2 separate work sheet

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there are two separate work sheet and two separate slides for each work sheet please answer each wok sheet based on its own slide. make your answer clear and nice.

CHAPTER SIX IN AND OUT KING’S COLLEGE CORE273 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM • Breaks large molecules into small. • Absorbs small products for use and nutrition. • Proteins: composed of amino acids • Carbohydrates: sugars • Lipids: glycerol and fatty acids. • Water, vitamins, minerals. • Water balanced by urinary system. • Eliminates solid waste that the body doesn’t need. “FEELINGS” OF HUNGER • Hypothalamus responds to hormones. • Ghrelin says “give me food!” • Released by stomach. • Increases before meals, decreases after. • High ghrelin levels shown to increase hunger scores. • Injections of hormone induce hunger. • Leptin says “I’m full – no more!” • Secreted primarily by adipose (fat) tissue. • Regulates body weight and energy balance. • Increases in overfed states, decreases in starvation. • Treatments with leptin shown to decrease appetite. “Leptin tells your brain that you have enough energy stored in your fat cells to engage in normal, relatively expensive metabolic processes. (WebMD)” DIGESTION BEGINS IN THE MOUTH • Teeth mechanically break down food. • Saliva is produced by the salivary glands. • It is composed of water, mucus, and salivary amylase. • Enzyme that breaks down starch (carb) into sugar. • Chewing mixes food with saliva and creates a bolus. • Bolus is swallowed; epiglottis ensures food does not enter airway. • Bolus travels down the esophagus. • Smooth muscle contractions or peristalsis pushes it. • Lower esophageal sphincter controls food entering the stomach. PROTEIN DIGESTION IN THE STOMACH • Stretch of the stomach and presence of protein cause release of gastrin hormone which then triggers the release of gastric juice. • Hydrochloric acid at a pH of 2. • Denatures proteins; changes shape, renders non-functional. • Pepsin: enzyme to break down proteins. • Gastric Lipase: enzyme for lipids. • Muscle contracts to move and churn food. • Mixing liquefies food into chyme. • Pyloric sphincter controls amount of chyme moving into small intestine. SMALL INTESTINE: DIGESTION • Remaining digestion occurs in small intestine. • Duodenum (first ten inches) is where this occurs. • Presence of acid stimulates release of secretin hormone: • • Causes release of water and bicarbonate from pancreas to neutralize acid. Presence of food molecules in chime and stretch of wall stimulates release of cholecystokinin hormone: • Release of enzymes from pancreas to break down molecules. • Release of bile to help emulsify fats for better digestion and absorption. • Created in the liver, stored and released by the gall bladder. SMALL INTESTINE: ABSORPTION • The final 19 feet of small intestine, made up of the Jejunum and the Ileum, absorbs nutrients. • 95% of absorption takes place in the small intestine. • Absorbed into blood and lymph vessels. • Villi increase surface area to exponentially increase absorption. • • Segmentation of smooth muscle increases rate also. • The fact that the small intestine is so long and has many folds even before the villi aid in increasing surface area. Ileocecal valve directs remnants to the large intestine (colon). LARGE INTESTINE • Absorbs water and creates solid waste. • Certain vitamins and minerals are absorbed as well. • Bacterial help ferment “leftovers” to get some of these. • At the lower end, solid waste is compacted as feces. • Moves through the rectum, anus, and then out of the body. • Sphincters in the anus control when elimination occurs. URINARY SYSTEM • Kidneys are the primary organ where urine is produced. • The structural and functional units of the kidneys are the nephrons. • Nephrons filter blood and create urine via: • Glomerular filtration • Tubular reabsorption • Tubular secretion • Urine is collected in the renal pelvis of kidney and transported via ureters to the urinary bladder. • Release from the body occurs via the urethra. REGULATION OF WATER • Blood pressure and salt concentration determine water and salt movement in tubules. • Monitored by the hypothalamus! • Low blood pressure and high salt • Indicates not enough water (dehydration). • Antidiuretic hormone makes kidneys put water back in body. • Dark, concentrated urine is produced. • High blood pressure and low salt • Indicates too much water (over-hydration). • Antidiuretic hormone is inhibited; water exits in urine. • Dilute, light colored urine is produced. Direct relationship between water levels, blood volume, and blood pressure! When one goes up, so do the others!
Worksheet Five CORE273 SUM18 NAME: In and Out 1. What three large molecules are broken down by the digestive tract, and what are they composed of? 2. Where does digestion begin? a. What enzyme is at work here? b. What molecule does it break down? 3. How does food get from the mouth to the stomach (name structure). 4. What molecule is broken down primarily in the stomach? a. What are the components of gastric juice and how do they function? 5. How does the function of the small intestine differ between its three parts? a. Duodenum: b. Jejunum and Ileum: 6. How is surface area increased in the small intestine? 7. Using a notable source other than the powerpoint, find information on other benefits of intestinal bacteria. Cite your sources! 8. _______________ are the primary organ where __________ is produced. The structural and function units of the kidneys are the _______________. 9. Briefly discuss “glomerular filtration”. 10. If water levels in the body increase, what happens to blood volume and therefore, blood pressure? 11. How would the urinary system help to lower the amount of water in the body and therefore lower blood pressure if both were too high?
CHAPTER SEVEN FIT AND HEALTHY KING’S COLLEGE CORE273 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM • Helps our bodies determine what should be there and what should not. • All cells have antigens on their cell membranes. • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) shows cells are “ours”. • If a cell displays foreign antigens that don’t match ours, it is considered a pathogen. • Abnormal/cancerous cells • Bacteria • Viruses • Fungal infections • Parasites LYMPHATIC SYSTEM • Extracellular fluid in tissues picked up by lymph vessels. • This lymph circulates via vessels to lymph nodes. • Hold white blood cells to cleanse lymph. • Blood itself cleaned by the spleen. • Tonsils and adenoids hold cells to protect the throat from infection. • Thymus nurtures immune cells to maturity. FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE • Physical and chemical barriers meant to keep pathogens from getting into the body. • Tears, saliva, earwax. • Mucus and cilia. • Urination, defecation, vomiting. • Regions of acidic pH. • Normal flora bacteria in gut. • Skin is the PRIMARY defense. SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE • Non-specific defenses: activated no matter what is causing damage/infection. • Inflammation: caused by mast cells or basophils releasing histamines. • Blood vessels dilate and become “leaky”; WBC’s and other defenses are released into damaged tissue. • Complement proteins: group of plasma proteins circulating to help. • Mark invaders for phagocytes and form complexes to damage invading cells. • Phagocytes: cells that perform the “eating” of other cells and debris. • Neutrophils (“small eater”) and Monocytes (“big eater”). SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE • Granulocytes: cells with granules carrying chemicals/enzymes. • Neutrophils (“little eater”), eosinophils (kill parasites), basophils (release histamines). • Monocytes: “big eaters” that also alert lymphocytes. • Called Macrophages when stationed in tissues. • Dendritic cells engulf pathogens and display antigens as antigen presenting cells (APC). • Natural killer cells: attack any cells that have become infected or abnormal. • Interferon: “interferes” with viral reproduction by warning other cells of infection. • Fever: increase in body temperature. • Macrophage releases pyrogens which travel to hypothalamus to cause higher temp. • Need a balance! High enough will inhibit pathogens, too high denatures our proteins! THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE • Lymphocyte cells activated to fight specific antigens. • • • B-Cells: develop in the bone marrow. • Antibodies. • Memory cells. T-Cells: develop in the thymus gland. • Cytotoxic cells. • Helper cells. • Suppressor cells. • Memory cells. Both types of cells undergo selection during maturation; negative interaction with “self” cells causes apoptosis (cell death) or suppression. This is to ensure our body’s safety. B-CELL ACTIVATION • Antigen presenting cell (APC) presents invading antigens to B-cells. • B-cells are cloned into memory cells and plasma cells. • Plasma cells multiply and release antibodies. • Antibodies bind to invaders presenting the matching “wanted” antigen. • Clump microbes together, attract phagocytes, neutralize pathogen. • Memory cells are saved in tissue for future encounters. T-CELL ACTIVATION • Antigen presenting cell displays enemy antigen to T-cells. • The “matching” T-cell clones itself: • Helpers: release cytokines and help stimulate immune response. • Cytotoxic or Killers: kill cells displaying the enemy antigen. • DIFFERENT FROM NATURAL KILLER CELLS! • Natural killers look for “strange” antigens. • Cytotoxic killers look for specific antigens. • Perforin pokes holes in invader, granzyme digests their parts. • Regulator or Suppressors: calm the immune system. • Memory cells: stored for future encounters. SIGNIFICANCE OF MEMORY CELLS • Primary immune response • Body recognizes foreign antigen. • Lag time of 3-6 days after antigen appears. • Produce and proliferate T-cells and B-cells. • Memory cells for that antigen formed and saved. • Secondary immune response • Pathogen re-infects. • Memory cells activated immediately of its presence. • Unnecessary to go through “lag time” again. • Symptoms may not emerge!
Worksheet Six CORE273 SUM18 NAME: Fit and Healthy 1. How do antigens function? 2. Overall, what is the significance of the lymphatic system? 3. List three mechanisms in the first line of defense and explain how they help to protect us. 4. Discuss the following mechanisms of the second line of defense: a. Inflammation: b. Interferon: c. Fever: 5. How do B-cells and T-cells differ? Give three examples minimum. 6. What is the significance of memory cells?

Tutor Answer

School: Cornell University


Worksheet Five
In and Out
1. What three large molecules are broken down by the digestive tract, and what are they composed of?
Starch: this is composed of the sugar glucose.
Proteins: composed of amino acids.
Fats: composed of fatty acid and glycerol.
2. Where does digestion begin?
Digestion begins in the mouth
a. What enzyme is at work here?
Enzyme ptyalin
b. What molecule does it break down?
3. How does food get from the mouth to the stomach (name structure)?
Through peristalsis: this is symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles of the gut moving
the food down to the stomach.
4. What molecule is broken down primarily in the stomach?
Protein is primarily broken down in the stomach
a. What are the components of gastric juice and how do they function?
Pepsin: digests protein
Hydrochloric acid: denatures proteins and decreases pH for optimum functioning of pepsin.
Mucus: lubricates chyme and protects the lining of the stomach.
Water: dilutes food and facilitates mixing.
5. How does the function of the small intestine ...

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