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timer Asked: Jun 18th, 2018
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please answer the worksheet questions based on the slides given below. Don't bring outside sources unless the question ask you to. Don't just copy and past the answer make your answer in your own word. Make your answer nice and clear.

CHAPTER EIGHT CHEMICAL BALANCE KING’S COLLEGE CORE273 HORMONE ACTION • The Endocrine System modulates chemical messengers called hormones. • Hormones come from specialized tissues and various endocrine glands. • They function to maintain homeostasis. • • Remember the feedback loop? They regulate every system of the body! • Two modes of action: • Steroid hormones: enter cell directly through membrane and into nucleus – activate genes. • Non-steroid hormones: bind to receptor on membrane, activate chain of events inside cells. HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY GLAND • Hypothalamus regulates the majority of what contributes to homeostasis. • Thirst, hunger, fatigue, body temperature, etc. • Directs the activity of the pituitary gland via nervous and endocrine signals. • Pituitary gland has two divisions: • Anterior pituitary: creates and secretes own hormones. • Responds to hypothalamic release hormones. • Posterior pituitary: stores and releases hypothalamic hormones. • Responds to nerve signals from hypothalamus. ANTERIOR PITUITARY • Growth hormone (GH): widespread effects on growth. • Highest in growing children and adolescents. • Stimulates protein synthesis, fat breakdown, and energy use (metabolism). • Antagonizes insulin. • Competitive GH uses associated with Type II Diabetes (insulin resistance). • Prolactin (PRL): targets mammary glands for breast milk production. • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): activates adrenal cortex of the adrenal glands to make hormones. ANTERIOR PITUITARY • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH): activates the thyroid gland. • Gland just below larynx in the front of the throat region. • Thyroid then produces its own hormones. • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH): stimulates growth of egg/sperm. • Stimulates follicle in ovaries, Sertoli cells in testes. • Luteinizing hormone (LH): stimulates testes and ovaries. • Ovulation and production of estrogen/progesterone in females. • Stimulates Leydig cells for production of testosterone in males. POSTERIOR PITUITARY • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): saves water at the kidneys. • Stimulates nephron tubules to allow water to move back into body. • Oxytocin: uterine contractions and milk ejection in females, bonding. PINEAL GLAND • Synthesizes and secretes melatonin. • Communicates information about light. • Levels are low during the daylight. • Peak during the dark. • Trains biological rhythms. • Regulates release of LH and FSH. • Powerful antioxidant. • Higher levels when we’re younger. THYROID AND PARATHYROID • Thyroid Gland: releases T3 and T4, as well as calcitonin. • Thyroxine (T3) and Triiodothyronine (T4): regulate BMR. • • Basal Metabolic Rate: rate at which energy is expended in a basal condition. Calcitonin: lowers blood calcium levels. • Stimulates osteoblasts to put calcium from blood into bone. • Parathyroid Gland: parathyroid hormone which raises blood calcium. • Stimulates osteoclasts to release calcium from bone. • OPPOSES CALCITONIN TO MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS OF CALCIUM! CORTEX OF ADRENAL GLAND • True endocrine gland. • Aldosterone: saves sodium and potassium at kidneys. • Causes tubules to reabsorb them back into the body. • Often synergistic with ADH. • Cortisol: sugar production and suppresses inflammation. • Major hormone in stress response! MEDULLA OF ADRENAL GLAND • Modified nervous tissue. • Epinephrine/Norepinephrine: “Adrenaline” • Roles in metabolism, blood pressure, and heart activity. • Sympathetic nervous responses. • Both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. • Quick onset and sustained impact on the body. Recall what happens during “Fight or Flight” response to blood vessels, lungs, heart, digestion, etc.? KIDNEYS • Renin: works to increase blood pressure. • Erythropoietin: stimulates production of red blood cells. HEART AND THYMUS GLAND • Thymus: Thymosin and Thymopoietin aid in maturing T-cells. • Heart: Atrial natriuretic hormone reduces blood pressure. PANCREAS • Exocrine function: digestive secretions via ducts into other organ. • Endocrine function: secretes hormones into blood stream. • Insulin: lowers blood sugar levels. • Glucagon: raises blood glucose (sugar) levels. • Diabetes Mellitus: inability to process glucose in cells. • Type I: pancreas can’t produce insulin. • Type II: cells resistant to insulin produced. • Glucose channels remain closed.
Worksheet Seven CORE273 SUM18 NAME: Chemical Balance HORMONE EX: Growth Hormone Prolactin Adrenocorticotropic H. Thyroid Stimulating H. Follicle Stimulating H. Luteinizing Hormone Antidiuretic Hormone Oxytocin Melatonin Thyroxine/Triiodothyronine Calcitonin Parathyroid Hormone Aldosterone Cortisol Epinephrine/Norepinephrine Renin Erythropoietin Atrial Natriuretic Hormone Thymosin/Thymopoietin Insulin Glucagon RELEASING GLAND FUNCTION Anterior Pituitary Widespread effects on growth.

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