Biological Basis of Behavior Paper - Use of Neural Imaging in Diagnosing Sleeping Disorderd

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Attached is the graded final project proposal with some comments from my professor (I think they'd help with the paper). I've also attached the instructions for the paper.

Your paper is to be 7 to 10 pages, or about 1,800 words in length. It must be typed, double-spaced, with one-inch margins, and fully referenced in APA format (see

The final project paper should address the biological study of a specific behavioral or mental phenomenon (normal or pathological) covered in the course materials. You should select a behavioral or mental phenomenon (e.g., language, schizophrenia) and then select a biological strategy (e.g., hormones, neurotransmitters, physiology, imaging). As an example, the theme of your report might be imaging approaches to the study of schizophrenia. Your paper should summarize fundamental issues, questions, and controversies and provide a general overview of the topic. It should also elaborate on your understanding of the brain processes that are revealed through imaging research in schizophrenia. To accomplish this, you will have to use research articles to illustrate relevant points. You may use any of a number of resources to find research articles that deal with your topic, including the library and the Internet. This paper is not a "commentary" or "editorial" style paper, but rather a formal research paper using scientific references as the basis for your topic. Personal experience, while sometimes relevant, should not be included for this assignment unless these experiences are linked to course concepts and the brain. Also, you should avoid using personal pronouns such as "I" or "myself" in this type of paper. The requirement for the research articles that you select is that they must have appeared in a peer-reviewed (i.e., refereed) scientific journal. (Please contact your instructor to confirm whether a particular journal is peer-reviewed.) You must use peer-reviewed scientific articles and they must be recent, i.e., have appeared in the literature no earlier than 2010. Ten to 20 is typically a good number of articles to use for your paper. You might use the online databases from MEDLINE and PSYCH ABSTRACTS as a source of full-text articles from refereed journals. Newspaper or magazine articles should not be used as your major reference, but can be useful if they lead you to the appropriate research article. You should avoid simply repeating the articles in summary form; rather, use them within the text of your paper to illustrate important points. To ensure that you are on the right track, you should discuss with your instructor the topic and the research articles that you have chosen. Your paper is to be 7 to 10 pages, or about 1,800 words in length. It must be typed, double-spaced, with one-inch margins, and fully referenced in APA format (see Check the course schedule for your due date. Your instructor will determine a late paper policy. The text of your paper should be preceded by an abstract (about 100 words) that summarizes the key points in the paper (i.e., statement of problem, major findings, and conclusion). The paper will be graded on (1) content and understanding, and (2) how effectively you have communicated your ideas in writing. You will receive a separate grade for each of these elements, weighted equally. Content and understanding are evaluated on the basis of whether the paper (a) identified important issues, questions, and controversies; (b) used recent and relevant research literature to illustrate the issues; and (c) demonstrated an understanding of brain processes and how brain research revealed an understanding of the behavior in question. Effective communication is evaluated on the basis of (a) organization and structure that help communicate the ideas (e.g., headings throughout the text), (b) use of your own language and style (no cutting and pasting), (c) connecting ideas in the text with research papers, and (d) correct usage of APA format in the text and references. Your paper is to be submitted in Microsoft Word format (.doc file) and formatted in APA style (please consult the APA Style Manual, sixth edition, for proper format). Papers not in .doc file format or APA style will not be accepted for a grade; in this case, a grade of "zero" will be assigned for the paper. It is highly advised that you take care to use proper APA style. If you have technical issues related to Word, please notify the instructor immediately so that an appropriate solution can be found.
Grading Rubric for Final Project Paper Content Proficient 5 points Meets Expectations 4 points Progressing 3 points Needs Improvement 0-2 points Proficient 5 points Meets Expectations 4 points Progressing 3 points Needs Improvement 0-2 points Proficient 5 points Meets Expectations 4 points Progressing 3 points Needs Improvement 0-2 points The content of the paper directly relates to and shows an advanced understanding of biopsychology All topics are discussed in clear detail All assertions are supported correctly Ideas are interrelated coherently and logically Organization An introduction previews main points of reflection and provides an overview for the reader Body of paper develops and elaborates main ideas A conclusion summarizes main points (key findings) and suggests additional areas for research. Writing Mechanics and Style Paper is free of mechanical errors (e.g., misspellings, typos, etc.) Paper is grammatically sound (used proper sentence structure) Paper follows APA style (Includes Title page, Abstract, Citations and References) Overall Score Comments: Exceptional 45-50 Meets Expectations 40-44 Progressing 31-39 Needs Improvement below 31
Running head: USE OF NEURAL IMAGING IN SLEEPING DISORDER Use of Neural Imaging in Diagnosing? Sleep Disorders University of Maryland, University College Title: Use of Neural Imaging used to Study the Brain Activity of Sleep Disorders. 1 USE OF NEURAL IMAGING IN SLEEPING DISORDER 2 Thesis: The following expose seeks to develop a critical analysis on the use of neural imaging to study the brain activity of sleeping disorder. I will define and elaborate on the meaning of neural imaging and how it is used to study how various brain activities relate to sleeping disorders. There are diverse types of sleeping disorders which include, obstructive sleep apnea, idiopathic insomnia, sleep movement and narcolepsy. I will also include their symptoms and treatment. I will review the process involved in carrying out neural imaging on patients suffering from sleeping disorder. I. Introduction A. Overview of functional neural imaging information from patients with sleeping disorders 1. Reporting functional imaging studies regarding intrinsic sleeping disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea, idiopathic insomnia and narcolepsy II. Review of structural and functional neural imaging finding A. Narcolepsy 1. Projected cause, symptoms and treatment of the sleeping disorder 2. Structural abnormalities in narcolepsy 3. Functional imaging in narcolepsy B. Idiopathic Insomnia 1. Projected cause, symptoms and treatment of the sleep disorder 2. Hyperarousal hypothesis in insomnia 3. Functional imaging in insomnia C. Obstructive Sleep Apnea 1. Projected cause, symptoms and treatment of the sleep disorder 2. Structural brain changes in obstructive sleep apnea 3. Brain imaging of cognitive function in obstructive sleep disorder 4. Neural consequences related to the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea III. Methodology A. Neuropsychological examination B. Protocol description C. Subjects D. Keywords USE OF NEURAL IMAGING IN SLEEPING DISORDER E. Brain imaging F. Sleep analysis IV. Findings A. Narcolepsy 1. Hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin dysfunction B. Idiopathic Insomnia 1. Hyperarousal theory of insomnia resulting to increased neuronal activity C. Obstructive Sleep Apnea 1. Functional alterations in prefrontal, anterior cingulate, hippocampal, and parietal cortices V. Conclusion Where is the rest of the assignment? a) How you plan to address the issues, including what approaches and theories you will employ? (b) Why have you chosen this topic? (c) What do you hope to gain? (d) Why is it important/significant to examine this topic? Where is your annotated bibliography? 3 4 USE OF NEURAL IMAGING IN SLEEPING DISORDER References Anand, A., & Shekhar, A. (2003). Brain imaging studies in mood and anxiety disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 985(1), 370-388. Coleman, M. R., Davis, M. H., Rodd, J. M., Robson, T., Ali, A., Owen, A. M., & Pickard, J. D. (2009). Towards the routine use of brain imaging to aid the clinical diagnosis of disorders of consciousness. Brain, 132(9), 2541-2552. doi: Fox, M. D., & Raichle, M. E. (2007). Spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nature reviews neuroscience, 8(9), 700. Monti, M. M., Vanhaudenhuyse, A., Coleman, M. R., Boly, M., Pickard, J. D., Tshibanda, L., ... & Laureys, S. (2010). Willful modulation of brain activity in disorders of consciousness. New England Journal of Medicine, 362(7), 579-589. Nofzinger, E. A., Buysse, D. J., Germain, A., Price, J. C., Miewald, J. M., & Kupfer, D. J. (2004). Functional neuroimaging evidence for hyperarousal in insomnia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(11), 2126-2128. Proposal Grading Rubric Element Exemplary Proficient Introduction 3 points 2 points The introduction presents the overall topic and draws the audience into the presentation with compelling questions or by The introduction is clear and coherent and relates to the topic. Partially Proficient 1 point The introduction shows some structure but does not create a strong sense of what is to follow. May be overly detailed Unsatisfactory Points 0 points _1_/3 The introduction does not orient the audience to what will follow. The 5 USE OF NEURAL IMAGING IN SLEEPING DISORDER relating to the audience's interests or goals. Content Writing Mechanics Citations or incomplete and is somewhat appealing to the audience. 3 points 2 points 1 point The content is written clearly and concisely with a logical progression of ideas and supporting information. Information is accurate, current and comes mainly from primary sources. The content is written with a logical progression of ideas and supporting information. The content is vague in conveying a point of view and does not create a strong sense of purpose. Some of the information may not seem to fit. Sources used appear unreliable. 3 points 2 points 1 point The text is written with no errors in grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. The text is clearly written with little or no editing required for grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Spelling, punctuation, and grammar errors distract or impair readability. (3 or more errors) 3 points 2 points 1 point Sources of information are properly cited and the audience can determine the credibility and authority of the information presented. Most sources of information use proper citation format and sources are documented to make it possible to Sometimes copyright guidelines are followed and some information does not include proper citation format. sequencing is unclear and does not appear interesting or relevant to the audience. O points _2_/3 The content lacks a clear point of view and logical sequence of information. Information is incomplete, out of date and/or incorrect. Sequencing of ideas is unclear. 0 points _3_/3 Errors in spelling, capitalization, punctuation, usage and grammar repeatedly distract the reader and major editing and revision is required. (more than 5 errors) 0 points _2_/3 No way to check validity of information. USE OF NEURAL IMAGING IN SLEEPING DISORDER All sources of information are clearly identified and credited using appropriate APA citation format. 6 check on the accuracy of information. total 8/12 Be sure to follow the requirements for the assignment. Answer all of the questions. I think that your topic is fine, but there will be a lot of information out there. You might want to focus on a single sleeping disorder. Where is you annotated bibliography? Here is a web site that contains information about how to write an annotated bibliography: It is hard to evaluate your sources without the annotated bibliography. Also, which specific theories will you use? In the introduction of your paper you want to establish why it is important to study your topic. In the summary point out the limitations in the previous research and suggest areas for new research. Follow APA format. Be sure to follow the grading rubric for the final paper. Finally, please see my comments/corrections. 8/12 = .67

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School: UC Berkeley

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Outstanding Job!!!!

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