worksheet 8

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Worksheet Eight CORE273 SUM18 NAME: Scientific Method and Research 1. Find one peer-reviewed journal article (about anything at all) and hand it in with this worksheet. You do not have to read it, but it MUST be from a credible scientific journal – not a magazine article, web blog, facebook page, etc. Use the school library or Google Scholar to help you find something. It is important that you know where to find valid research. 2. Using the steps for the scientific method as well as the elements of a controlled experiment (slides 4 and 5), create hypothesis and experiment based upon your own observations (even if it is something that you already know the outcome of). Do not worry about creating data – simply state which type of data you would collect. a. EX: I observe that after I drink soda, I get the hiccups. I hypothesize that the bubbles in carbonated beverages likely result in burps or hiccups in most people. I can test this by comparing the response of a large group of individuals to different drinks. I will have a control group that will drink only water. The experimental group will drink carbonated water (to attempt to control for all other substances in sodas and focus primarily on the bubbles). The two groups will drink their specified drink at the same time of day, as close to the same pace as possible, out of identical cups, and the same amount of fluid. They will be observed for their response (hiccups or burps). This qualitative data will be analyzed to determine the correlation between carbonation and hiccups/burps.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD & RESEARCH DISCUSSION KING’S COLLEGE CORE273 WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH? • Research: systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. • Conducted for exploration, to describe, or to explain. • Can be directed or non-directed. • Three common types: • Pure research: conducted to find out something unknown by examining anything. • Original research: looking for information no one else has found. • Secondary research: finding out what others have discovered trying to reconcile conflicts, find new relationships, arrive at own conclusions. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH 1. Systematic: rules and procedures to ensure objectivity. 2. Logical: cycle of deductive and inductive reasoning. • Deductive: involves reasoning from general to specific. • Inductive: reasoning from specific to general. 3. Empirical: derived from observations of what exists. 4. Replicable: can be repeated with similar results in similar circumstances each time. 5. Transmittable: should be representative of a larger population. 6. Reductive: focused on a manageable piece. 7. Objective: removal of personal values and bias – suspension of belief. HOW SHOULD RESEARCH BE CONDUCTED? • The Scientific Method: “process by which scientists, collectively and over time, endeavor to construct an accurate (that is; reliable, consistent, and non-arbitrary) representation of the world”. 1. Observation and description of phenomenon. 2. Formulation of a hypothesis to explain phenomena. • An educated guess. • “Proposed explanation made of the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further observation.” 3. Use of the hypothesis to make testable predictions. 4. Perform experimental tests/observations of the predictions and gather the appropriate data. 5. Accept or reject/modify the hypothesis AND REPEAT! EXPERIMENTS SHOULD BE CONTROLLED • Determine variables: factors that can change. • Independent: goes unchanged by other variables; manipulated by experimenter. • Dependent: changes due to the independent variable. • Confounding: unintentional changes to dependent or independent variables. • Randomly select a large group of appropriate subjects. • Create two groups; similar in all ways except independent variable. • Experimental: receives variable to be tested. • Control: receives placebo or replaced/absent variable. • Conduct experiment. • Collect detailed and appropriate data and measurements. • Analyze collected data. • Make conclusions, modify, and repeat. Elevation (independent) and boiling temperatures of water (dependent) Two samples, one is the control group and the other is the experimental group. Three samples. One is the control group and the other two are part of the experimental group. DATA TYPES • Quantitative Data: collected data are numbers and statistics. • Information will commonly be displayed in graphs and tables. • Statistics will help determine the significance of the data. • Qualitative Data: collected data are words, pictures, or objects. • Data displayed in varying manners depending on methods used. INTERPRETING DATA • Results can determine relationships between variables: • Correlation: two variables are closely related. • Causation: one variable causes another to occur. • Can you accept the hypothesis? • Does the data support what you thought? • Can you modify the hypothesis or experiment? • Could you make a better “guess”? • Could your experimental design be more solid? • Are there confounding variables? Bias? • Should you fully reject your hypothesis? • Not right away! Repeat and see what happens! WHAT DO WE DO WITH WHAT WE FIND? • Hypothesis becoming a theory; NOT IMMEDIATE! • “ The process of establishing a new scientific theory is necessarily a grueling one; new theories must survive an adverse gauntlet of…experts in their particular area of science; the original theory may then need to be revised to satisfy those objections. The typical way in which new scientific ideas are debated are through refereed scientific journals…before a new theory can be officially proposed to the scientific community, it must be wellwritten, documented, and submitted to an appropriate scientific journal for publication. If the editors of these prestigious publications accept a research article for publication, they are signaling that the proposed theory has enough merit to be seriously debated and scrutinized closely by experts in that particular field of science”. • It is vital to disseminate research; to spread or disperse. • Peer-reviewed Journals: collection of articles analyzed and critiqued by appropriate peers. Contain the most accurate information. HOW DO I READ A RESEARCH ARTICLE? • Become a skeptic. • Appreciate the value of statistics. • Learn to read graphs. • Distinguish anecdotes from scientific evidence. • Anecdotes are testimonial and unverified. • Separate facts from conclusions. • Fact is objective reality. • Conclusion: judgement reached by reasoning. • Correlation versus causation. • Know that science has its limits! RESEARCH AND THE HUMAN BODY • Knowledge of Anatomy (form) • Egyptian mummification (BC 1600-1550). • Herophilus and Erasistratus perform systemic cadaver dissections (3rd century). • Discontinued in Middle Ages, revived in Renaissance (12th century onward). • Andreas Vesalius published De Humani Corporis Fabrica (16th century). • Knowledge of Physiology (function) • Erasistratus “Father of Physiology” applied physical laws to human function. • William Harvey demonstrated heart pumps blood through vessels (1578-1657). • Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1st man to make and use real microscope (1632-1723). • Majority of our knowledge has been gained in the 20th century. • Many early experiments had no ethical boundaries. ETHICS IN HUMAN RESEARCH • “The whole discipline of biomedical ethics rises from the ashes of the Holocaust” (Robert Leiter, Tainted Science, Jewish World, July 14-20, 1989). • The Nuremberg Code (1947) establishes principles to guide physicians in human experimentation. • http://www.cirp.org/library/ethics/nuremberg/ • When human subjects can not be ethically elected, animals are often used. DISEASE DISCOVERY Heart Disease Studied in dogs, rats, rabbits, cats, sheep, and pigs. Studies with dogs contributed to our most basic understanding of how to manage heart disease. Techniques to diagnose the workings of the heart— electrocardiography, cardiac catheters, angiograms, and coronary blood flow measurement—were developed through research using dogs, as were surgical techniques such as cardiac bypass, angioplasty, and heart transplants HIV/AIDS Our understanding of the retrovirus that causes HIV/AIDS comes in part from studies of similar viruses in chickens, cats, and monkeys. Promising drugs and possible vaccines are tested first in mice and monkeys before being used in clinical trials with human volunteers. Cancer The chicken provided one of the earliest models of how cancer grows and spreads. An understanding of how viruses cause tumors and the use of hormone treatments to limit tumor growth were developed using rats, mice, rabbits, chickens, monkeys, and horses. Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, and various surgical techniques were developed using rodents, dogs, and monkeys, among others. Bacterial Infections The effectiveness of penicillin and other antibiotics as treatments for bacterial infections was established through research using mice and other rodents. Scientists continue to use animals to determine what antibiotics are effective against specific organisms, their toxicity, and their potential side effects. WHY DO I NEED TO KNOW THIS, HERE? • Yes, the form and function of the human body is pretty well understood, BUT: • Sometimes things go wrong! • Disease ravages the body, medications become obsolete (think “antibiotic resistance”). • What we have now could be better! • Technology could make surgery less invasive, treatments more effective. • As living things, humans can adapt and evolve. • ASPM is a brain size regulator of increasing levels in younger individuals. • Sometimes we learn that we just weren’t “right” to begin with. SOURCES • https://labwrite.nscu.edu/instructors/scientificart-parts.pdf • http://public.wsu.edu/~taflinge/research.html • http://www.academia.edu/3488108/The_General_Purpose_and_Charecteristics_of_Research_With_Hamalambo_Kanini_LWSC_and_Lusaka_University • http://teacher.nsrl.rochester.edu/phy_labs/AppendixE/AppendixE.html • http://www.lib.vt.edu/research/methodology/quantitative-qualitative.html • http://infohost.nmt.edu/~klathrop/controlled_experimnet.pdf • http://www.oakton.edu/user/4/billtong/eas100/scientificmethod.htm • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4582158/pdf/acb-48-153.pdf • http://sbw.kgi.edu/sbwwiki/_media/sysbio/labmembers/hsauro/304_2009/origin_of_physiology2.pdf • http://www.history-of-the-microscope.org/history-of-the-microscope-who-invented-the-microscope.php • http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/SocialSciences/ppecorino/MEDICAL_ETHICS_TEXT/Chapter_7_Human_Experimentation/Reading-Nazi-experimentation.htm • http://www.the-aps.org/mm/SciencePolicy/AnimalResearch/Publications/animals/quest1.html – citation for table. • http://metrc.smu.edu.cn:81/userfiles/files/SpecialistLibrary/EnglishFulltext/%E8%93%9D%E7%94%B0%EF%BC%88%E5%90%8D%E5%B8%88%EF%BC%89/Ongoing%20ad aptive%20evolution%20of%20ASPM,%20a%20brain%20size%20determinant%20in%20Homo%20sapiens.pdf

Tutor Answer

kathysmth
School: Rice University

Hello, here is the copy of the assignment. Thanks for your patience and trust with me. In case of any question let me know and we work on it together.
Hello, here is the copy of the assignment. Thanks for your patience

1

Scientific Method and Research
Student’s Name
University Affiliation
Date

2
Worksheet Eight
CORE273 SUM18
NAME:
Scientific Method and Research
1. Find one peer-reviewed journal article (about anything at all) and hand it in with this
worksheet. You do not have to read it, but it MUST be from a credible scientific journal –
not a magazine article, web blog, facebook page, etc. Use the school library or Google
Scholar to help you find something. It is important that you know where to find valid
research.
2. Using the steps for the scientific method as well as the elements of a controlled
experiment (slides 4 and 5), create hypothesis and experiment based upon your own
observations (even if it is something that you already know the outcome of). Do not
worry about creating data – simply state which type of data you would collect.
EX: I observe that after I drink soda, I get the hiccups. I hypothesize that the bubbles in
carbonated beverages likely result in burps or hiccups in most people. I can test this by
comparing the response of a large group of individuals to different drinks. I will have a
control group that will drink only water. The experimental group will drink carbonated water
(to attempt to control for all other substances in sodas and focus primarily on the bubbles).
The two groups will drink their specified drink at the same time of day, as close to the same
pace as possible, out of identical cups, and the same amount of fluid. They will be observed
for their response (hiccups or burps). This qualitative data will be analyzed to determine the
correlation between carbonation and hiccups/burps.

3
1. Peer-reviewed journal article
Multiple Chronic Conditions Among US Adults: A 2012 Update
Brian W. Ward, PhD, Jeannine S. Schiller, MPH, and Richard A. Goodman, MD, MPH

Objective
From 2001 through 2010, the prevalence of persons with multiple (≥2) chronic conditions
(MCC) in the United States increased; approximately 26% of US adults had MCC in 2010, when
10 different conditions (ie, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, arthritis,
hepatitis, weak or failing kidneys, asthma, and COPD) were considered (1). The large and growing
prevalence of MCC has prompted a spectrum of responses — including a national initiative calling
for better research and data on MCC — to address this clinical and public health problem (2–5).
In response to the need for ongoing surveillance of chronic conditions and to more frequently
monitor their prevalence, we analyzed data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey
(NHIS) to produce updated estimates of single chronic conditions and MCC among the noninstitutionalized, civilian US adult population.

Methods

The NHIS is a multistage health survey of the US civilian, non-institutionalized population
(6,7). Information from the NHIS Family Core questionnaire (Family Core) on sex, race/ethnicity,
age, and health insurance coverage was used in this analysis. In the Family Core, 1 adult from the
family self-reports and acts as a proxy for other family members. Data on chronic conditions are
collected by using the Sample Adult Core questionnaire. The respondent (ie, “sample adult”) is
randomly selected from all adults in the family aged 18 years or older. A proxy is used for the

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sample adult only if a health condition makes it impossible for the sample adult to respond for
himself or herself (6,7). Our analyses include 34,525 sample adults from the 2012 NHIS (final
response rate: 61.2%).

Adults were identified as having 0,...

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Anonymous
Outstanding Job!!!!

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