Humanities
Columbia Southern University Farming in Texas Literature Review Paper

Columbia Southern University

Question Description

There are two portions to this assignment: the Introduction to the paper and the Review of Literature.

The purpose of the introduction is to relate to the reader your topic, some ideas about it and to state your argumentative thesis in the last sentence(s).

The sole purpose of the Review of Literature is to let the reader know the ideas the sources discuss on your topic; this portion allows the sources to argue for or against your thesis, almost as if there were a conversation about source ideas. Remember, the purpose is not to state your ideas and/or conclusions on the topic, but to relate source ideas.

The Study Guide suggests beginning the drafting process with the literature review instead of the introduction, yet on the paper itself the introduction is place prior to the review of literature.

The Literature Review requirements are listed and explained, as well as a sample to view in Lesson 3.

In Lesson 4.2, you will see the "Requirements and Considerations" and note that the "Requirements" include "no less than five sources."

So first, write your Review of Literature.

Second, write your Introduction. For details about what is expected, please see the syllabus and the study guide, “Lesson 4: The Introduction.”You may also want to review the “Example Introduction and Review of Literature.Again, view the syllabus for the exact items to be included, as well as the study guides; always strictly follow the guidelines.

Upon completion, submit the APA formatted cover page, the introduction to the paper and the review of literature following, with the reference page, which should contain at least five sources that you have cited within the content.

Instructions

Draft of Introduction and Literature Review

Follow the directions below for the completion of the introduction and literature review draft assignment for Unit IV. If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance.

Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to begin drafting your academic argumentative research paper.

Description: In this assignment, you will first write your literature review; then, you will write your introduction. Please see "Lesson 4: The Introduction" for details on why it is suggested that you begin the drafting process with the literature review instead of the introduction. The following details are requirements of the assignment:

Introduction (9-12 well-developed sentences/approximately 350 words): For more details about what is expected for each of the following sentences, please see "Lesson 4: The Introduction." You may also want to review the "Example Introduction and Literature Review (with comments)." The following components must be included in the introduction (in the following order).

Sentence 1: Introduce the general topic

Sentence 2: Pro side (general)

Sentence 3: Con side (general)

Sentence 4: Narrow the scope (1)

Sentence 5: Examples of the narrowed topic

Sentence 6: Narrow the scope (2)

Sentence 7: Specific controversy

Sentence 8: Pro side (specific)

Sentence 9: Con side (specific)

Sentence 10: The thesis

Literature Review (800-900 words): For details about the structure of the literature review, you will want to review "Lesson 3: The Literature Review: The Process." You may also want to review the "Example Introduction and Literature Review (with comments)." The link is below.

Literature review preface: This paragraph acts as a guide to what the reader can expect in the literature review.

Literature review body: This section includes three to four body paragraphs that discuss the history, terminology, and both sides of the controversy (pro and con).

Literature review conclusion: The conclusion signals that the literature review is ending, but it also acts as a kind of preface for the body of the paper by restating the thesis statement and establishing your argument once again.

Demonstrate how to summarize and paraphrase source materials.

Demonstrate the avoidance of plagiarism through proper use of APA citations and references for all paraphrased and quoted material.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Unit IV Color Key:  Blue: APA document formatting  Red: Example common mistakes in APA style  Brown: Paragraph number and label  Green: Sentence-level number and explanation Running head: SAFETY FIRST 1 APA header: Note that the title is in capital letters and prefaced by the words “Running head.” The page number is also included. Full title of the paper with the major words beginning with a capital letter Safety First: Open Carry Firearms on Higher Education Campuses in Arizona Student Name Columbia Southern University Name of the institution, which will always be “Columbia Southern University” The student’s first and last name SAFETY FIRST Para 1: Introduction Full title presented again at the top of the page 2 Safety First: Open Carry Firearms on Higher Education Campuses in Arizona S2 &3: Follows S1 by introducing the position of the pro side; again, Amanda is general, focusing on the larger controversy Much has been made in the past few years about gun restrictions in the U.S. Proponents Sentence 1 (S1): Amanda introduces the main topic (gun control) in a generalized manner; this sentence also introduces the con side of the controversy S5: Specific examples from the news. Note that these are examples of school shootings with which most people are familiar. This grounds the project to what is at stake in making arguments about this topic. S7: In this sentence, the writer introduces the specific topic of the project: the controversy around SB1474. S10: Amanda presents her thesis statement. She responds to the controversy by crafting a thesis statement that simultaneousl y agrees and disagrees. of gun regulation are in a constant state of lobbying for state and federal bills that restrict access to firearms, whether that takes the form of more extensive background checks on potential gun owners or longer waiting periods before guns may be sold to individuals. On the other side, the National Rifle Association (NRA) and other like-minded individuals advocate for looser restrictions on the sale and carrying of firearms. For these supporters of pro-gun legislation, owning and carrying guns is a fundamental right—even a civil right. While this national debate continues to loom over the hot topic of guns, there are breaking news stories, especially within S4: Amanda begins to narrow the scope of the project by pointing towards a specific debate within the larger controversy of gun control: gun control in educational settings. the last few months, that bring this fundamental debate to the threshold of our nations colleges, high schools, even elementary schools. Seung-Hui Cho’s massacre at Virginia Tech (April 16, 2007) is perhaps one of the more infamous school shootings, but there are others that are perhaps more difficult to remember, like the deaths of 27 killed at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newton, Connecticut (December 14, 2012) (CNN, 2015). Shootings like these in educational settings have drawn attention from both anti-gun proponents and pro-gun lobbyists, and the State S6: Amanda again narrows the scope of the project by moving from gun control in educational settings to this debate as it takes place in a specific location: Arizona. of Arizona is no exception to this firestorm. The Arizona State legislature has proposed SB 1474, a gun bill that will allow students and faculty to carry guns on the campus grounds of its three state-funded universities. Supporters of the bill claim that Arizona is an open carry state, and those rights should not be restricted simply because the carrier crosses the border of a college campus. Those against the bill assert that guns have no place in education and that those who support the bill are only after their own election-year agendas. While the Second Amendment should be upheld, the educational learning environment should be protected; S8 & 9: Following the same order from above (con first, then pro), Amanda presents the sides of the controversy by introducing each specific position. SAFETY FIRST Shortened version of the title in the header and the page number on each page 3 therefore, SB 1474 is a detrimental and dangerous bill that has the potential to change the university campus culture in Arizona state universities. Para 2: Preface of the Literature Review This is a second-level heading. It is left-hand justified and bold. All major words are capitalized. This tells the reader that this next section is a division of the first-level heading that is directly above. The Literature Review First-level heading: All major sections of the paper will be first-level, including The Literature Review, Body, and Conclusion. You may choose to mark the Introduction, but it is typically not done because the title of the paper stands for the heading level. Note that the title is centered and bold with sentence-case capitalization. In order to better understanding the origins of SB1474 and the controversy that surrounds it, the history of gun violence in school settings must be taken into account; therefore, a brief look at some of the events of the past few decades is presented. Further, this review will examine in greater detail the positions of the two sides of the controversy, beginning with the pro-SB1474 side, which is in favor of allowing open carry on all Arizona state-funded campuses. Then the position of those against SB1474 will be presented; again, this con side is arguing for Arizona campuses to remain as they are now: a place without firearms. A Brief Look at Gun Violence in Schools Para 3: Brief History Amanda has made a mistake: Only the ampersand (&) should be used in a parenthetical citation. The topic of gun control in educational environments exploded in 1999 when Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold walked into a virtually unknown high school in Littleton, CO, and killed This citation is in APA. It shows the authors and year of publication. This sentence is a paraphrase of Gibbs and Roche. The reader can look at the references page to find the original document. Note how Amanda prefaces the LR by giving the reader an idea of what will be included. You might also note that the paragraph is written in passive voice so that she can avoid using personal pronouns such as “I.” twelve students and one teacher (Gibbs and Roche, 1999). Questions of how such events could occur and concerns about the violence of which teens and young adults are capable became the concern of pressured administrators and horrified parents in big cities and small towns alike. A string of school gun-centered violence followed over the next few years. Perhaps most striking though was the way in which this one incident changed the culture of America: clear backpacks, more metal detectors, and (of course) fear. Cloud (1999) points out some of the extreme, “zero tolerance” actions taken by schools shortly following the Columbine shootings: A seven-year-old boy in Cahokia, Ill., is suspended for having a nail clipper at school. A 10th-grader at Surry County High School in Virginia is booted for having blue-dyed hair. This quotation is called a “block.” If a quotation is over 40 words long, then you must “block” it by removing the quotation marks and indenting the entire quotation 1/2” from the left-hand margin. If this quotation would have been from a print text, then the page number would have been included at the end of the sentence, but it was an electronic source. Here is another way to include a parenthetical citation. Amanda has incorporated the author’s name into the sentence. Note that the year of publication is presented after the author, but there is no citation at the end of the sentence because the information is already presented at the beginning. SAFETY FIRST There are three second-level headings in the LR. Headings help you and the reader to see the organization of your paper. 4 A Minnesota high school nixes a yearbook photo of an Army enlistee in the senior class because it shows her sitting atop a cannon outside a Veterans of Foreign Wars post. Far from the exception, these actions considered these many years later seem unreasonable, even in a post-9/11 world filled with uncertainty. The Argument for Open Carry Everywhere in Arizona Para 4: Pro side However, in Arizona, the newly proposed SB 1474 would not seek to disarm students; on the contrary, the bill would allow students the right to concealed carry on state-funded university Amanda presents a closer look at the pro side before the con side. Note that she is not engaging with the arguments, only presenting them as fairly as she can. The LR is about the arguments of others. Amanda knows she will be able to make her own arguments in the Body of the paper. campuses. Proponents of the bill assert that such a measure is long over due. According to an NRA poster that were taped to message boards all over The University of Arizona campus, “[s]elf-defense is one of the most fundamental rights of every human being.” Further, the poster states that the NRA has worked diligently over the past 25 years to expand the right of open carry: the NRA has been “working for passage of fair Right-to-Carry laws, expansion of carry reciprocity between the states and the elimination of many ‘no-carry’ zones that only affect the law-abiding.” For the NRA, one of the major private-public backers of the SB 1474, the restriction of concealed carry on college campuses is an infringement on these basic rights. The flyer goes on to state the following: Those who oppose campus carry [of firearms] argue that educational institutions should be treated differently, based on emotional claims that places of higher learning are somehow exempt from real-world violence. But the truth is, despite current prohibitions on legally carrying on campuses, crimes already occur on campus, and the right to selfdefense from those violent acts should be respected. (NRA, 2012) The NRA is correct. In fact, given the number of school-related shootings in the past few months alone, it would seem that a student’s chances of being shot on campus seem greater than if that SAFETY FIRST 5 same student were walking the streets of the community. From larger cities to small towns, it seems that the size of the community does not matter: the violence of a shooting can occur anywhere. However, even with this fact floating in the backs of students’ minds, students must still attend classes and while it would seem obvious that lawmakers on both sides want student safety, they just see the means to that safety from different sides of the same coin. The Case for Campuses as Unique Para 5: Con side This citation is correct. Amanda did not have to include the author’s first name, but it is fine to do so the first time that the author’s name is mentioned. Eugene Sander (2012), the Interim President of the University of Arizona, released the following statement about SB 1474: “I have been a gun owner for all my adult life, and am fully supportive of the right to own a gun. However, having faculty, staff or students bringing weapons into classrooms and other campus activities will do nothing to make our campus safer.” Amanda has made a mistake. Each time an author is included, the year of publication must follow. So this should read as follows: “While Sander (2012)…” While Sander does not go into detail about what this newly proposed bill does have to do with, he makes his case on the basis that 50,000 students, staff, and faculty attend the campus daily, along with over 20,000 visitors annually. For Sander (2015), the educational environment is a “unique atmosphere that is dependent on open and vigorous debate. Introducing guns into Amanda has made a mistake. The actual year of the publication is 2012. Be careful about editing for errors like this in your own paper. classrooms would dramatically and negatively impact the ability to engage in constructive dialogue.” In other words, even if the NRA does not believe that the university is a unique atmosphere, as Sander and others do, then there is still a possibility that introducing the right to carry concealed weapons on campus might lead to a change to the very culture of the university. Para 6: LR Conclusion While Arizona lawmakers continue to debate the merits of SB1474, the public debate grows, as this issue concerns both public safety and citizens’ rights. Because the three state S1&2: Amanda creates a topic sentence that encapsulates the concern of the controversy, and she includes a second sentence to increase understanding. universities in Arizona are publically funded, the debate about allowing open carry is very much a concern held by the communities in which these universities reside. Those who are in favor of the change to an open carry status on university campuses wish (a) for the open carry laws of the S3: Amanda summarizes the two main arguments of the pro side, which favors the passing of SB1474. S4: Amanda summarizes the main argument of the con side, those who are against the passing of SB1474. SAFETY FIRST 6 State of Arizona to be extended to all areas, which includes all publically funding institutions, such as the universities, and (b) for the open carry of firearms to act as a deterrent to gun-related violence on college campuses. For those who are against the passing of SB1474, many of whom occupy the space of the university as professors, students, or administrators, the question of allowing the open carry of firearms is no actual question at all: there is simply no need to involve weapons in a space that is meant for open dialogue and debate. In as much as the Second Amendment should be observed and upheld in the fashion adopted by the State of Arizona in the form of open carry, the university setting is unique in that concerns about open and free expression should be at the forefront—essentially making this bill a potentially dangerous one that should be reconsidered or withdrawn completely. S5: Amanda reiterates her own position by reasserting her thesis statement. Note that the thesis statement is slightly different than the original at the end of the Introduction paragraph. SAFETY FIRST An APA list of references should be labeled “References,” NOT “Works Cited” or “Bibliography.” The last name is presented first; then the first name and middle (if present) is included as initials. An ampersand (&) is used for more than one author. Last names are always presented first. 7 Titles in APA are presented in sentence-case capitalization, meaning that only the first word or any proper noun should begin with a capital letter. References CNN Library. (2015, October 19). 28 deadliest mass shootings in U.S. history fast facts. CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2013/09/16/us/20-deadliest-mass-shootings-in-u-s- Proper nouns always begin with a capital letter. history-fast-facts/ Cloud, J. (1999). The Columbine effect. Time. Retrieved from http://content.time.com/time/ magazine/article/0,9171,35098,00.html Gibbs, N. & Roche, T. (1999). The Columbine tapes. Time. Retrieved from http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,992873,00.html National Rifle Association. (2012). Arizona self-Defense on campus [Flyer]. NRA: Author. Sander, Eugene. (2012, March 20). UA President opposes campus guns bill. KGUN-TV. Amanda has made a mistake by including the full name of the author here. Retrieved from http://www.kgun9.com Amanda has made a mistake. This capital letter “D” should not be capitalized. Surname 1 Name: Jennifer Heid Professor’s Name: Professor Croston Course: Comp. English Date: 6/19/18 Texas Farming The Topic It has always been a good idea to own a farm in Texas where farming has highly contributed to the agriculture industry. Texas farmers have always kept the family tradition alive because most of the farms owned by farmers are family farms. This nature of farms has changed over time with the number of farms in Texas decreasing and now many farmers are operating on small farms. Farming has dominated the economy is Texas with the largest population in the nation working in agriculture-related jobs. The state produces commodities that include cattle, cotton and dairy products which are produced and exported across Texas and the whole world. Farming was the first economic activity that dominated the economy of Texas before other activities such as those that involved timber and petroleum became also an important industry in the nation. Farming is Texas has evolved to the modern farming where the state has encouraged farming to be expanded, but land ownership has become a major issue. The Controversy Smith (1999) states that Farming has been considered to dominate the economy in Texas with the average age of Texas farmers on the rise. It has led to the believe that sustainable agriculture could be the key to attracting the next generation in the nation, but despite that, farms Surname 2 have begun to become a major concern towards the farming, especially because the nature of farms has changed where farmers are operating on small farms, and many have started to believe that agriculture is not the right way to take despite its dominance. Farmers have now become victims of worrying on finding solutions towards their production process. Pro side of the Controversy Having realized that the farms in Texas are continuing to become few with time, the state has enabled advances in their farming methods that ensures agriculture remains a major economic dominance. Therefore, instead of farmers falling into a tailspin, they have become highly focused on finding solutions in order to keep agriculture sustainable and be the key to attracting the next generation. It is a good motivation as the nation would not want to fall victim of being dependent on foreign food like it is doing on foreign oil. New generations come with new advancement and this means that as the older farmers are being replaced by the younger farmers, more advanced practices have also become of major concern towards dealing with the barriers that may hinder production. For example, farmers have adopted mechanization of farming where new and larger machines have been used to replace manpower making the small farms more productive as it were with the larger farms (Foley P257). Revolutionary agricultural chemicals and engineered traits have appeared along with improved farming and plants. Cons side of the Controversy The population in Texas is growing faster than ever and food security begins to become a challenge. With few and small farms for agriculture, encouraging more people to engage in farming would mean that more challenges will continue to be experienced during production and more resources will need to utilize in order to meet some significant yields per each farmer Surname 3 which is a burden to the farmer. This means that Farms have also become fewer and also much more expensive to own and operate. It puts the future of farming at a risk as more attention and resources much be put in the forefront towards having a sustainable farming. To deal with the issue of land scarcity, farmers need more resources to increase their education and be more informed as agriculture today operates in a global and consumer-driven environment. Tentative Thesis Statement Farmers should be better educated and informed in order to fit in the global, high-tech, and consumer-driven environment to ensure that agriculture continue to facilitate in the economy of Texas. Surname 4 Works Cited Foley, Neil. The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture. ACLS History E-Book Project, 2005. Smith, Thomas T. The US Army and the Texas Frontier Economy: 1845-1900. Texas A & M Univ. Press, 1999. ...
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