Critical Annotations ( three chapters)

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timer Asked: Jun 28th, 2018
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Question description

- Please do each chapter alone

- Each chapter at least 5 points

Forming your own opinions and coming up with new ideas in response to your reading are very important parts of the reading process, but you need to learn how to produce these reactions. As you read, plan to record your notes on a separate piece of paper.

Instructions:

First, create two columns. Then, as you read, write the author’s main ideas on the left and your reactions to those ideas on the right side of the page. Be prepared to explain the connection between your notes and the material you’ve read.

Please note the following with regard to the completion and submission of the critical annotation assignments:

1. Each week's annotations are to be submitted in ONE typed document with the chapters individually labeled and annotated and entries numbered.

2. Please review the example provided for the required format.

3. While there is no minimum number of annotations required, your work should reflect the content of the chapter.

4. Grammar is not specifically evaluated; however, if it is so poor that it impedes my ability to understand what you have written, it will impact your score. Please remember your task, in all written assignments, is to clearly articulate the relative facts and/or your thoughts as they relate to the subject at hand.

STRATIFICATION AND INEQUALITY Chapter 12 SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Definition – the hierarchal division of society according to rank, cast, or class – in all societies people are evaluated on the basis of some characteristic or set of characteristics – (example?) In every type of social stratification system those on top are considered better than those on the bottom (better can mean many things but it usually tied to something that is valued in society) COMMON ELEMENTS OF STRATIFICATION     1. The systems tends to persist for a long time 2. The systems are resistant to change 3. Each system is bolstered by widely accepted legitimizing rationales (support). Legitimizing rationales are ways of knowing (norms, values, beliefs) that support inequality or the differences between strata as fair CASTE SYSTEMS     A persons caste is determined at birth (hereditary groups) Based on ascribed characteristics Generally determines a person’s prestige, occupation, residences and social relationships In a caste system no one is allowed to wed, eat food cooked by, or drink from the cup of anyone from a lower caste (it would defile or contaminate the person from the higher caste) CASTE SYSTEM OF INDIA     Its legitimating rationale is grounded in the Hindu religion. Beginning with transmigration (reincarnation) – people are born into a caste based on their previous actions and thoughts in a prior life Karma – the inexorable application of the law of cause and effect If a person lives a good life – following the rules of the religion – they will fulfill their caste based duties and will inevitably be born into a higher caste in the next life – or it can go the other way if the rules of the religion are not followed THE ESTATE SYSTEM  The first estate – made up of the aristocracy or nobility    The second estate – made up of the clergy   Originally lands were granted to individuals based on loyalty and or distinguished military records Then passed on through inheritance (ascribed) Not ascribed but achieved (the highest ranking church men and women) The third estate – made up of the peasants or serfs (commoners)  Tied legally to specific parcels of land - having responsibilities to the land owner ESTATE SYSTEMS Feudal System (Robin Hood)     Rank is determined by birth Contact between different estates is allowable but generally only in the form of boss and worker Marriage between different estates is most often forbidden by law With the onset of industrialization the estate system broke down CLASS SYSTEM     Made possible by industrialization and urbanization Geographic mobility and industry provided opportunity In the class system, it is commonly thought that the best people work their way to the highest ranks The true class system is suppose to turn on achieved rather than ascribed characteristics CLASS SYSTEM continued    The belief that the best rise to the top justifies the classbased stratification system as fair and just. In other words, “the position you reach in the class system is the direct result of your own efforts, traits, and abilities – not economic or social forces” “Therefore the class system regards “inequality as legitimate because, after all, people end up where they deserve to be” THEORIES OF INEQUALITY  Karl Marx Means of production  Bourgeoisie and proletariat  Purely economic   Max Weber Position on the market  Class, status and party  SLAVERY   Slavery can exist within any system of stratification The definition of slavery - “slaves are people whose function is to serve others and who have no political rights of their own – no right to own property, to sign legal contracts, to legally marry or maintain legal custody of their children” pg 207 SLAVERY continue     Slavery is most often found in societies that are heavily agrarian – as opposed to industrial why? People become enslaved through capture in war or kidnapping, inability to pay debts, sentenced to slavery, or sold in to slavery by parents. If slavery persists in a society for more than two generations – slavery will become hereditary – (ascribed) http://www.state.gov/j/tip/what/ OPEN VS. CLOSED STRATIFICATION SYSTEMS       In closed systems there is no chance of social mobility In open systems social mobility is allowed Horizontal mobility – movement from one occupation to another in the same stratum Vertical mobility –movement up or down the stratification system – upper to lower class or lower to upper class Intergenerational refers to changes in social position by different generations Intra-generational refers to changes in social position within one’s own life time - career mobility
INEQUALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT Chapter 13 “Nobody cares more about free enterprise and competition and about the best man winning than the man who inherited his father’s store” C. Wright Mills (1959) CLASS People are reluctant to discuss class issues It’s a sensitive subject Many people do not think class is an issue today Income is the amount of money that an individual or family group receives in wages, salaries, investments, and so on Wealth is the total value of the assets owned by an individual or family group, minus the amount of debt they have INEQUALITY By 2004 the most affluent (wealthiest) 1% of Americans owned 33% of the nation’s wealth. The top 5% of the population owned nearly 60% of the nation’s wealth Life chances (Wealth vs Income) Go to page 217 The Matthew Effect - “Once wealth is accumulated, opportunities to make more money multiply, since accumulated wealth leads to incomeearning opportunities that are not open to those without wealth” EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY PEOPLES LIFE CHANCES ARE AFFECTED BY THEIR CLASS ORIGINS Health – access to quality healthcare Education – access to quality education – preschool – through high school Working Life – making less money and working less hours due work opportunities Crime and Justice – greater potential to be a victim of crime – to be arrested and incarcerated EXPLAINING INEQUALITY (SOCIAL STRATIFICATION) Cultural Explanations – People in different social classes have different patterns of values, beliefs, and behavioral norms, which they pass on to their children – The values, beliefs, and behavioral norms of lower classes are not very compatible with success in society – Culture of poverty Structural Explanations – Focuses on limited opportunities – Consequences of poverty THE FALLACY OF HARD WORK Different starting points Most people do not experience vertical social mobility – Social factors (industrialization) – Class differences (changes in birth rates and access to jobs) – Immigration – lowest rung of the occupational ladder Structural mobility – has little to do with the individuals and more to do with changes in the social structure – Future problems in employment as technology increase the need for large pools of unskilled workers will decrease
INEQUALITY AND ASCRIPTION Chapter 14 “Nobody cares more about free enterprise and competition and about the best man winning than the man who inherited his father’s store” C. Wright Mills (1959) INEQUALITY AND ASCRIPTION RACE, ETHNICITY, AND GENDER Historically, the people of the world have not questioned inequality they just accepted it as “simply the way things were”. In the modern world the ideology purports that “all men are created equal” – may the best man win – so to speak INEQUALITY AND ASCRIPTION RACE, CLASS AND GENDER Go to table 14.1 (pg 238) education by race and gender Go to table 14.2 (pg 239) occupation by gender (earning ratios) Go to figure 14.2 (pg 240) denied mortgages by race and ethnicity Go to table 14.1 (pg 240) average earnings by field and gender Purchasing opportunities in the inner city PREJUDICE Is the negative and persistent judgment based on scant or incorrect information about people in a group. Prejudice involves beliefs and attitudes Prejudice is an unjustifiable prejudgment Prejudice is sustained by stereotypes – over simplified generalized images about members of a particular group. How is prejudice learned? DISCRIMINATION Discrimination involves behavior Discrimination is the unfavorable treatment of people based on their membership in some ill favored group Can you be prejudice and not discriminate? Can you discriminate and not be prejudice? How is discriminatory behavior learned? TYPES OF DISCRIMINATORY BEHAVIORS Verbal rejection – Using derogatory nouns to refer to people in particular groups – racist or sexist jokes etc Avoidance Active discrimination – Exclude members of particular groups from education, employment, housing, political or recreational opportunities Physical attacks – Using violence or the threat of violence (beatings, church burnings) Extermination – Participating in lynchings, massacres, genocide INDIVIDUAL VS. INSTITUTIONAL DISCRIMINATION Individual discrimination occurs when an individual discriminates against another individual (or group) – Apartment owner will not rent to someone because of race, gender, ethnicity etc… Institutional discrimination – involves a denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operation of society – built into the usual operations of society – Education – Employment THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF MINORITY GROUPS Race a slippery concept – not very useful to biologists but is an important concept for sociologists Because people’s assumptions about race have tremendous consequences for individuals Race is a socially constructed attribute that is tied to beliefs about differences in the physical makeup of different individuals Ethnicity is different – it has to do with shared cultural heritage – – The concept of ethnicity has connotations of something foreign or exotic - THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF GENDER Biological vs sociological Sex vs gender Sex differences have to do with biological and physical differences Gender differences have to do with social expectations as to how males and females ought to act Gender identity
You will complete Critical Annotations for each of the assigned chapters from the textbook. Annotations will be due each Friday by 11:59 PM via the Blackboard submission link for the assigned reading for the week. Forming your own opinions and coming up with new ideas in response to your reading are very important parts of the reading process, but you need to learn how to produce these reactions. As you read, plan to record your notes on a separate piece of paper. Instructions: First, create two columns. Then, as you read, write the author’s main ideas on the left and your reactions to those ideas on the right side of the page. Be prepared to explain the connection between your notes and the material you’ve read. Please note the following with regard to the completion and submission of the critical annotation assignments: 1. Each week's annotations are to be submitted in ONE typed document with the chapters individually labeled and annotated and entries numbered. Please note, pictures of hand written annotations or screen shots are NOT acceptable. 2. Please review the example provided for the required format. No other format, unless specifically approved by me, will be accepted and will result in the loss of points. 3. While there is no minimum number of annotations required, your work should reflect the content of the chapter. 4. There a link provided for each week's annotations, please be sure to submit the correct annotations through the correct link. 5. Grammar is not specifically evaluated; however, if it is so poor that it impedes my ability to understand what you have written, it will impact your score. Please remember your task, in all written assignments, is to clearly articulate the relative facts and/or your thoughts as they relate to the subject at hand. Example Author’s Main Ideas A Student’s Reactions White drove 200 miles to this bookstore. That’s a long way to drive to a bookstore. The bookstore was in Micanopy. I found out Micanopy is in Florida. The bookstore smelled like old books. That’s a distinctive smell that anyone can recognize. Books were stacked everywhere. I can tell the character of the bookstore and the bookstore owner from this detail. A wisteria plant was crawling around the This living plant is a nice contrast to the nonliving books in bookstore. the bookstore.
Author’s Ideas Student’s Response 1. What is considered deviant across society varies across societies? 1. Deviant isn’t always against the law. Different norms and defying them is different for certain people. 2. Cesare Lombroso- thought that deviants were, if effect, biological failures. 2. How could it be biological? Anyone can make a choice to be defiant. Sometimes not on purpose. 3. William Sheldon- Believe that a person’s body shapes played a role in criminality. 3. I believe that in the prison system there is every type of body shape for a criminal. How does body shape justify you as a criminal? 4. Emile Durkheim was one of the first researchers to look for the cause of deviance in terms of social rather than individual factors. 4. The people around us have a large impact on a person’s choice to commit suicide as most the time is usually something that happened in society. 5. Egoism occurs when people are not well integrated into society. 5. 6. Anomie is a situation in which people do not experience the constraint of social norms. 6. Being thrown into a place where you’re not familiar with the social norms. 7. Merton realized that anomie was not about to go away- anomie is built into the structure of modern society. 7. Every time we travel we are show the anomie in society. We have to adjust even if we don’t know the norms. 8. Adaptations of anomieConformity Innovation Ritualism Retreatism Rebellion 8. Which one you act when put in a new social structure. Forms of acceptance. 9. Sociologists have noticed the one generally learns to be deviant through a kind of socialization. 10. Learning to do it, learning to perceive it and learning to enjoy it. 10. Three separate social process. 11. Labeling theorist takes note of the fact that being judged and label deviant has significant consequences for people’s behavior. 9. An outcast? A person being secluded and not being apart or experiencing the social norms? Normally one wouldn’t do something unless they are exposed to it otherwise how would they know? 11. If you’re going to be called a certain title and that’s what people see in you then why not what they already assume of you do.

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School: Purdue University

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