Theories of Human Learning and Cognition.

timer Asked: Jun 30th, 2018
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Question description

Write 4–5-page examination of two or three approaches to a learning- and memory-related research question.

The research questions for this assessment are:

  • What social media messages or platforms do you remember?
  • Who do you pay most attention to at a social gathering, such as a dinner with friends?
  • How does vocabulary retention differ between children and adults?
  • Why are some advertisements more memorable and/or persuasive than others?
  • What effect does novelty or familiarity have on memory or learning?

Choose one of the questions as a guide for your research. For the purpose of this assessment, you will not be expected to answer the question or solve the problem. You will be exploring different approaches to researching the components of the question in order to address the topic from different angles.


For this assessment, complete the following:

  1. Choose one research question from the list above that you would like to explore related to learning and memory.
  2. Find three scholarly sources, such as peer-reviewed research articles, that are related to the research question you chose. At least one article must describe empirical data collection. (Typically these articles contain headings such as participants, measures, instruments, and results.)
    • For all articles, summarize what you learned from each source regarding your research question, and how this knowledge contributes to or changes your understanding of learning and memory.
    • For the empirical article, summarize the methods and measures used in each of the articles you read. Different approaches will measure memory or learning in different ways based on the conceptual approach.
  3. Describe the practical impact of the research question or information from the articles you read might have on your personal and professional life. In what ways can this knowledge of learning and memory be applied to your life or work?

Strive to be as concise as possible. Limit the length of your completed assessment to 4–5 pages, excluding the title page and reference page. Support your statements and analyses with references and citations from at least three scholarly resources.


  • Include a title page and a reference page.
  • Use at least three resources.
  • Follow APA format. Note: You may use the APA Paper Template linked in the Resources. This resource is not required.
  • Use 12-point, Times New Roman font.
  • Double-space your paper.

Running Header: MEMORABLE AND PERSUASIVE ADVERTISEMENTS Memorable and Persuasive Advertisements Institutional Affiliation Student’s Name 1 MEMORABLE AND PERSUASIVE ADVERTISEMENTS 2 Most consumer choices are memory based. If you watch a memorable and persuasive ad, you will probably purchase the service or product being advertised. Companies acknowledge that getting consumers to recall their ads is an effective technique to sell to them. However, to successfully do that, it is significant to realize how psychology impacts advertising. There are diversified methods to make people remember your advertisement (Mitchell, 1985). One method of making an advertisement memorable is by repetition. Majority of us still recall commercial jingles played in our childhood days since we heard them countless times (Gale, 1990). The issue with repetition, notwithstanding its effectiveness, it is pricey. Companies possessing large advertising budgets are best fitted for this method as they can manage to run an ad repeatedly. Many advertisers are instead unfolding ads that focus on social identity. Social identity is the concept that people want inclusion in a group. When an ad utilizes a model or spokesperson to which a customer relates, the ad will likely be more memorable (Scott, 1903). Purchasers remember ads that contain individuals who like similar things or are in our age bracket Another technique of making a commercial more memorable is by applying ‘operant condition.’ The operant condition is the belief of associating behavior with repercussions. An ad is more memorable and more susceptible to end in a purchase if it shows the purchaser a scenario where utilizing the product results in desirable effects (Scott, 1903). The reverse is valid as well. The individual who failed to use the product encountered unfavorable consequences. Coupons work well as a method of the operant condition. Customers are persuaded to procure a product at first by presenting an incentive. They then become constrained to acquire the product in the lack of an incentive (Muchinsky, 2011). This method can be further intensified by providing first a free product, followed by a huge discount on the product, followed by a MEMORABLE AND PERSUASIVE ADVERTISEMENTS 3 minor cut, and lastly, no discount as the consumer is conditioned to procure the service or product despite the existence or absence of a discount. A comparable psychological concept is vicarious also identified as observational learning. In this approach, it is not essential for us to individually face the repercussions. Examples include the person who lags behind on watching amazing TV programs until he selects a different satellite or cable provider or the gentleman who never gets a woman’s attention unless he shifts to a particular deodorant or shampoo. To ensure your ad is more memorable, employ the psychology of advertising by engaging your target customer’s social identity. Evade ads that are incoherent with your client’s social identity, and can permanently interfere with memory. Contemplate applying catchy jingles, discounted or free trial offers, and conveying positive happenings of those utilizing your product. There are numerous psychological procedures employed in advertising to sway consumers (O’Shaughnessy, 2004). These are, using color to elicit particular associations or emotional responses, misrepresented statistics and fact, and subliminal messages. Implementing color during advertising is favorable in generating emotional ripostes from prospective consumers (Barnes, 1989). Colors manipulate the emotional conduct of purchasers in drawing awareness to ads or emphasizing various rudiments regarding advertisements. Every color contains attributes and psychological reactions that clients are said to correlate with (Schindler, 1986). For instance, red is primarily linked with feelings like excitement and happiness, whereas green is soothing and construed as being vigorous and natural Another memorable procedure applied in ads is subliminal messages. Subliminal messages are portrayed in commercials as hidden images or words and are displayed under an individual’s awareness or consciousness (Messaris, 1997). Teams in advertising hardly affirm MEMORABLE AND PERSUASIVE ADVERTISEMENTS 4 the application of subliminal messages within ads due to the moral opposition (Moore, 1982). Examinations have maintained the opinion that comprehension, attitudes, and behavior may be inclined in subliminal stimuli like words or images (Vargas, 2008). Nonetheless, there exists minimal to no sustenance for the capability of subliminal stimuli to be swaying (Vargas, 2008). Misrepresented statistics, research, and facts are employed in aims of persuading consumers. They do govern customer discernment regarding items, particularly banking on how they are introduced (Millstein, 1964). Whenever product claims are incapable of being supported, the Federal Trade Commission pronounces them as a form of fake advertising (Millstein, 1964). False advertising has transpired in commercials of products like cosmetics and health supplements (Draelos, 2008; Federal Trade Commission, 2013). Moreover, phrases and words can hold various meanings. Various meanings lead purchasers to dissimilar understandings and interpretations of the knowledge (Millstein, 1964). Although this is an inherent component of communication, various meanings turn out to be problematic when customers construe the information in harmful ways. A subject is remembered more easily if the mind finds itself in an emotionally excited state. A topic, which is meaningful to a brand’s name, can be recalled more easily when the mind finds itself in an emotionally excited state. This type of emotional excitement can derive from fear, disgust, humor, anger, sexual hints (sex sells) (Stockless, 2007). Advertisements are often remembered when creative concepts are applied. Creative notions are not ended products, but rough drafts that give an insight of how campaigns will take shape. The employment of various fonts, colors, graphic design elements are utilized to make ads more memorable. Rough illustrations and stock photography are used to transmit general ideas MEMORABLE AND PERSUASIVE ADVERTISEMENTS 5 and talent selection. Additionally, interesting concepts must be robust and overreaching enough to impact people. What makes an advertisement memorable is Humor and Heart. One tickling the funny bone thus making you laugh to the extent of calling the person a different room, "Hey, you have to watch this ad" On the reverse side, a commercial pulling the heart strings, and ripping the heart from the chest through fear, oomph or power making break and reflect. Makes you think "wow!" is likely to be more memorable ("Forbes Welcome," 2017). The ad is a failure if you don’t recall the service or product. The advert must attend to needs, express how the service or product caters toward the need, and be done with a convincing, memorable approach, with a device identified as a hook. Twenty-five years preceding its launch, people still recall “Where is the beef?" advert by Wendy’s. This is a bright example of saying, their burgers are massive they practically flow out the bun. The others’ burgers are tiny; you must search for the patty!" This was beautifully done and very memorable ("Forbes Welcome," 2017). The typical American is exposed to a wide array of commercials across many media platforms including radio, online, TV, and print on a constant, 24-hour basis. Because we are exposed to so much advertising, advertisers make ads memorable and outstanding by utilizing psychology. The most famous adverts have emotional content because the emotional response has a greater influence on a purchaser’s intent to purchase a service or product. The response in advertising is based on empathy and creativity and advertisers bank on this ("Forbes Welcome," 2017). MEMORABLE AND PERSUASIVE ADVERTISEMENTS 6 References Alwitt, L. F. & Mitchell, A. A. (1985). Concluding remarks. In L. F. Alwitt & A. A. Mitchell (Eds.), Psychological processes and advertising effects: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 273-293). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Draelos, Z. D. (2008). The cosmeceutical realm. Clinics in Dermatology, 26, 627-632. Forbes Welcome. (2017). Retrieved 9 September 2017, from Friestad, M., & Wright, P. (1994). The persuasion knowledge model: How people cope with persuasion attempts. Journal of consumer research, 21(1), 1-31. Friestad, M., & Wright, P. (1995). Persuasion knowledge: Lay people's and researchers' beliefs about the psychology of advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(1), 62-74. Gale, H. (1900). On the psychology of advertising. In H. Gale, Psychological studies (pp. 39-69). Minneapolis, MN: Harlow Gale. Lee, S. & Barnes, J. H. Jr. (1989). Using color preferences in magazine advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 29(6), 25-30. Messaris, P. (1997). Visual persuasion: The role of images in advertising. Sage. Moore, T. E. (1982). Subliminal advertising: What you see is what you get. The Journal of Marketing, 38-47. Muchinsky, P. M. (2011). Psychology applied to work (10th ed.). Summerfield, NC: Hypergraphic Press. MEMORABLE AND PERSUASIVE ADVERTISEMENTS 7 Schindler, P. S. (1986). Color and contrast in magazine advertising. Psychology & Marketing, 3(2), 69-78. Scott, W. D. (1903). The psychology of advertising. Boston, MA: Small, Maynard & Company. Stoklossa, U., & Rempen, T. (2007). Advertising: new techniques for visual seduction. Thames & Hudson. Vargas, P.T. (2008). Implicit consumer cognition. In Haugtvedt, C. P., Herr, P. M., & Kardes, F. R. (Eds.), Handbook of Consumer Psychology (pp. 477-504). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.

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School: UC Berkeley


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