Final project : Negotiation plan

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Submit your final negotiation plan. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements of the final product. It should reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course.

For additional details, please refer to the Final Project Guidelines and Rubric document.

Ps: this final project is composed of 4 milestones that i will post below. You will have to put them together, make some corrections (ill post the teacher's recommendations and comments) and complete the last part (cf the final project guidelines and rubric)


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INT 660 Final Project Guidelines and Rubric Overview The final project for this course is the creation of a comprehensive negotiation plan. As more companies expand their focus to include foreign markets and suppliers, it is becoming essential for business professi onals to possess the unique skills necessary to carry out international negotiations. Professionals working in international markets must adapt their negotiation strategy in order to meet the expectations of their clients. In this project, you will choose a specific country/company pairing from the list provided in this document and use it as the foundation for your research and preparation. Using your knowledge of your chosen nation’s culture, economy, and business environment, you will develop a negotiation and b argaining strategy. In addition, you will need to consider the stakeholders’ interests and create a conflict management strategy to handle potential conflicts. Apply all components in order to create a comprehensive negotiation plan that you would employ when carrying out negotiations with your chosen country/company. Finally, you must create a professional paper that presents your entire negotiation plan effectively. In this project, you will present your findings and recommendations, including answers to all guiding questions, as a lead negotiator prior to traveling abroad to negotiate a deal with a foreign company. The project is divided into four milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules Two, Four, Six, and Seven. The final product will be submitted in Module Nine. In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes:      Assess the influence of culture and the environment on communication and business negotiations across the globe Evaluate differences in strategic decision making between diverse groups around the globe for their impact in business negotiations Propose appropriate bargaining strategies for conducting effective negotiations with people from different cultures Analyze the role of stakeholder interests in international negotiations and the need to prioritize these interests in the negotiation strategy Employ appropriate conflict management techniques in cross-cultural negotiations Prompt Use the textbook and information from your individual research on one of the country/company pairings in the table below for the following prompt. Country China Brazil France Germany Spain India Switzerland Company Foxconn Petrobras Airbus Industrie Siemens Telefónica Infosys Nestlé Country Russia Italy Japan Netherlands Mexico South Africa Company Gazprom ST Microelectronics Toyota Philips CEMEX Imperial Holdings For your negotiation plan, you must create a professional paper and apply the theories and concepts from the course to interpret and formulate answers to the following guiding question: Based on the analyses conducted on your country of choice, how would you carry out negotiations with your potential business partner to ensure a successful agreement that is favorable for both parties (you and the foreign company)? Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: I. Introduction Before analyzing specific elements of negotiations in your chosen country, you will need to be familiar with general business practices and how they differ when conducting business internationally. Analyze the following aspects of negotiations and determine how each will im pact cross-cultural negotiations. a) Verbal communication b) Nonverbal communication c) Decision making II. Country Analysis Analyze each of the following aspects of the country you have chosen and describe how each will impact your business negotiation. a) Culture b) Economy c) Market in which your chosen business operates III. Stakeholder Analysis For the following, remember that the scope of critical stakeholders and interests may differ depending on cultural considerations. Organize stakeholders based on priority. a) Who are the critical stakeholders involved in this negotiation? b) What is the significance of the role of each stakeholder? c) What are the priorities of each stakeholder? IV. Negotiation/Bargaining Strategy a) What bargaining strategy will you use in your negotiations with your potential business partner? Justify your approach with supporting evidence from research. b) Why will this strategy be effective with the chosen culture/country in which the negotiation is taking place? c) What is your Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA)? How does it affect your negotiation approach with your potential business partner? How will your strategy increase the chance of a successful outcome? V. Conflict Management Strategy a) What conflict management strategy will you employ during cross-cultural negotiations to handle conflicts that could potentially arise? b) How will this strategy satisfy the stakeholders and ensure no harm is caused to the business relationship? c) Ensure the strategy is in harmony with the culture and other aspects of your chosen country. VI. Conclusion: Summarize your chosen negotiation plan and explain why you feel it will be effective in this particular situation. Milestones Milestone One: Introduction to Country and Culture In Module Two, you will submit a two- to three-page paper identifying the ways in which country-specific cultural aspects will impact the negotiation process. What are some important economic and cultural differences between your chosen country and the United States? How do natives of your chosen country perceive (in general) the American style of doing business? How do the cultural/economic characteristics of your chosen country affect the communication style, business approach, and decision-making process of your chosen country? The paper should be submitted as a Word document, written in APA style and cited appropriately. This milestone is graded with the Milestone One Rubric. The feedback provided by the instructor should be applied to your final negotiation plan. Milestone Two: Stakeholder Analysis In Module Four, you will submit a two- to three-page paper. Who are the critical stakeholders involved in this negotiation? What are their roles and priorities? Explain the role and position of each of the stakeholders and describe how their interests may differ depending on cultural considerations. What measures will you have to take to ensure all stakeholders will be satisfied with the outcome of the negotiation? The paper should be submitted as a Word document, written in APA style and cited appropriately. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Two Rubric. The feedback provided by the instructor should be applied to your final negotiation plan. Milestone Three: Negotiation/Bargaining Strategy In Module Six, you will submit a three- to four-page paper detailing the negotiation and bargaining strategy you will employ during business negotiations with your chosen country. Justify this approach with supporting evidence from research on the country and on the international negotiations strategy. Include your reasoning for choosing this strategy, including supporting research from previous milestones. Explain how the strategy will be used and how it will increase the likelihood of a successful transaction. What is your BATNA in this particular negotiation? How does the strength of your BATNA influence your approach to the negotiation? The paper should be submitted as a Word document, written in APA style and cited appropriately. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Three Rubric. The feedback provided by the instructor should be applied to your final negotiation plan. Milestone Four: Conflict Management Strategy In Module Seven, you will submit a two- to three-page paper detailing the conflict management strategy. Based on your research of the country’s business ethics and values, how will you manage any conflicts that arise during negotiations? Describe how you will ensure no harm is caused to the business relationship. Ensure the conflict management strategy is in harmony with the culture and other aspects of your chosen country. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Four Rubric. The feedback provided by the instructor should be applied to your final negotiation plan. Final Submission: Negotiation Plan In Module Nine, you will submit your final negotiation plan. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements of the final product. It should reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course. This submission will be graded using the Final Project Rubric. Deliverables Milestone Deliverable Module Due Grading 1 Introduction to Business and Culture Two Graded separately; Milestone One Rubric 2 Stakeholder Analysis Four Graded separately; Milestone Two Rubric 3 Negotiation/Bargaining Strategy Six Graded separately; Milestone Three Rubric 4 Conflict Management Strategy Seven Graded separately; Milestone Four Rubric Final Submission: Negotiation Plan Nine Graded separately; Final Project Rubric Final Project Rubric Guidelines for Submission: Your final negotiation plan must be 8 to 10 pages in length (plus a cover page and references) and must be written in APA format. Use double-spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. Include at least 10 references cited in APA format. Critical Elements Introduction: Verbal Communication Exemplary (100%) Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with evidence Introduction: Nonverbal Communication Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with evidence Introduction: Decision Making Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with evidence Country Analysis: Culture Meets “Proficient” and cites specific, relevant examples to support analysis Country Analysis: Economy Meets “Proficient” and cites specific, relevant examples to support analysis Country Analysis: Market Meets “Proficient” and cites specific, relevant examples to support analysis Proficient (90%) Provides concise, detailed explanations of common (in the United States) and unique verbal communication practices used in the target country Provides concise, detailed explanations of common and unique nonverbal communication used in the target country that can assist negotiators in presenting their case and in interpreting the intent and emotional state of the other party Provides an overview of the decision-making processes used in the target country Analyzes the culture of the target country with a focus on business culture and explains how the culture will impact the negotiation process Analyzes the current economy of the target country, including type of economy, and describes how it will impact the negotiation process Analyzes the current state of the market in the industry of the chosen company Needs Improvement (70%) Provides common and unique verbal communications but does not explain their relevance in the negotiation process Not Evident (0%) Does not include an overview of common and unique verbal communication Value 6 Provides common and unique nonverbal communications but does not explain their relevance in the negotiation process Does not include an overview of common and unique nonverbal communication 6 Provides an overview of the decision-making process but does not explain how it will impact the negotiation process Does not explain how the target country’s culture will impact the negotiation process Does not include an overview of the decision-making process 6 Does not include an analysis of culture 6 Does not explain how the target country’s economy will impact the negotiation process Does not include an analysis of the economy 5 Does not explain how the target country’s market will impact the negotiation process Does not include an analysis of the market 6 Stakeholder Analysis: Critical Stakeholders Meets “Proficient” substantiated with market research Identifies the critical stakeholders, including special interest groups, government officials, and individuals Does not include all critical stakeholders in analysis Does not identify the critical stakeholders 6 Stakeholder Analysis: Roles Meets “Proficient” substantiated with market research Meets “Proficient” substantiated with market research Meets “Proficient” criteria and provides examples Analyzes the role of each key player in the negotiation Does not sufficiently describe the stakeholders’ roles in the negotiation Does not sufficiently describe the stakeholders’ priorities in the negotiation Does not sufficiently explain the measures that will be taken to ensure all stakeholders are satisfied with the outcome of the negotiation Does not consider all of the necessary aspects of the negotiation plan Does not include an analysis of stakeholders’ roles 6 Does not include an analysis of stakeholders’ priorities 6 Does not provide an explanation of measures that will be taken to ensure all stakeholders are satisfied with the outcome of the negotiation Does not provide a bargaining strategy 5 Does not provide a convincing explanation Does not provide an explanation for why the strategy would be effective 6 The BATNA and its influence on the negotiation strategy are not explained properly Does not include a BATNA 6 Does not consider all of the necessary aspects of the conflict management plan Does not provide a conflict management strategy 6 Stakeholder Analysis: Priorities Stakeholder Analysis: Measures Negotiation Strategy: Bargaining Strategy Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with rationale to support the strategies that were chosen Negotiation Strategy: Effectiveness Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with evidence Negotiation Strategy: BATNA Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with evidence Conflict Management Strategy: Strategy Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with rationale to support the strategies that were chosen Identifies the priorities of each key player in the negotiation Provides an explanation of measures that will be taken to ensure all stakeholders are satisfied with the outcome of the negotiation Provides a detailed description of the overall bargaining strategy that will be used for the negotiation that takes into account cultural considerations of the target country Analyzes the overall negotiation strategy and provides a convincing explanation for why it would be effective with the chosen culture vs. other possible strategies Provides a detailed, strong, and credible BATNA and a convincing explanation of how it influences the negotiation strategy and walkaway point Identifies potential areas of conflict in the negotiation and provides an effective conflict management strategy to mitigate them 6 Conflict Management Strategy: Stakeholders Conflict Management Strategy: Culture Conclusion Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with market research Articulation of Response Submission is free of errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, and organization and is presented in a professional and easy-to-read format Meets “Proficient” criteria and provides examples Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with rationale Analyzes the effectiveness of the conflict management strategy for each group of key stakeholders Explains how the conflict management strategies are in harmony with critical local cultural considerations Summarizes negotiation plan and explains why it will be effective in the particular situation Submission has no major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization Does not consider all stakeholders in the creation of the conflict management strategy Does not consider all critical cultural aspects affected by the conflict management strategy Does not analyze the effectiveness of the conflict management strategy for each group of key stakeholders Does not analyze the cultural considerations of the conflict management strategy 5 Does not sufficiently explain why the negotiation plan will be effective in the particular situation Submission has major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that negatively impact readability and articulation of main ideas Does not provide a conclusion 5 Submission has critical errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that prevent understanding of ideas 4 Earned Total 4 100% INT 660 Final Project Guidelines and Rubric Overview The final project for this course is the creation of a comprehensive negotiation plan. As more companies expand their focus to include foreign markets and suppliers, it is becoming essential for business professi onals to possess the unique skills necessary to carry out international negotiations. Professionals working in international markets must adapt their negotiation strategy in order to meet the expectations of their clients. In this project, you will choose a specific country/company pairing from the list provided in this document and use it as the foundation for your research and preparation. Using your knowledge of your chosen nation’s culture, economy, and business environment, you will develop a negotiation and b argaining strategy. In addition, you will need to consider the stakeholders’ interests and create a conflict management strategy to handle potential conflicts. Apply all components in order to create a comprehensive negotiation plan that you would employ when carrying out negotiations with your chosen country/company. Finally, you must create a professional paper that presents your entire negotiation plan effectively. In this project, you will present your findings and recommendations, including answers to all guiding questions, as a lead negotiator prior to traveling abroad to negotiate a deal with a foreign company. The project is divided into four milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules Two, Four, Six, and Seven. The final product will be submitted in Module Nine. In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes:      Assess the influence of culture and the environment on communication and business negotiations across the globe Evaluate differences in strategic decision making between diverse groups around the globe for their impact in business negotiations Propose appropriate bargaining strategies for conducting effective negotiations with people from different cultures Analyze the role of stakeholder interests in international negotiations and the need to prioritize these interests in the negotiation strategy Employ appropriate conflict management techniques in cross-cultural negotiations Prompt Use the textbook and information from your individual research on one of the country/company pairings in the table below for the following prompt. Country China Brazil France Germany Spain India Switzerland Company Foxconn Petrobras Airbus Industrie Siemens Telefónica Infosys Nestlé Country Russia Italy Japan Netherlands Mexico South Africa Company Gazprom ST Microelectronics Toyota Philips CEMEX Imperial Holdings For your negotiation plan, you must create a professional paper and apply the theories and concepts from the course to interpret and formulate answers to the following guiding question: Based on the analyses conducted on your country of choice, how would you carry out negotiations with your potential business partner to ensure a successful agreement that is favorable for both parties (you and the foreign company)? Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: I. Introduction Before analyzing specific elements of negotiations in your chosen country, you will need to be familiar with general business practices and how they differ when conducting business internationally. Analyze the following aspects of negotiations and determine how each will im pact cross-cultural negotiations. a) Verbal communication b) Nonverbal communication c) Decision making II. Country Analysis Analyze each of the following aspects of the country you have chosen and describe how each will impact your business negotiation. a) Culture b) Economy c) Market in which your chosen business operates III. Stakeholder Analysis For the following, remember that the scope of critical stakeholders and interests may differ depending on cultural considerations. Organize stakeholders based on priority. a) Who are the critical stakeholders involved in this negotiation? b) What is the significance of the role of each stakeholder? c) What are the priorities of each stakeholder? IV. Negotiation/Bargaining Strategy a) What bargaining strategy will you use in your negotiations with your potential business partner? Justify your approach with supporting evidence from research. b) Why will this strategy be effective with the chosen culture/country in which the negotiation is taking place? c) What is your Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA)? How does it affect your negotiation approach with your potential business partner? How will your strategy increase the chance of a successful outcome? V. Conflict Management Strategy a) What conflict management strategy will you employ during cross-cultural negotiations to handle conflicts that could potentially arise? b) How will this strategy satisfy the stakeholders and ensure no harm is caused to the business relationship? c) Ensure the strategy is in harmony with the culture and other aspects of your chosen country. VI. Conclusion: Summarize your chosen negotiation plan and explain why you feel it will be effective in this particular situation. Milestones Milestone One: Introduction to Country and Culture In Module Two, you will submit a two- to three-page paper identifying the ways in which country-specific cultural aspects will impact the negotiation process. What are some important economic and cultural differences between your chosen country and the United States? How do natives of your chosen country perceive (in general) the American style of doing business? How do the cultural/economic characteristics of your chosen country affect the communication style, business approach, and decision-making process of your chosen country? The paper should be submitted as a Word document, written in APA style and cited appropriately. This milestone is graded with the Milestone One Rubric. The feedback provided by the instructor should be applied to your final negotiation plan. Milestone Two: Stakeholder Analysis In Module Four, you will submit a two- to three-page paper. Who are the critical stakeholders involved in this negotiation? What are their roles and priorities? Explain the role and position of each of the stakeholders and describe how their interests may differ depending on cultural considerations. What measures will you have to take to ensure all stakeholders will be satisfied with the outcome of the negotiation? The paper should be submitted as a Word document, written in APA style and cited appropriately. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Two Rubric. The feedback provided by the instructor should be applied to your final negotiation plan. Milestone Three: Negotiation/Bargaining Strategy In Module Six, you will submit a three- to four-page paper detailing the negotiation and bargaining strategy you will employ during business negotiations with your chosen country. Justify this approach with supporting evidence from research on the country and on the international negotiations strategy. Include your reasoning for choosing this strategy, including supporting research from previous milestones. Explain how the strategy will be used and how it will increase the likelihood of a successful transaction. What is your BATNA in this particular negotiation? How does the strength of your BATNA influence your approach to the negotiation? The paper should be submitted as a Word document, written in APA style and cited appropriately. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Three Rubric. The feedback provided by the instructor should be applied to your final negotiation plan. Milestone Four: Conflict Management Strategy In Module Seven, you will submit a two- to three-page paper detailing the conflict management strategy. Based on your research of the country’s business ethics and values, how will you manage any conflicts that arise during negotiations? Describe how you will ensure no harm is caused to the business relationship. Ensure the conflict management strategy is in harmony with the culture and other aspects of your chosen country. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Four Rubric. The feedback provided by the instructor should be applied to your final negotiation plan. Final Submission: Negotiation Plan In Module Nine, you will submit your final negotiation plan. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements of the final product. It should reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course. This submission will be graded using the Final Project Rubric. Deliverables Milestone Deliverable Module Due Grading 1 Introduction to Business and Culture Two Graded separately; Milestone One Rubric 2 Stakeholder Analysis Four Graded separately; Milestone Two Rubric 3 Negotiation/Bargaining Strategy Six Graded separately; Milestone Three Rubric 4 Conflict Management Strategy Seven Graded separately; Milestone Four Rubric Final Submission: Negotiation Plan Nine Graded separately; Final Project Rubric Final Project Rubric Guidelines for Submission: Your final negotiation plan must be 8 to 10 pages in length (plus a cover page and references) and must be written in APA format. Use double-spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. Include at least 10 references cited in APA format. Critical Elements Introduction: Verbal Communication Exemplary (100%) Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with evidence Introduction: Nonverbal Communication Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with evidence Introduction: Decision Making Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with evidence Country Analysis: Culture Meets “Proficient” and cites specific, relevant examples to support analysis Country Analysis: Economy Meets “Proficient” and cites specific, relevant examples to support analysis Country Analysis: Market Meets “Proficient” and cites specific, relevant examples to support analysis Proficient (90%) Provides concise, detailed explanations of common (in the United States) and unique verbal communication practices used in the target country Provides concise, detailed explanations of common and unique nonverbal communication used in the target country that can assist negotiators in presenting their case and in interpreting the intent and emotional state of the other party Provides an overview of the decision-making processes used in the target country Analyzes the culture of the target country with a focus on business culture and explains how the culture will impact the negotiation process Analyzes the current economy of the target country, including type of economy, and describes how it will impact the negotiation process Analyzes the current state of the market in the industry of the chosen company Needs Improvement (70%) Provides common and unique verbal communications but does not explain their relevance in the negotiation process Not Evident (0%) Does not include an overview of common and unique verbal communication Value 6 Provides common and unique nonverbal communications but does not explain their relevance in the negotiation process Does not include an overview of common and unique nonverbal communication 6 Provides an overview of the decision-making process but does not explain how it will impact the negotiation process Does not explain how the target country’s culture will impact the negotiation process Does not include an overview of the decision-making process 6 Does not include an analysis of culture 6 Does not explain how the target country’s economy will impact the negotiation process Does not include an analysis of the economy 5 Does not explain how the target country’s market will impact the negotiation process Does not include an analysis of the market 6 Stakeholder Analysis: Critical Stakeholders Meets “Proficient” substantiated with market research Identifies the critical stakeholders, including special interest groups, government officials, and individuals Does not include all critical stakeholders in analysis Does not identify the critical stakeholders 6 Stakeholder Analysis: Roles Meets “Proficient” substantiated with market research Meets “Proficient” substantiated with market research Meets “Proficient” criteria and provides examples Analyzes the role of each key player in the negotiation Does not sufficiently describe the stakeholders’ roles in the negotiation Does not sufficiently describe the stakeholders’ priorities in the negotiation Does not sufficiently explain the measures that will be taken to ensure all stakeholders are satisfied with the outcome of the negotiation Does not consider all of the necessary aspects of the negotiation plan Does not include an analysis of stakeholders’ roles 6 Does not include an analysis of stakeholders’ priorities 6 Does not provide an explanation of measures that will be taken to ensure all stakeholders are satisfied with the outcome of the negotiation Does not provide a bargaining strategy 5 Does not provide a convincing explanation Does not provide an explanation for why the strategy would be effective 6 The BATNA and its influence on the negotiation strategy are not explained properly Does not include a BATNA 6 Does not consider all of the necessary aspects of the conflict management plan Does not provide a conflict management strategy 6 Stakeholder Analysis: Priorities Stakeholder Analysis: Measures Negotiation Strategy: Bargaining Strategy Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with rationale to support the strategies that were chosen Negotiation Strategy: Effectiveness Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with evidence Negotiation Strategy: BATNA Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with evidence Conflict Management Strategy: Strategy Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with rationale to support the strategies that were chosen Identifies the priorities of each key player in the negotiation Provides an explanation of measures that will be taken to ensure all stakeholders are satisfied with the outcome of the negotiation Provides a detailed description of the overall bargaining strategy that will be used for the negotiation that takes into account cultural considerations of the target country Analyzes the overall negotiation strategy and provides a convincing explanation for why it would be effective with the chosen culture vs. other possible strategies Provides a detailed, strong, and credible BATNA and a convincing explanation of how it influences the negotiation strategy and walkaway point Identifies potential areas of conflict in the negotiation and provides an effective conflict management strategy to mitigate them 6 Conflict Management Strategy: Stakeholders Conflict Management Strategy: Culture Conclusion Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with market research Articulation of Response Submission is free of errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, and organization and is presented in a professional and easy-to-read format Meets “Proficient” criteria and provides examples Meets “Proficient” criteria substantiated with rationale Analyzes the effectiveness of the conflict management strategy for each group of key stakeholders Explains how the conflict management strategies are in harmony with critical local cultural considerations Summarizes negotiation plan and explains why it will be effective in the particular situation Submission has no major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization Does not consider all stakeholders in the creation of the conflict management strategy Does not consider all critical cultural aspects affected by the conflict management strategy Does not analyze the effectiveness of the conflict management strategy for each group of key stakeholders Does not analyze the cultural considerations of the conflict management strategy 5 Does not sufficiently explain why the negotiation plan will be effective in the particular situation Submission has major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that negatively impact readability and articulation of main ideas Does not provide a conclusion 5 Submission has critical errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that prevent understanding of ideas 4 Earned Total 4 100% Running head: INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS 1 International Negotiations INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS 2 International is a process of dialogue that is power-based which has intentions to achieve specific goals or ends to see whether the two parties negotiating can reach a specific intended target and unite to accomplish a particular purpose. It is of great importance that the parties in the negotiation understand each other well in various terms including language and customs more so where the parties come from countries or regions which have different customs (Kremenyuk, 2002). One of the principles of winning and having a good negotiation is preparation. Lack or inadequate preparation is one of the main causes of poor negotiation results. Preparation intends to rigorously collect information about the transaction to be done and information about the side one is entering negotiations with as well as their motivations. In the case study of An American in Shanghai, the Chinese interpreter together with the Chinese general manager was both responsible for the reaction which the American portrayed. This is because after they planned for the meeting between the general manager and the CEO, they did not follow to know to what extent the American knew the Chinese customs. Instead of doing this, they assumed and waited for the day the meeting was to happen. To add on, after the two parties met, the interpreter did not substantiate what terms like what terms second-class enterprises meant in the Chinese culture. On his side, the CEO was too fast to conclude without following up to know what various terms which were used by the general manager and the interpreter meant. It is a proof that, despite the CEO having a local official, he had not done enough research on the terms used in the Chinese business (Odell, 2002). Having this in mind that he knew less about the terms used in Chinese culture in matters to do with business the CEO could be eager and patient to inquire from them what they meant by the word which caused an uproar. After the introduction from the INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS 3 general manager, the CEO could have held talks with the general manager in his office to know what they meant by all they introduced him to instead of jumping to conclusions. Various complications might arise when participating in a negotiation in a foreign country when an individual has little knowledge about the local customs and practices of business. One of these complications is emotionalism. During these negotiations, emotions might vary when specific terms which either party has little knowledge about. For example, in the case of An American in Shanghai, the American becomes emotional because the general manager and the interpreter use the term second-class enterprise which he does not know what it means in the Chinese culture. The other complication which might arise is regarding communication. Communication varies in different cultures, and whether is done directly or indirectly, both parties have the right channels of communication to avoid confusion as well as misunderstandings. Another that may arise is the person given the mandate to interpret what the parties are negotiating about if they don’t share the same language. These people must ensure they do this correctly as a simple mistake can result in adverse implications. There are various steps that businesses can take to avoid misunderstandings when negotiating with international counterparts. One of them is to be cultural sensitivity. When engaging in negotiations, it is right for a business to do thorough research about their partner. Secondly, companies must take the opportunity of being multilingual and converse in one language. Where the parties don’t share a language, it is right to have good interpreters. Lastly, it is right for a business to be in a negotiation and learning moods as they will get new information when engaging in business talks with their partners. INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS 4 References Kremenyuk, V. A. (2002). International negotiation. Analysis, approaches, issues. Jossey-Bass. Odell, J. S. (2002). Creating data on international negotiation strategies, alternatives and outcomes. International Negotiation, 7(1), 39-52. Running head: STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS Stakeholder Analysis INT_660 1 STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS 2 Stakeholder Analysis Our company is involved in making parts of automobiles felt a need to get a better understanding of the customer’s views in the Japanese market. Also, our company is interested in gaining more insight into Japanese industry trends as well as a more through outlining the decision-making process. In this respect, stakeholder analysis holds importance as it provides an understanding how to associate with sensitive stakeholders and hence avoid conflicts. Also, it helps in assessing a decision’s impact on relevant parties. The paper discusses an analysis of stakeholders involved in the negotiation of our business. Critical Stakeholders Critical stakeholders are owners or shareholders, employees, communities, government, and communities. The operation of the business depends on the will and the desire of these people. These people help in ensuring that business continues to strive (Ghauri, 2009). The most important or critical stakeholder is the president of our company who is familiar with the culture of Japan and have a global trade interest. Vendors are critical stakeholders who help in ensuring that parts that are required to build the automobiles are available. Employees help the company to either succeed or fail in many different areas such as customer service and product quality. Special interest group such as the Federation of Economic Organization and Japan Committee of Economic Development are counted to pursue a particular objective, and hence as long as the organization successfully pursue a particular objective, it represents them. Government is critical stakeholder that has an interest in the company because when the company does greater business, there will be lesser unemployment and higher tax which will be favorable to the government. Lastly, customers form part of critical stakeholders as it is the only reason for the existence of our company. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS 3 Stakeholder Analysis: Roles The greater the power of the stakeholder, the greater is its influence in the company’s decision-making process. The role of each of the key player in the negotiation process is described below; a. Company’s President or Owner: The role of the company president is to supply the capital for the company to grow. Further, they take an active role in the business planning and implementing a strategic plan for the overall development of the company. b. Vendors: Vendors manufactures inventoriable item and supply the products to customers. Further, they help in introducing new products to the market. c. Employees: The role of the employee is to do the job as directed by the company’s managers. The company’s success is dependent on the employee’s efficiency. d. Customers: The role of the customer is to make a decision while purchasing the product. Another important role is to provide feedback regarding a particular product. e. Special interest groups: Their role is to see whether a company is working according to a particular objective which represents the groups. f. Government: The role of government is to examine whether the company is regular in paying tax, employ people from within the country and ensure that the company is according to the rules and regulations set by the government. Stakeholder Analysis: Priorities The key priorities of different stakeholders differ. Owners always look for a return on investment while ensuring that there is a high value of return on investment (ROI).Vendors priorities include to make a profit with the company and continue to provide the material for a long time .Another priority of vendor is to provide good quality product in a timely manner so that the inventory of the company may not run out of stock (Ghauri,2009). Employee’s priorities differ according to the desire and need of the individuals. Some examples of STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS 4 employee priorities include cooperation, empowerment, accountability, and respect for management. In order to run the business successfully, it is important to get a better understanding of the needs and requirements of employees. The priorities of government include the constant growth of the economy, infrastructure development, maintaining a stable inflation rate and improving the business climate. Special interest groups priorities including providing information and promoting development in their respective sectors. Customer’s priorities include getting a quality product at the lowest possible price. Stakeholder Analysis: Measures The primary aim of our company is to make happy stakeholders. Measures will include steps to assure that internal consistencies are reconciled in the planning stage (Maude, 2014).During the negotiation, the measures will include evaluating company’s projects where success can be achieved with stakeholders. Also, we will ask each stakeholder where we can do better because different stakeholders have different perspectives on project activities ("4 Ways to Make the Most out of Satisfied Stakeholders", n.d.). Further, negotiation will be prepared while gathering information from secondary sources such as government and industry reports (Maude, 2014).The strategy will be to match the company ethics to the stakeholders. Lastly, it is of utmost importance to engage all the stakeholders so that all are satisfied with the outcome of the negotiation. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS 5 References 4 Ways to Make the Most Out of Satisfied Stakeholders. Retrieved from https://pmalliance.com/4-ways-to-make-the-most-of-satisfied-stakeholders/ Ghauri, P. (2009). International business negotiations. Bingley: Emerald. Maude, B. (2014). International Business Negotiation: Principles and Practice. MacMillan Higher Education. Running head: BARGAINING STRATEGY Milestone three INT_660 1 BARGAINING STRATEGY 2 Bargaining Strategy Our company is involved in manufacturing parts of automobiles and located in the US. We are considering expansion of our business to international markets and suppliers. The main focus is to expand our business to Japan while gaining an understanding of the prevailing culture and people residing in Japan. A well-developed negotiation process with Japan will help our company to expand our business further. In order to expand our business, we will use bargaining strategy during negotiations with our potential business partners. Bargaining is a process which is aimed at reaching a mutually acceptable solution among all parties of the conflict at the end of the negotiation process. It helps in resolving conflict through a proper understanding and communication of a given situation. The bargaining strategy to be used will be, “integrative bargaining” strategy. It will create win-win negotiation where we can end up with equally beneficial or attractive outcomes for our parties. The negotiation process will be based on finding a solution to a common problem. The integrative bargaining strategy will be based on the following below characteristics: a.There will be an open flow of information with our potential business partners. We will listen to our objectives of business partners in order to find a match between our objectives. b.A problem-solving solution will be searched based on the criteria that meet our company’s objectives with that of our potential business partners. c.We will try to understand the other person’s point of view sincerely. One of the most important factors that affect integrative bargaining strategy is the cultural difference between our country (US) and Japan. The culture of Japanese is based on harmony, respect for authorities, hard work and giving importance to education (Zandt, n.d.). Further, they do not believe in confronting each other. They believe in working as a team rather than as an individual to achieve success. BARGAINING STRATEGY 3 In integrative bargaining strategy, the approach should be based on the soft power stance which will allow our partners to set goals while working through cooperation and attraction. In Japan, building relationships rest on emotions as most of their decisions are influenced by emotions and feelings (Zandt,n.d). Thus, their decision making is affected by the subjective approach. Integrative bargaining based on relationship-oriented strategy would be best for our company for building a long-lasting relationship with Japanese business partners. In this regard, bargaining strategy in negotiations will be based on thinking other as a problemsolving partner and creating an effective two-way communication. Reason for Choosing Integrative Bargaining Strategy An integrative bargaining strategy will be used to create a win-win situation to solve our dispute. Based on the interest of the disputants, the strategy will be based on focussing mutually beneficial agreements. There is a necessity to create a base of belief during the negotiation process as well as studying and emphasizing the culture. In Japan, the relationship whether personal or business is vertical in nature. It is like an interaction between father and son. In America, the interaction process is between two brothers. The repertoire of persuasive tactics available to bargainers in Japan is based prescribed by status/power relations. Buyers, in Japan, play the role of a father can say things to sellers that sellers would not even consider saying to buyers. In America, buyers and sellers relation are like the relation between two brothers, and thus much more based on equal footing. Since we are selling automobile parts to Japan, therefore according to the above case, we would be playing the role of a son and our business partners would be considered as father. Thus, the interactive bargaining strategy would help in ensuring that the maximum benefit is reached to the father (Japan) while also considering the interest of the son (our company in USA). BARGAINING STRATEGY 4 Integrative bargaining strategy is more efficient than distributive bargaining strategy as it gives prime importance to culture. Here both companies are working together to the good of both companies building synergies and strong communication lines. The ideas behind the strategy is to develop a long-term, trust relationship while developing a line of communication to help solving problems rather than pointing finger at others. Using this strategy, maximum gain and competitive strategies are negated. BATNA The term, “BATNA” was coined by Fisher and Urey in 1991 which means the best alternative to a negotiated agreement. BATNA describes the best course of action that will be taken if negotiation fails and no agreement can be reached (Subramainain,2016).As far as our organization is concerned, BATNA will surely affect our negotiation approach with our business parts in the following ways: a.BATNA would help in providing us a list of steps we might conceivably take if no agreements are reached with our business partners. b.It would help our company to make improvement in some of the more promising ideas and convert them into practical opinions. c.Lastly, BATNA will help in selecting the options that seem best or providing the highest expected value. Based on the terms of the agreement in negotiations, we will check if the proposed deal is less than or greater than our reservation value. If the value of the deal is lower than our reservation value, then we will reject the deal and pursue our BATNA. However, if the final offer is greater than our reservation value, then we will accept the offer. The strategy for our business was created considering the culture of both the country and company. Also, it is based on soft approach along with emphasizing on working as a team and encouraging share of information and problem-solving approach. The main purpose BARGAINING STRATEGY behind the strategy is to build a long-term relationship and set a goal of working together so that each company can benefit from the negotiation deal. 5 BARGAINING STRATEGY 6 References Ghauri, P. (2009). International business negotiations. Bingley: Emerald. Maude, B. (2014). International Business Negotiation: Principles and Practice. MacMillan Higher Education. Subramanian, G. (2016). What is BATNA? How to Find Your Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement - PON - Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School. Retrieved June 10, 2018, from http://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/batna/translateyour-batna-to-the-current-deal/ Zandt, H. How to Negotiate in Japan. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/1970/11/how-tonegotiate-in-japan Running head: CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY Conflict Management Strategy SNHU INT 660 June 17, 2018 1 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY 2 Conflict Management Strategy When trying to make business expand internationally, it is essential to have an indepth knowledge of cross-cultural differences in negotiation and conflict management. According to Brett(2007), “Ineffective negotiations and poor conflict management give rise to problematic international operations.”Our company is engaged in selling automobile manufacturing parts to different clients in Japan. When negotiating with Japan, it may happen that we enter into conflict with our clients because of differences that range from philosophical and divergent goals to power imbalances. According to Maude (2014), “Conflict is part of any negotiated business deal. If there is no conflict, then there is no need to negotiate.” Conflict Management Strategies The conflict management strategy that will be used be employed during cross-cultural negotiations to handle conflicts is collaboration. It based on a win-win approach for both partners as it is based on showing high concern both for our clients and our company. The selection of collaboration strategy is based on the cultural background of the negotiator. Japanese culture is mainly based on harmony, and they try to avoid conflicting with each other. Further, the decision-making process is more group-oriented, rather than making decisions individually. They also give due respect to emotions of other peoples. In collaboration, emotional feelings are strong so that all involvement needs are heard. Further , based on the collaboration we will try to find a creative solution acceptable to everyone. The strategic philosophy is based on the process of working through differences which will lead to the creation of creative solution satisfying both parties concerns. Since there is a high level of trust with our Japanese clients and our partners are willing to change their thinking when more information is found, and new options are suggested, therefore we CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY 3 will use “collaboration” as conflict management strategy ("Conflict management strategies," n.d.). According to Balck and Mendhall(1993), “For Japanese harmony, conflict resolution and conflict avoidance are all means to another end; they are not desired end states in and of themselves.”Avoidance will be used during the conflict with Japanese counterpart when we will see that the negative outcomes outweigh the positive outcome. In this scenario, we will end up ignoring the problem, thinking that the problem will be solved automatically after due course of time.When the amount of investment is same for solving a particular problem,then we will use compromise as a way to solve the conflict.Thus, it would help in coming up with a solution that is acceptable to both parties. Satisfying Stakeholders It is always best to choose conflict management strategies that satisfy the interest of the stakeholders. Collaboration strategy will help in ensuring that no harm is caused in the business relationship through the appointment of professionals who can facilitate dialogue, encourage participation, bridge differences and facilitate collaborative solutions. Collaborative conflict management would also help various stakeholders to work together to assess and address issues arising out of conflict, build trust and cooperation and seek solutions of mutual gain. When involved in the multiparty conflict, it will be necessary for us to involve stakeholders in the problem-solving process which will lead to collective learning and organizational effectiveness. We will make all parties involved in the conflict feel respect and valued. Culture It is necessary to ensure that we recognize the power and culture of Japanese clients when setting up business policies.It would help in developing mutual trust with our clients.It CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY is easy to make a business deal with Japanese people when we trust Japanese culture. Harmony, hierarchy, and honor are intrinsic to Japanese culture. Conflict management strategies such as avoidance, collaboration and compromise are in harmony with Japanese culture. Since Japanese people do not believe in harming others, therefore avoidance will play a crucial role when conflict arises during the negotiation process. Further, non-verbal communication is an important aspect of Japanese culture which denotes their emotionally controlled society. Using conflict management strategies such as compromise and collaboration, issues would be resolved which would help our clients in replacing negative emotions with positive displays.; 4 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY 5 References Black, J., & Mendenhall, M. (1993). Resolving Conflicts with the Japanese: Mission Impossible?. Retrieved from https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/resolving-conflictswith-the-japanese-mission-impossible/ Brett, J.M. (2007), Negotiating Globally: How to Negotiate Deals, Resolve Disputes, and Make Decisions Across Cultural Boundaries, 2nd ed., Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA. Conflict management strategies. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://home.snu.edu/~hculbert/conflict.htm
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