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Write: In your initial post of at least 550 words, using Practice 4.2 on pages 93-95 of your course text, complete the following:

  • Describe each word-hypotheses stated in standard hypothesis format.
  • Identify the dependent variable (DV), independent variable (IV), and level of measurement (LOM) for each word-hypotheses.
  • Determine which of the six types of hypotheses (directional, no effect, directional, interactive, necessary, or sufficient) each word-hypotheses represents.

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Practice 4.2 Characterizing Hypotheses Write each of the following wordhypotheses in our standard hypothesis format. Identify the IV, DV, and LOM for each. (You may need to indicate operationalization.) Then, determine which of the six types of hypoth eses each represents. Again, if youperceive more than one way to characterize the hypothes is based on operationalization or anything similar, jot a brief note toexplain your reasoning. (HINT: More than one DV or IV may be involved in each hypothesis.) 1. Mass-movementbased “revolutions” such as the Color Revolutions and the Arab Spring only emerge afte r the occurrence ofnational electoral fraud (including rigged elections). 2. Political corruption cannot occur in the presence of robust civil society. 3. Systemchanging interstate war is most likely when a challenger state is both dissatisfied with t he current internationalstatus quo and at or near parity in military capabilities with the dominant state (Organski and Kugler 1981). 4. World War I occurred because policy makers perceived that offensive military techn ology was dominant, when in realitydefensive technology was dominant (Christensen a nd Snyder 1990). 5. The presence of divided government should not affect the proportion of references t o liberal and conservative economicpolicy in US presidential State of the Union address es when compared with unified government under the same president.
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Characterizing hypothesis

In the statement revolutions that are driven by mass movements in nations occur only
when national electoral fraud is realized in that particular. As such, it alludes that there are no
other factors that could lead to the mass movement-based revolutions. In this regard, national
electoral frauds such as blotted elections are necessary and sufficient factors that lead to
mass-movement-based revolutions such the Arab spring in that swept across the Arab
countries in some parts of Africa and the Middle East and the color revolution that developed
in the Balkans and some countries of the former Soviet Union. However, there are other
factors that could lead to mass movement based revolutions such as political fraud, overtaxation, and dictatorship as witnessed in some parts of Africa. The word-hypothesis can be
operationalized as follows; Mass movement-based revolutions are more likely caused by
national electoral frauds. This can be further standardized as; the presence of national...


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