Section 3 Assignment

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Identify one technology that you would like to use in your classroom. Based on the required reading for this section, identify:

  1. How you would use the technology to improve student learning
  2. Risks or drawbacks associated with the use of the technology
  3. How you will minimize the risks or drawbacks to create a safe learning environment

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Section 3. Technology as a Teaching Tool Over the past twenty years, American life has been transformed by computers and the advent of the Digital Age. At the same time, public scrutiny of public schools has intensified. Most recently, these two developments have coalesced into an important question: Are today’s K-12 schools using technology effectively and adequately preparing students to use technology after high school graduation? Popular opinion says “no,” as indicated by the repeated calls from policymakers to increase technology use in the classroom and prepare students for high-tech jobs. President Barack Obama even addressed this concern in his 2013 State of the Union address when he announced: a new challenge to redesign America’s high schools so they better equip graduates for the demands of a high-tech economy. We’ll reward schools that develop new partnerships with colleges and employers, and create classes that focus on science, technology, engineering, and math – the skills today’s employers are looking for to fill jobs right now and in the future (Obama, 2013). But in spite of the chorus of public opinion, research is conflicted about whether or not technology-rich classrooms actually increase student learning, and if they do, the path to effective large-scale technology implementation remains unclear. In the absence of research consensus, it is incumbent upon teachers to interpret the various local, state, and national guidelines and recommendations concerning technology in the classroom and effectively integrate them into a coherent instructional plan. In fact, one of the major limitations of prevailing classroom technology uses is incoherence with overall instructional objectives. Teachers must create an appropriate instructional design for their students, with student learning outcomes, not the technology medium, driving the creation of this plan. Increasing effective technology integration in the K-12 classroom means making technology the means of learning, not the end, and providing teachers and the students the freedom to use a variety of technological resources to support instruction. In your classroom, you may not have access or school board approval to use all of the tools discussed in this section. (Cell phone use in classrooms, for example, is becoming more widely accepted but remains controversial in some classrooms.) If this is the case for you, think about how you can use the technologies available to you to engage your students in learning in a real-world way. Source: Obama, B. (2013, February 12.) State of the Union address. Retrieved from© 2017 5400 79 union-address. Web 2.0 Web 2.0 refers to the “social web,” wherein web users have begun to generate their own online content. It is not a specific technical classification, but instead, a way of using the internet wherein the users interact with the online medium and create something new. Traditional social media outlets, like Facebook, would be considered part of Web 2.0, but so are blogs, message boards, and wiki sites like Wikipedia. For teachers, the uses of Web 2.0 tools are almost endless. Ideas might include asking students to create their own blogs in lieu of journals (there are several free sites for this), or starting a class Wiki page (learn more about this via: Flipped Classrooms A flipped classroom inverts (or flips) the traditional in-class lecture, out-of-class homework model. In a flipped classroom, learners watch a video lecture outside of class (or, less commonly, listen to a podcast or audio-lessson) and then spend the class period doing a learning activity that builds on the lecture during the following class period. Because the teacher is not lecturing during class, he or she spends a few minutes of each class period working one-on-one with each student, answering questions, helping students who are stuck, or providing feedback on completed work. Advocates of the flipped classroom model point out that the flipped model provides a more personalized way of teaching. Learners who easily grasp the lecture material may watch the lecture once, but learners who need more reinforcement may rewatch the video more than once, or rewind and repeat the portion that is confusing. During the class period, the teacher’s role is like that of an individual tutor, and he or she can address each student right at their precise developmental level. Critics of the model point out that the flipped model only works when each student has access to the technology (typically a computer and high speed internet access) at home, and that students must be diligent to complete the lecture viewing before class—otherwise they will be unprepared for the day’s activities. Further, in the ideal flipped classroom, the learning activities must be sufficiently rigorous to generate meaningful interaction between the student and teacher; work done for a “completion grade” does not benefit as much. © 2017 5400 80 Nevertheless, the flipped classroom model shows promise. Math teachers, in particular, may see the benefit to helping each student with his or her “homework” during the class period and clarifying misperceptions, rather than sending a frustrated or confused students home to work out problems on their own time. Possibly the most famous website for flipped instructional content, The Khan Academy, was born out of a series of math tutoring videos that a man made to help tutor his cousins in math long-distance. The videos were posted on YouTube and soon found a viral following. Now, the Khan Academy website ( has videos across grade levels for subjects including math, science, arts and humanities, economics and finance, and computing. Mobile Learning Depending on your age, you may have gone to school long before cell phones, or you may remember a time when cell phones were banned from school classes. Now, however, some schools have embraced students bringing cell phones and other electronic devices, like tablets, to school and using them during class time. Such policies are typically called “bring your own device” policies. The goal of a “bring your own device” approach is to engage students in learning using the same technology they are already proficient at using (i.e. creating a Twitter feed for current events in a social studies class) and to distribute technology in classrooms where it would not be feasible to provide a smart phone or tablet to each student due to budgetary constraints. The primary concern of bring your own device policies is that, unlike many schoolowned computers or tablets, student-owned devices do not have any filtering software or other protections to ensure that the material accessed is safe, appropriate, and on-task. Teachers working in bring-your-own device schools should vigilant to ensure that students are using their devices for class purposes, not personal ones, during the school day. Web Literacy Not only do you want to be a technologically literate teacher, you want your students to be technologically literate, too. The Mozilla Foundation has assembled a framework for entry-level web literacy and 21st century skills; interestingly, reading, writing, and participation are the three core skills. You can view the web literacy map and find learning activities for each skill at © 2017 5400 81 Evaluating Source Quality As discussed in the previous sections, the advent of Web 2.0 has enabled anyone to post anything online. Therefore, even more than in the print medium, learners who are using the internet for research or reading need to be able to evaluate the quality and reliability of the source material they find online. As students develop their research skills, they need to be taught how to evaluate the texts that they use for their resources, as these can serve as lifelong skills. In this age of technology, the teacher in content areas must teach appropriate skills to all students about weighing evidence of written text in web sites and links, textbooks, magazines, journals, brochures, newspapers, along with reports in the media. There are several techniques that need to be taught and modeled for students in order to help them evaluate the quality of what they are reading or hearing: • • • • • • • • • • • © Review any bibliographic citation about the author, title, summary, and key words. This citation typically tells this information along with a brief summary of the text. This information can help the reader determine if the text is relevant to the research along with the credibility of the author. Read the preface, table of contents, and the index. This will give an overview of the source and if the information is helpful for the present research. Try to determine if the source of the information is factual, opinionated, fictional, or contains propaganda. Determine the audience which is done through considering the tone, style of writing, and level of information. Determine if the source is current or is out-dated. Typically, sources that are current will be ones that include the latest research findings. Determine if the source is one-sided without other viewpoints being included. Establish any bias of the author. Help students realize the difference between “published works” and information on the internet. Most publishing companies go through a lengthy process of ensuring the quality of its publications. However, anyone can print anything on the internet; all that is needed is a computer. Guide students in finding multiple resources rather than just one in determining validity. Establish if the source is contradictory to what has already been read and/or studied. If it is, examine carefully who is the author(s) and how reliable is the text. Determine if the source makes extraordinary or unusual claims. If so, find out the supporting evidence for such claims. 2017 5400 82 A web site that has valuable information in this area is “Teaching Adolescents How to Evaluate Quality of Information Online,” ( It was developed by Julie Coiro, a professor at the University of Rhode Island. © 2017 5400 83 Social media ethics and safety online As part of your program completion, you will review the full content of the the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC) Model Code of Ethics for Educators. To NASDTEC, teacher’s professional, safe, ethical behavior online is so important, it merits its own section of the Code of Ethics. Many novice teachers have been tripped up by failure to use technology wisely in communicating with students and parents. Following are the specific ethical guidelines provided by NASDTEC. Review them carefully and take them to heart as you march bravely into the new digital frontier—your classroom. Principle V: Responsible and Ethical Use of Technology The professional educator considers the impact of consuming, creating, distributing and communicating information through all technologies. The ethical educator is vigilant to ensure appropriate boundaries of time, place and role are maintained when using electronic communication. A. The professional educator uses technology in a responsible manner by: 1. Using social media responsibly, transparently, and primarily for purposes of teaching and learning per school and district policy. The professional educator considers the ramifications of using social media and direct communication via technology on one’s interactions with students, colleagues, and the general public; 2. Staying abreast of current trends and uses of school technology; 3. Promoting the benefits of and clarifying the limitations of various appropriate technological applications with colleagues, appropriate school personnel, parents, and community members; 4. Knowing how to access, document and use proprietary materials and understanding how to recognize and prevent plagiarism by students and educators; 5. Understanding and abiding by the district’s policy on the use of technology and communication; 6. Recognizing that some electronic communications are records under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and state public access laws and should consider the implications of sharing sensitive information electronically either via professional or personal devices/accounts; and © 2017 5400 84 7. Exercising prudence in maintaining separate and professional virtual profiles, keeping personal and professional lives distinct. B. The professional educator ensures students’ safety and well-being when using technology by: 1. Being vigilant in identifying, addressing and reporting (when appropriate and in accordance with local district, state, and federal policy) inappropriate and illegal materials/images in electronic or other forms; 2. Respecting the privacy of students’ presence on social media unless given consent to view such information or if there is a possibility of evidence of a risk of harm to the student or others; and 3. Monitoring to the extent practical and appropriately reporting information concerning possible cyber bullying incidents and their potential impact on the student learning environment. C. The professional educator maintains confidentiality in the use of technology by: 1. Taking appropriate and reasonable measures to maintain confidentiality of student information and educational records stored or transmitted through the use of electronic or computer technology; 2. Understanding the intent of Federal Educational Rights to Privacy Act (FERPA) and how it applies to sharing electronic student records; and 3. Ensuring that the rights of third parties, including the right of privacy, are not violated via the use of technologies. D. The professional educator promotes the appropriate use of technology in educational settings by: 1. Advocating for equal access to technology for all students, especially those historically underserved; 2. Promoting the benefits of and clarifying the limitations of various appropriate technological applications with colleagues, appropriate school personnel, parents, and community members; and 3. Promoting technological applications (a) that are appropriate for students’ individual needs, (b) that students understand how to use and (c) that assist and enhance the teaching and learning process. © 2017 5400 85 As you consider these guidelines’ impact on your class use of social media, here are some practical principles that might be helpful. • • • • • © Limit any class communication via social media to a class-specific channel, i.e., set up a class Twitter account and do not share your personal account information. Keep emails limited to your school email account for the sake of transparency. Use a teacher-specific app like Remind 101 ( to communicate with students and parents via text in a safe, protected way. Remember that you might have personal information or pictures on your cell phone. Never let your students borrow your phone. When in doubt, consult your school policy handbook or talk to an administrator. 2017 5400 86 Time-saving Technology Tips In addition to using technology as a teaching tool, it can also be immensely helpful in streamlining your administrative workload and keeping parents in the loop. Following are some tips to help you use technology to save time. Web page Most districts provide teachers with a “blank” web page. If this is available to you, use it. Build out the available pages with class information. If this option is not available through your school, build your own professional web page. This type of communication format will be invaluable to your success as a teacher, and you will be able to provide parents with information that is vital to their student’s success. The information might range from “Classroom Discipline Rules,” to test dates, to upcoming field trips. By maintaining an updated web page, parents will see that you are an organized teacher and they will be most appreciative of the information. Be sure to distribute your web page address to the parents on the first day of school. Parent notes Using a word processor, create a customized template to ease the home school connection. The template for parent notes should include your school name, your name, and room number. You can even customize it by pasting a graphic of your choice. To conserve paper, copy and paste the template halfway down the sheet so you fit two notes on each page. Print out, photocopy, and cut in half with the paper cutter. Leave the blanks on your desk to remind you to jot that positive note home to parents. Email groups Emails are another way to stay in touch with your parents. At the beginning of the year, ask parents to provide you with their home or work email address. Using your email address book, create a group called "My Class." Once a week, write a short email message about upcoming events, summaries of the week, and "good news." Address it to your "My Class" email group. Your parents will be impressed with how effectively you communicate with them. © 2017 5400 87 Grade calculations Quickly familiarize yourself with your district’s/school’s grade book software. Many of the programs currently in use are not user friendly and may require an investment of your time to thoroughly learn the program. If in-service instruction is not provided for the grade book, do not hesitate to ask your mentor teacher for some “tips.” The upfront time spent on learning the program will be a wise investment when report card time rolls around. Easy newsletter Use your word processor to create a newsletter template that both you and your students can add to for weekly communication with parents. Design a simple header that includes your newsletter title and graphic. Go to Format > Columns and choose a two-column layout. Enter your featured topics and go to File > Save As > Document Template. Your newsletter is ready for students to enter their newsworthy events and information. © 2017 5400 88 ED449118 2000-10-00 Evaluating Technology-Based Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest. ERIC Development Team Table of Contents If you're viewing this document online, you can click any of the topics below to link directly to that section. Evaluating Technology-Based Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest........1 AUTHENTICITY................................................................. 2 CONSTRUCTIVISM............................................................ 2 EVALUATION FRAMEWORK................................................ 2 CONTENT........................................................................ 3 TECHNOLOGY AND INSTRUCTIONAL TOOLS......................... 4 ASSESSMENT.................................................................. 4 TEACHER SUPPORT......................................................... 4 CONCLUSION.................................................................. 4 REFERENCES.................................................................. 5 ERIC Identifier: ED449118 Publication Date: 2000-10-00 Author: Reed, Diane S. - McNergney, Robert F. Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education Washington DC. Evaluating Technology-Based Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest. ED449118 2000-10-00 Evaluating Technology-Based Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest. Page 1 of 7 ERIC Custom Transformations Team THIS DIGEST WAS CREATED BY ERIC, THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION CENTER. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT ERIC, CONTACT ACCESS ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC Technology alone will not improve the quality of education, but when integrated with curriculum and instruction, it can be a powerful educational tool. Technology that is fitted to curriculum and instruction can stimulate the development of higher-order thinking and problem-solving skills, and it can support collaborative, globalized learning. This digest reviews how educators can evaluate technology-based curriculum materials for use in the classroom at all educational levels. AUTHENTICITY A key concept in evaluating technology-based curriculum materials is authenticity. Is the technology used to bring real-world examples into the classroom? Do such examples enhance conceptual understanding of complex, naturally occurring phenomena by integrating technology and subject matter? Are activities such as simulations, Web experiments, and Web field trips used to enable students to understand the richness and variability of real life? Particularly with young learners, technology should help students learn "by doing, interacting, and exploring, rather than watching and/or listening" (Wright & Shade, 1994). To promote authenticity, learning assessment tools should pull students in desirable directions. Student products take the forms of portfolios, WebQuests (Dodge, 2000), and reports to classmates. Proponents of these methods argue that they mirror what is expected of employees in the work world. When evaluation attends not only to what students must know but also what they must be able to do, assessments themselves can function as instructional devices. CONSTRUCTIVISM Given the emphasis on authenticity, it is not surprising that the language of constructivism permeates the technology literature. Writers characterize technology as a tool that can help teachers and students become co-learners who collaboratively construct knowledge. Technology use that results in student engagement is characterized as successful. Engaged learners are: responsible for their own learning, energized by learning, strategic, and collaborative (Jones, Valdez, Nowakowski, Rasmussen, 1995). EVALUATION FRAMEWORK Comer and Geissler (1998) offer a framework for evaluating curriculum materials. They suggest that curriculum evaluators prepare their own assessment criteria tailored to the instructional context in which the curriculum materials will be used. Defining the instructional context requires evaluators to determine: (a) who the learners are; (b) who the instructor is and what constitutes the learning environment, of which the instructor is Page 2 of 7 ED449118 2000-10-00 Evaluating Technology-Based Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest. ERIC Resource Center a part; and (c) the nature of the technical limitations. Once evaluators establish this context, they can begin to evaluate the following aspects of the curriculum materials: content, required technology and instructional tools, learning assessment, and teacher support (Bernhard, Lernhardt, Miranda-Decker, 1999), keeping in mind the need for authenticity. CONTENT "One of the most important distinctions in evaluating digital content is whether a product emphasizes open-ended exploration or drill-and-practice. Many experts, particularly those who support a constructivist approach to teaching, strongly prefer the former" (Zehr, 1999). When integrated effectively into the curriculum by skilled teachers, digital content enables students to seek and manipulate digital information in collaborative, creative, and engaging ways, all of which foster learning (CEO Forum, 2000). For example, the JASON Project enables teachers and their students to participate in a year-round scientific expedition meant to encourage engagement--even excitement--about one or more of the earth's dynamic systems. Students share data and are able to chat with scientists about their own experiments. On the Monterey Bay expedition, students did experiments in their own classrooms on the feeding of abalone and sea urchins (The Jason Foundation for Education, 2000). In another example, the Virginia Center for Digital History enables students to examine newspapers, letters, diaries, and maps of the historical period the students are studying (Thomas & Ayres, 1999). The Valley of the Shadow project, a story of two cities' histories during the Civil War, allows students to explore the lives of the families of soldiers and to reconstruct true-life stories. Effective content focuses on information literacy skills to assist students in gathering, interpreting, and presenting information. "It turns out that successful searching and efficient electronic investigations must rest upon a carefully developed, structured foundation of information literacy skills that would include solid questioning, prospecting, translating and inventive abilities" (McKenzie, 1999). Student projects such as WebQuests guide students through information gathering and make their searching more efficient (Dodge, 2000). Students become content producers. Products may take a variety of forms: video, software, CD-ROM's, web sites, e-mail, on-line learning management systems, computer simulations, streamed discussions, data files, databases, audio, and more. There are so many examples of student knowledge production that numbers and types defy description. A tour of the ThinkQuest site ( provides a flavor of what kinds of work students can do. The CEO Forum (2000) offers another example from students in Queens, New York, who created "YO! It's Time For Braces." This multimedia web production intends to inform and allay fears about orthodontic braces. The site includes advice, information, and pictures from 20 orthodontists and other specialists (CEO Forum, 2000). ED449118 2000-10-00 Evaluating Technology-Based Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest. Page 3 of 7 ERIC Custom Transformations Team TECHNOLOGY AND INSTRUCTIONAL TOOLS Evaluators must consider the hardware and software requirements of the curriculum and whether the teacher has ready access to them. In addition, how much time will the teacher need to invest in learning to use the technology? Hopefully, the technology infrastructure of the school or school district will accommodate access for students and staff both inside and outside classrooms. Evaluators should consider whether the technology helps students "understand the role and importance of technology in the real world" (Bernhard, Lernhardt and Miranda-Decker, 1999). The technology skills required for success are taught in the context of the curriculum as just-in-time modules and not as isolated units. The technology should have the "ability to engage student interest . . . and to make use of computer capabilities" (Bernhard, Lernhardt and Miranda-Decker, 1999). Evaluators should examine software in the same reflective way that they examine other instructional materials; that is, with children's learning in mind (Hall & Martin,1999). ASSESSMENT The primary goal of technology assessment should be to measure student engagement as demonstrated by their observable performances. Students are most likely to perform in desirable ways when they engage in realistic and worthwhile tasks. Assessments in the JASON Project, for example, are hands-on, real-world exercises in data collection. "Performance assessments measure what is taught in the curriculum. There are two terms that are core to depicting performance assessment: (1) Performance: A student's active generation of a response that is observable either directly or indirectly via a permanent product. (2) Authentic: The nature of the task and context in which the assessment occurs is relevant and represents 'real-world' problems or issues"(Elliott, 1995). TEACHER SUPPORT No curriculum can be effective without high-quality, ongoing professional development. "The old approach of after-school technology training sessions does not work. Such sessions demonstrated the features of software applications but rarely showed how to use them in the classroom" (McKenzie, 1999). Professional development should take into account the diverse learning styles and stages of the development of learners. Multiple teacher development options should be available--study groups, classes that emphasize teaching and learning strategies, online classes, and formation of teacher-support teams. Sufficient time should be allotted for teachers to participate. CONCLUSION There is no way to escape the fact that today's classrooms must provide technology-supported learning opportunities for students. Teachers must be prepared to Page 4 of 7 ED449118 2000-10-00 Evaluating Technology-Based Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest. ERIC Resource Center use technology in ways that encourage student engagement * ultimately student learning * as measured in a variety of ways. Technology, used appropriately, can help students become active, independent learners with access to seemingly unlimited information. Only through evaluation of technology-based curricula can educators make informed decisions about the purchase and use of technology, and ultimately about the wisdom of their investments. REFERENCES Bernhard, J., Mellissions Lernhardt, M., & Miranda-Decker, R. (1999). Evaluating instructional materials. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 5(3). CEO Forum on Educational Technology. (2000, June). School Technology and Readiness: A focus on digital learning. Washington, D.C.: CEO Forum on Educational Technology. Retrieved July 2000 from the World Wide Web: Comer, P., & Geissler, C. (1998, March). A Methodology for Software Evaluation. SITE 98: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education, Washington, DC. Dodge, Bernie, (2000) The WebQuest Page, San Diego, CA. Retrieved July 2000 from the World Wide Web: webquest.html. Elliott, S.N. (1995, June). Creating Meaningful Performance Assessments. In ERIC Digests (E531). Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. ED 381 985 (available from the ERIC database). Getting America's Students Ready For The 21st Century: Meeting the Technology Literacy Challenge, A Report to the Nation on Technology and Education. United States Department of Education, (1996) Washington, D.C., available online at Hall, V.G., & Martin, L.E. (1999). Making Decisions about Software for Classroom Use. Reading Research and Instruction, 38(3), 187-96. International Society for Technology in Education. (2000, June). ISTE National Educational Technology Standards: (NETS) for Teachers Project, Eugene, OR, Retrieved July 2000 from the World Wide Web: The Jason Foundation for Education. (2000). The Jason Project. Waltham, MA: The Jason Foundation for Education. Retrieved July 2000 from the World Wide Web: Jones, B., Valdez, G., Nowakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1995). Indicators of engaged learning. Plugging In: Choosing and Using Educational Technology. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. ED449118 2000-10-00 Evaluating Technology-Based Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest. Page 5 of 7 ERIC Custom Transformations Team McKenzie, Jamie. How Teachers Learn Technology Best, (1999), FNO Press, Bellingham, Washington. President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. (1997). Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K-12 Education in the United States. By President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. PCAST/k-12ed.html Thomas, W.G., & Ayres, E.L. (1999). In the Valley of the Shadow: Communities and History in the American Civil War. Charlottesville, VA: Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia. Retrieved July 2000 from the World Wide Web: (Original works published 1998) Wright, J.L., & Shade, D.D. (1994). Young Children: Active Learners in a Technological Age. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Zehr, M. (1999). Reviewers play critical role in market for digital content. Education Week, 19(4), p28. Available on the web ----This project has been funded at least in part with Federal funds from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, under contract number ED-99-CO-0007. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views of or policies of the U.S. Department of Education nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Title: Evaluating Technology-Based Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest. Document Type: Information Analyses---ERIC Information Analysis Products (IAPs) (071); Information Analyses---ERIC Digests (Selected) in Full Text (073); Available From: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education, American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 1307 New York Avenue, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20005-4701; Tel: 202-293-2450 or 800-822-9229 (Toll Free); e-mail: For full text: Descriptors: Constructivism (Learning), Content Analysis, Curriculum Evaluation, Educational Technology, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Methods, Performance Based Assessment, Student Evaluation Identifiers: Authenticity, ERIC Digests ### Page 6 of 7 ED449118 2000-10-00 Evaluating Technology-Based Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest. ERIC Resource Center [Return to ERIC Digest Search Page] ED449118 2000-10-00 Evaluating Technology-Based Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest. Page 7 of 7
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