Discussion 4

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Discussion #4

Earlier readings in this course have addressed the transplanting of a labor system to the Americas that has existed throughout history. Because of its contractual nature which included a fixed time for ending their servitude, it is easy to forget that indentured servants were in fact slaves. Indentured servitude will start to wain in the late seventeenth century, but only the nature of slavery will change; the status of Africans will become one of lifelong servitude. Although the tendency is to equate slavery with the South, the fact is that until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, slaves could be found in the United States out.

In order to prepare for this discussion forum:

  • Review and identify the relevant sections of Chapters 3 and 5 that address this topic, and support your discussion.

After you have completed your reading, post your answers to only ONE of the following questions.

    1. Explain why African slavery took root in the North American colonies.
    2. Although it prevailed in all of the British colonies, why was slavery concentrated in the colonies located in the "South" and not in the "North"?
    3. Indentured servitude was not really slavery! Agree or disagree with this statement. Support your position with facts.

In order to earn the full credit points for this assignment, students must discuss at least one question, and respond to a fellow student's postings:

  1. Directly and completely to the question that you selected. Clearly and accurately explain your answer based on factual information contained in the readings. Make sure that all statements are supported with facts from the readings (80 points).
  2. Students must respond to at least one fellow student's posting and discuss the reason(s) for their agreement or disagreement, with the arguments that are presented. You must address specific points, and support your response with facts from the readings and other sources. (20 points).
  3. Students can choose to respond to any posting, they do have to respond to a posting that discusses the question they addressed.

Reminder: Please make sure to comply with all Netiquette Guidelines listed in the Getting Started module.

Discussion #4 Earlier readings in this course have addressed the transplanting of a labor system to the Americas that has existed throughout history. Because of its contractual nature which included a fixed time for ending their servitude, it is easy to forget that indentured servants were in fact slaves. Indentured servitude will start to wain in the late seventeenth century, but only the nature of slavery will change; the status of Africans will become one of lifelong servitude. Although the tendency is to equate slavery with the South, the fact is that until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, slaves could be found in the United States out. In order to prepare for this discussion forum: • Review and identify the relevant sections of Chapters 3 and 5 that address this topic, and support your discussion. After you have completed your reading, post your answers to only ONE of the following questions. 1. 1. Explain why African slavery took root in the North American colonies. 2. Although it prevailed in all of the British colonies, why was slavery concentrated in the colonies located in the "South" and not in the "North"? 3. Indentured servitude was not really slavery! Agree or disagree with this statement. Support your position with facts. In order to earn the full credit points for this assignment, students must discuss at least one question, and respond to a fellow student's postings: 1. Directly and completely to the question that you selected. Clearly and accurately explain your answer based on factual information contained in the readings. Make sure that all statements are supported with facts from the readings (80 points). 2. Students must respond to at least one fellow student's posting and discuss the reason(s) for their agreement or disagreement, with the arguments that are presented. You must address specific points, and support your response with facts from the readings and other sources. (20 points). 3. Students can choose to respond to any posting, they do have to respond to a posting that discusses the question they addressed. Reminder: Please make sure to comply with all Netiquette Guidelines listed in the Getting Started module.
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. U.S. A NARRATIVE HISTORY, SEVENTH EDITION DAVIDSON • DELAY • HEYRMAN • LYTLE • STOFF Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 2 “Spain and England moved to colonize critical regions of southern North America. Spanish colonies in New Mexico and Florida grew slowly and faced a variety of threats. Thriving monocultures were established in all of England’s southern colonies. Despite a period of intense enslavement of native peoples, African slavery emerged as the dominant labor system throughout these regions.” 3 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Spain’s North American Colonies English Society on the Chesapeake Chesapeake Society in Crisis From the Caribbean to the Carolinas 4 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Franciscans renew Spain’s efforts • Florida’s strategic importance • Franciscan Florida The Growth of Spanish Florida • Cautious relations • The Acoma siege • Impoverished New Mexico The Founding of a “New” Mexico 5 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Santa Fe, New Mexico: second oldest permanent European settlement in the United States • Indian captives Disease, drought, crop failure, and widespread famine decimate native populations • Pueblo suffering In their misery, Pueblos turn to their traditional religion Pueblo Revolt, 1680: Indians in New Mexico successfully revolt against Spanish and Catholic authority Popé and the Pueblo Revolt Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 6 7 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Jamestown’s problems The Virginia Company • Mercantilism Overseas colonies seen as key to nation’s power and prosperity Use of raw materials from the colonies to produce a favorable balance of trade 8 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Tobacco cultivation puts pressure on Indian lands • Decline in mortality rates • War with the Confederacy • Key reforms • Headrights: 50 acres of land for every new settler, plus 50 acres per family member or servant • Indentured servants • Three-quarters of all immigrants to Virginia • Reform and a Boom in Tobacco 9 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Maryland founded as a proprietary colony by the Calvert family, 1632 • Complete religious freedom for all Christians—Maryland becomes a haven for Catholics • Indian wars in Virginia sparked again, 1644 The Founding of Maryland and the Renewal of Indian Wars 10 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • The English Civil War • Navigation Acts England given monopoly on shipping and marketing of all colonial goods Changes in English Policy in the Chesapeake Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 11 12 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Nathaniel Bacon 1676: Bacon leads group of armed men to Jamestown to protest ineffective efforts to curtail Indian attacks 1689: in Maryland, John Coode leads a small army to challenge the proprietary government Rebellion leads to the revocation of the Calverts’ charter • Growing stability Cooperation among planters Bacon’s Rebellion and Coode’s Rebellion • Diminishing opportunities Rising taxes; extended terms of servitude 13 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • The lives of servants and slaves Black population in the Chesapeake small through most of the seventeenth century After 1680, purchasing a black slave for life a better investment than paying for a white indentured servant By 1700, imports of African slaves reached 20,000 per year From Servitude to Slavery Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 14 • Dimensions of the slave trade Profitability of sugar plantations in the Caribbean drove the seventeenth-century trade • Transformation of West African society Profits from slave trade built new chiefdoms and states • The Middle Passage • “Seasoning” Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade 15 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Growing racism New legal codes reflected and encouraged racism • Opportunities for white settlers Leaders cultivated unity Chesapeake society more stable after 1700 A Changing Chesapeake Society Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 16 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 17 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 18 19 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Caribbean sugar Sugar cultivation transformed the Caribbean • Slavery in the Caribbean Slaves outnumbered English Fear of revolt Paradise Lost • Transformation of the Caribbean Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 20 • North Carolina 1663: William Berkeley and John Colleton establish joint proprietorship aimed at colonizing the Carolina region 1701: North Carolina established as a separate colony • South Carolina 1680: Charles Town founded Anthony Ashley Cooper and the Fundamental Constitutions prompt serious opposition The Founding of the Carolinas Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 21 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 22 23 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Slavery in South Carolina By 1708, blacks in South Carolina were the majority; by 1730 they outnumbered colonists 2:1 White, Red, and Black: The Search for Order • Growth of the Indian slave trade • Raids into Spanish Florida • Yamasee War Ended regional slave trade Carolina, Florida, and the Southeastern Slave Wars 24 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • James Oglethorpe 1732: granted a charter to colonize Georgia Generous incentives to settle—attracted former debtors, Protestants, and Jews The Founding of Georgia
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. U.S. A NARRATIVE HISTORY, SEVENTH EDITION DAVIDSON • DELAY • HEYRMAN • LYTLE • STOFF 2 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. “During the eighteenth century Spain, France, and Great Britain competed for power and influence in North America, while native peoples struggled for advantage or simple survival amid profound change. British North Americans grew increasingly diverse, darkening the prospect of political unity.” 3 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Crisis and Transformation in Northern New Spain Eighteenth-Century New France Forces of Division in British North America Slave Societies in the Eighteenth-Century South Enlightenment and Awakening in America Anglo-American Worlds of the Eighteenth Century 4 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Comanche newcomers • A brokered peace Between Spain and Comanche • Distinctive New Mexican culture Crisis and Rebirth in New Mexico • Texas as a buffer against the French • Indians and missions Complex and tragic relationship Defensive Expansion into Texas 5 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Legal advantages for Spanish women Women in Spanish world had many more legal rights than in English-speaking realms Women and the Law in New Spain and British North America • Spain’s last major colonial project in North America • The changing California environment Overgrazing; invasive plant species Spanish California 6 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Growth along the St. Lawrence River • French and Indians in the pays d’en haut France remained dependent on native people; compromise necessary Colonial Compromises 7 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. French and English conflict beyond the Appalachians Slavery and Colonial Society in French Louisiana • Imperial Rivalries • Difficulties in French Louisiana France on the Gulf Coast Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 8 9 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Ethnic differences heightened sectional tensions Social Conflict and the Frontier • Immigrants had better luck obtaining land in backcountry • Isolation of the backcountry Moving into the Backcountry • North America leads a global rise in population Immigration and Natural Increase Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10 • • • • 11 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. The commercial classes Increase of Africans in northern seaports Women in cities Urban diversions and hazards City seaports were places of economic insecurity; entertainment possibilities Eighteenth-Century Seaports Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 12 13 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Maroon communities of runaways • The Stono Rebellion • Slave Resistance in Eighteenth-Century British North America • African slaves vs. American-born slaves • The Slave Family and Community • The Chesapeake and the Lower South • Slaves’ lives depended on where they lived • Task system; gang labor Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 14 • Rational vs. traditional Christianity Benjamin Franklin and many other colonial leaders were devotees of the Enlightenment ideal of human reason Movement of “rational Christianity”—Christian beliefs must be reasonable Many ministers grew concerned over the growth of rationalism The Enlightenment in America 15 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Religious divisions Movement deepened divide among religious factions Growth of Baptist and Presbyterian churches Diversity of colonial society accentuated by the Great Awakening The Aftermath of the Great Awakening Evangelical reaction to rationalism 1739–1741: George Whitfield toured the colonies, attracting many to his form of enlivened worship Message appealed to all classes and ethnicities The First Great Awakening 16 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Class distinctions Clear in England Colonists ambivalent toward English grandeur Three quarters of colonial white population among the middle class Inequality in England and America • England’s developed economy vastly different from America’s English Economic and Social Development 17 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. • Benefits of benign neglect The Imperial System before 1760 • England’s balanced constitution • Colonial governments Politics in England and America Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 18

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ProfessorMarko
School: Boston College

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Running head: DISCUSSION

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Discussion #4
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DISCUSSION

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Discussion #4

1. Explain why African slavery took root in the North American colonies.
Initially, majority of the immigrants in were indentured servants. Tobacco and sugar
business was also picking up in the Chesapeake Englis...

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