includes the statistical data obtained from both the experiments as well as questionnaires. Sample questions These questions represent a small portion of the entire data collection stage that seeks to collect the necessary information directly from the target population. The use of these strategies comes as a result of the fact that I; the researcher may not get the underlying information easily. Survey Questions: Have you ever recycled your cooking oil after the ordinary use? After the recycling process (If Yes) how did you dispose of it? MILESTONE 2 PROPOSAL 6 Do you see other people recycling their oil? (Extra question) Have you ever used biodiesel? (Extra question) State or country. State your occupation and education level? Evaluation process Since the proposal offers a guideline for conducting future research, the most important thing to take into account in such a case may include the effectiveness of the entire process. I; the researcher must evaluate the processes, tasks and also methodologies used in the attempt to guarantee the collection and documentation of valid results. As a result, I; the researcher will seek assistance from the relevant experts within my school to come up with a valid scope of the project in context. After the collection and ultimately, the documentation of the final results, I; the researcher will submit the report to the Professor for further scrutiny. The evaluation process, in this case, will include the planning, implementation, completion and also reporting. These steps will help me like a researcher to critically examine the processes, short-term as well as long-term goals for the project and also report on the final findings collected. The steps outlined above makes it easy to examine and analyze the effectiveness of the strategies selected and also the relevance of the final report concerning the underlying problem statement. Data needs The underlying research will examine a variety of data and information. For example, I will collect, analyze and tabulate the final results concerning the total number of gallons to recycle their or other obtained cooking oil to produce biodiesel. In addition, this section also 7 MILESTONE 2 PROPOSAL seeks to identify the possible amount of people who in the selected regions use biodegradable sources of fuel. In collecting the data, I will come up with a high-level evaluation of the study backed up by the relevant facts and theories. Budgets The completion of the research will require adequate funds. These funds will cater to the various elements that I will need. The breakdown of the budget follows in the following table. Item Quantity Amount $ Transport 3*35 105 Research personnel 1*100 100 Data collection equipment 100 100 Computer system 200 200 Printing papers 50 50 Miscellaneous 100 100 Total 655 Timeline I will carry out the processes within a specified period. The respective parties will start their work on 1st June 2018 and conduct the relevant research through a period of 2 months. In the process, the research will subdivide the entire process and period of time in the various respective timeframes according to the milestones that they will set for the completion of the project successfully. After the completion of the research, the I will submit the report to my Professor or among other stakeholders. MILESTONE 2 PROPOSAL 8 References Issariyakul, T., & Dalai, A. K. (2014). Biodiesel from vegetable oils. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 31, 446-471. Shu, Q., Gao, J., Nawaz, Z., Liao, Y., Wang, D., & Wang, J. (2010). Synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil with large amounts of free fatty acids using a carbon-based solid acid catalyst. Applied Energy, 87(8), 2589-2596. 1 Milestone 3: Data Analysis Wanda Martinez Capstone ECO 700 06/02/2018 MILESTONE 3: DATA ANALYSIS 2 Milestone 3: Data Analysis The present paper summarizes the collected data, and the data analysis carried out in an attempt to better understand the situation of the wastewater in the city of Denton. This data were collected either from the survey carried out or from official data collected from the City of Denton's wastewater treatment plants. The evaluation is necessary considering how the city of Denton has experienced multiple blockages of its sewer or sanitary water pipeline systems in the past two decades. According to the results recently published by the Texas Association of Clean Water Agencies, the situation has improved substantially. In this regard, the number of blockage incidents in the sewer pipelines of the city of Denton has decreased from over 38 million in 2001 to less than 40,000 in 2015 (TACWA, 2016). This result is however far from the goals established by the city of Denton and the acceptance criteria of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this regard, the city of Denton should decrease the number of annual blockage incidents below 24,000 to comply with the 3 per sewer pipeline mile (TACWA, 2016). Survey data analysis A series of surveys were conducted in an attempt to collect information about the individual participation in the recycling of frying oil, or in contrast if they throw it down the sink. Table 1 shows the different items evaluated in the questionnaire. Table 1. The questionnaire used in the data collection process Questionnaire number • Have you ever recycled cooking oil after its ordinary use? • After the recycling process (if YES), how did you dispose of the excess frying oil? • Do you see other people recycling their oil? MILESTONE 3: DATA ANALYSIS 3 Questionnaire number • Have you ever used biodiesel? • State your country of origin • State your occupation and/or education level Figure 1 shows the results obtained from the evaluation of the different answers to the survey. According to the obtained results from the survey carried out, only one out of the 19 people included in the survey had ever recycled cooking oil. The person was a female from DFW and a high school level education. On the other extreme, fifteen people reported that they had never recycled cooking oil and that they threw the excess cooking oil down the sink. Recycling of frying oil survey 16% 5% Recycled Threw the excess oil into the sink Three the excess oil inot the plastic bin 79% Figure 1. results obtained from the survey conducted to evaluate the individual participation in the recycling of cooking of oil in the city of Denton. Responses obtained from 19 surveys MILESTONE 3: DATA ANALYSIS 4 Analysis of the official figures While the initial research plan involved the collection of the amount of grease deposited in the sewer pipelines of the city of Denton, it has been impossible to access to such information. Nonetheless, I have managed to collect information about both the amount of oil recycled as biodiesel and the amount of oil released into wastewater. While the correlation between both variables is indirect, the obtained results are enough to analyze the existing trends. Table 2 shows the amount of frying oil collected and recycled in the city of Denton for 2016 and 2017. Table 3, on the other hand, shows the amount of oil released into the sewer pipeline during the same years. Table 2. Amount of frying oil recycled and converted to biodiesel in the city of Denton Year Pounds of oil Gallons of oil 2016 5,313 693.6 2017 5,543 723.6 Until April 2018 1,825 244.8 Table 3. Amount of frying oil released to wastewater in the city of Denton Year Gallons of oil 2016 1,688,463 2017 1,087,292 Note that the amount of oil recycled in the form of biodiesel has been converted into gallons to be able of comparing this result with the amount of oil released into the sewer system. The conversion factor used assumes that the density of cooking oil is of 920 kg/m3, equivalent to 7.66 pounds/gallon3 (Weast, 2018). MILESTONE 3: DATA ANALYSIS 5 Forecast and regression analyses As observed from the data shown on table 2, the amount of oil recycled in the city of Denton during the first four months of the year was of 244.8 gallons. Assuming that the same production level is maintained, the total amount of recycled oil by the end of 2018 will be of approximately 734 gallons as shown below: 244.8 ∗ 12 = 734 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑖𝑙 4 On the other hand, an analysis of the data shown on table 3 indicates that the amount of oil released to the sewer line decreased by approximately 35.7% from 2016 to 2017. Assuming that the same decrease rate is maintained, the expected annual release of oil to the sewer line during 2018 would be of approximately 700 thousand gallons, as shown below: 𝐸𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒(2018) = (1 − 0.357) ∗ 𝑂𝑖𝑙 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 (2017) = 0.643 ∗ 10827292 = 700,166 Taking these data into account, a simple linear regression has been conducted to evaluate if there is a correlation between the amount of oil released into the sewer line and the amount of oil recycled as biodiesel. Such correlation could potentially be used by the city of Denton to estimate the emission rate and evaluate the efficiency of the implemented techniques to decrease the emission of fats, oil and grease to the sewer system. Table 4 summarizes the data used in the regression model: Year Gallons of oil recycled Gallons of oil released to sewer system 2016 693.60 1,688,463 2017 733.63 1,087,292 2018 (estimate) 734 700,000 Figure 2 shows the calculated regression model obtained. MILESTONE 3: DATA ANALYSIS 6 Figure 2. Regression obtained for the comparison between the amount of oil released to the sewer line and the amount of oil recycled in the city of Denton The relevance of the obtained results According to the obtained results, the amount of oil released into the sink is substantially higher than the amount of oil recycled. In this regard, the survey carried out pointed towards recycling of 5% of the frying oil used by the 19 people included in the survey, while 79% of the people threw the used excess cooking oil to the sink. The situation is even worse considering the official figures. In this case, the amount of oil released to wastewater is, in the best case, approximately 1500 times higher than the amount of oil recycled into bio-diesel. The obtained results are quite striking considering how the ordinance 2012-176 of the City Code forbids the release of more than 100 mg/L frying oil into the sink to prevent sewer blockages (City of Denton, 2012). Moreover, the fact that most of the citizens continue to release the cooking oil to the sink instead of recycling it demonstrates the inefficiency of the different awareness campaigns organized by the city of Denton (figure 3). MILESTONE 3: DATA ANALYSIS 7 Figure 3. Cease the Grease campaign organized by the City of Denton (2017) Discussion about the data analysis techniques used an adaptation of the research plan While in my initial research plan I had considered the possibility of using linear and multivariate regression techniques to evaluate the results, the fact that I was unable of accessing the information about the amount of fat deposited in the sewer system has limited the analysis considerably. In this regard, not having access to such data, I have had to reformulate my research plan and find an alternative approach to assess the relative importance that the release of oil to the city’s wastewater had on the sewer system. In this regard, a possible solution would have been the evaluation of the incidence rate of sewer blockages, considering how the leading cause of such blockages is the accumulation of the released oil in the surface of the sewer pipelines. However, the data relative to the number of sewer blockages is only available until 2015. In contrast, the amount of cooking oil that is either released to the sewer system or recycled is only available from 2016 on. An analysis of the collected data demonstrates that the amount of oil released into the sewage exceeds by much the amount of oil recycled to prepare biodiesel. A similar result is obtained for both the surveys carried on, and the analysis of the official resources. In this regard, it is important to note that the only possible test considering the nature of the collected data is the comparison of the amount of recycled oil and the amount of oil released into the sewer system. MILESTONE 3: DATA ANALYSIS 8 In this regard, both the survey and the analysis of the officially published results highlight that most of the citizens in the city of Denton persist in releasing the frying oil to the sewer system. This result is striking considering that the city prohibited the release of oil into the sink and organized multiple campaigns. Moreover, citizens may be requested to pay for any cleanup process assuming that the blockage takes place in their private section of the sewer pipeline. Finally, it is noteworthy how there seems to be a close relationship between the amount of oil released into the sewer line and the amount of oil recycled to produce bio-diesel. In this regard, the interpolation of the results estimated for both the recycled and released oil in 2018 taking into account the previous trends results in a model with a 97.78 accuracy. Conclusion First of all, it is important to mention how the impossibility of collecting the initially planned data has forced to redefine the research problem. In this regard, while still evaluating the problem associated to the accumulation of fats, oil and grease in the sewer system in cities, the problem has been approached more indirectly by analyzing the amount of cooking oil released into the sink rather than the accumulation of oil in the pipeline itself. For this purpose, two different methods have been employed. The first involved a survey of the individual behavior of Denton citizens. Among them, only one person of the surveyed people declared to recycle the excess cooking oil, while fifteen of them declared to release the excess frying oil into the sink directly. The second method used for the data analysis compares the official figures about the total oil released into wastewater and the total amount recycled to prepare biodiesel in the city of Denton. While both methods provide an outstandingly high proportion of oil released into the sewer system, the results obtained from the survey carried out point towards a more optimistic MILESTONE 3: DATA ANALYSIS 9 scenario, were only 79% of the people would release the oil in the sink, while 5% of them would recycle it. However, the resulting scenario may not be accurate considering the small sample size used in the survey. In this regard, the analysis of the official figures provides a substantially more realistic approach of the current situation, in which only 0.06% of the oil is recycled, compared to the amount of oil released into the urban wastewater in the city of Denton. An accurate survey would thus need to include at least 2,000 people, which is inviable at this point. Finally, it is important to note how the high amount of oil released to the sewer system is having a substantial impact on the city life. In this regard, even while there are no official data available about the accumulation of oils in the sewer pipelines, the TACWA reports how the city of Denton currently experiences around 40,000 sewer blockages each year, which are mainly attributed to the accumulation of such oily deposits in the surface of the sewer pipelines. MILESTONE 3: DATA ANALYSIS 10 References City of Denton. (2017). Cease the Grease! Retrieved May 31, 2018, from City of Denton. (2012). Ordinance 2012-176. Retrieved May 31, 2018, from Utilities/Ord-2012-176.pdf Texas Association of Clean Water Agencies (TACWA). (2016). City of Denton’s Proactive Approach to Asset Management featuring InfoMaster & Cityworks. Retrieved May 31, 2018, from Denton_ AssetMgmt.pdf Weast, R. C. (2018). CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. DATA FOR COOKING OIL FRY OILS RECYCLING IN DENTON TEXAS RECYCLING OIL YES NO WHERE DID YOU POUR THE OILS SINK PLASTIC BIN RECYCLED ON A CITY FACILITY GENDER COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATIONAL LEVEL Recycled Threw the excess oil into the sink Three the excess oil inot the plastic bin FEMALE MALE 1 15 3 16% 1 NICOLE B. 2 PASTORA MAGDA GALAN 3 MICHELLE WILSON 4 CARLOS GARCIA NO NO NO NO X X X X FEMALE U.S. SOME COLLEGE FEMALE U.S. MASTER DEGREE FEMALE U.S. COOLLEGE MALE U.S. MASTER Recycling of frying oil survey 16% 5% Recycled Threw the excess oil into the sink Three the excess oil inot the plastic bin 79% 5 PEDRO SOTO 6 JAIME SEDA 7 TATITA PEREZ 8 CHRISTY SMITH NO NO NO NO X X X X MALE U.S. SOME COLLEGE MALE U.S. BACHELORS FEMALE U.S. JD. FEMALE U.S. BACHELORS DEGREE 9 PASTOR TERESA 10 WANDA JIRAU 11 ROCIO NO NO NO X X X FEMALE U.S. MASTER DEGREE FEMALE U.S. DOCTOR DEGREE FEMALE MEXICAN MNISTRY 12 ZAHIDEE VELEZ 13 MARIA ELENA 14 JOANNA HARRIS 15 SUSAN CHAISSON NO NO NO NO X X X X FEMALE U.S. BACHELORS FEMALE U.S. JD. FEMALE U.S. BACHELOR DEGREE FEMALE U.S. BACHELORS 16 VICTORIA AMALIA BUENROSTRO 17 Mava Day 18 Timothy Wolf YES No No X FEMALE DFW 11 GRADE Female U.S. Master degree Male US. Master degree 19 Tavaris Price No Male US. Master degree Year Pounds Collected Pounds to Biodiesel 2016 5,313 5,313 2017 5,543 5,543 2018 (YTD) 1,875 Gallons 693.60 723.63 244.78 Year 2016 2017 2018 Volume of oil released to urban wastewater (gallons) 1,688,463 1,087,292 Reference ps:// Annual_Storm_Water_Report_Final-1.pdf recycled released 693.6 1688463 723.63 1087292 734.33 700165.7 % change 0.356046 1800000 Gallons of oil released to sewer line 2016 2017 2018 1600000 1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 690 695 700 705 710 715 Gallons of oil recycled to biodiesel y = -23342x + 2E+07 R² = 0.9797 715 720 725 s of oil recycled to biodiesel 730 735 740
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