essay questions on information operations

timer Asked: Jun 26th, 2018
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Directions: 1000 words for each question and need references in app format. These answers should be written as a single essay with inter-related points rather than a series of distinct answers to parts of the questions.


Explain the essential nature of propaganda that makes it unique from strategic communication and other IO efforts. Who or what agency has been defined as the source of propaganda in the definition for this class? Why? What categories of propaganda exist? Provide an example for each and explain one or more psychological reasons that these examples work. Support your work with information from course readings and discussion. Other material may also be used, but use course info first.


How do strategic communication and public diplomacy efforts fulfill the demands of soft power projection for the United States? What role does information operations in general play in furthering U.S. national objectives? Why is OPSEC essential in all of these endeavors? Support your work with information from course readings and discussion Other material may also be used, but use course info first.


Select two of the following areas of IO: PSYOPS/MISO, MILDEC, or EW, and compare and contrast them. Identify at least three points for each. Also, identify how they might work together in an information operations campaign. Support your work with information from course readings and discussion . Other material may also be used, but use course info first.

Tutor Answer

School: Boston College

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Information Operations




Information Operations
Essential Nature of Propaganda
Propaganda is a particular form of message presentation that is directly meant to
influence the behavior and opinions of an audience rather than give objective information. It
persuades the audience for an agenda by presenting selective facts to promote the synthesis of
specific information and evoke a response that is more emotional than rational (Hopkins, 2015).
It appeal to ones emotions which make it unique for strategic communication and information
operations efforts. Its biased and misleading nature involves public deception for the benefit of
the propagandist without the benefiting the whole society. Propaganda has adapted to modern
communication quickly than even public relations allowing it to increase its sophistication and
influence. It is a type of strategic communication that lacks ethical rules of conduct before
engaging the media. According to Hopkins 2015, the lack of ethical rules allows propaganda to
undercut decision-making. Further, it's a value-based public relations that explicitly and
implicitly exercises power towards a particular audience by undermining ethics.
There are different sources of propaganda. Politicians utilize this form of strategic
communication to deliver information that supports the interests of those in power for a political
cause. Governments, companies, and activists are associated with the preparation of propaganda
materials. However, it is highly associated with the media. All newspapers, radio stations, news
channels, magazines, or any other form of mass media contains some elements of propaganda.
Public relations in government are also linked with the concept. During political rallies,
opponents spread propaganda against each other to gain a competitive edge. They conduct these
activities to convey a one-way look at a certain situation and change the reader's perception.
Wartime agencies are also linked with the phenomenon in their efforts to gain a strategic
advantage over their enemies. Today, everyone can be a source of propaganda due to the
availability of advanced technology to deliver the information to the public.
According to the nature and source of a message, propaganda is classified into white,
black and grey propaganda (Hopkins, 2015)...

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