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can you add at east a few pages to this?

This essay should argue for the literary, cultural, or political significance of one or more of the

course’s assigned texts; the topic is subject to my pre-approval but otherwise up to you. Please

frame your argument as part of a larger intellectual conversation by citing at least three relevant

outside sources – e.g., book or film reviews, “middlebrow” essays (e.g., The Nation, New

Republic, or National Review), or academic books or articles (such as those found in the journal

Science Fiction Studies).

Effective scholarly writing often uses the “They Say, I Say” model, in which you summarize and

critique what other critics have said about your topic, then indicate how your understanding

differs from theirs, and finally defend that understanding with a well-reasoned argument of your


In The Philosophy of Literary Form, the literary theorist Kenneth Burke explains this dialogical

conception of literary study like this:

Imagine that you enter a parlor. You come late. When you arrive, others have long

preceded you, and they are engaged in a heated discussion, a discussion too heated

for them to pause and tell you exactly what it is about. In fact, the discussion had

already begun long before any of them got there, so that no one present is qualified

to retrace for you all the steps that had gone before. You listen for a while, until you

decide that you have caught the tenor of the argument; then you put in your oar.

Someone answers; you answer him; another comes to your defense; another aligns

himself against you, to either the embarrassment or gratification of your opponent,

depending upon the quality of your ally’s assistance. However, the discussion is

interminable. The hour grows late, you must depart. And you do depart, with the

discussion still vigorously in progress.

For practical guidance on joining in on Burke’s “unending conversation,” I recommend the book

They Say, I Say, by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein.

In your formal essay you should assume your audience is intelligent and reasonably well

informed, but not familiar with literary-critical jargon or the specific texts you will be discussing.

Running Head: Karl Marx: The Communist Manifesto The Communist Manifesto is a political pamphlet that was written by two Germany philosophers: Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx in 1849. The pamphlet was commissioned by the League of Communist and published in the United Kingdom. The Manifesto gained worldwide acclaim and political influence particularly during the political revolution of 1848 (Mark, 2012). In essence, the Manifesto presents an analytical and critical approach to the class struggle, the capitalism’s mode of production and challenges of capitalism rather than the communism’s prediction of future forms. The Communist Manifesto gives a summary by outlining Engels and Marx’ theories about the nature of politics in society; in their own words, the two philosophers argue that a history of all societies is the history of competition and class struggle (Mark, 2012). In a brief overview, the manifesto presets their ideologies for how forms of capitalism in society of the time would end up being replaced by socialism. Essentially, the Communist Manifesto is a reflection of the two philosophers’ attempt to explain and elaborate on the goals of Communism. The Manifesto also explains on the theory behind the communism movement. In the Manifesto, the two philosophers (Karl and Friedrich) argue that class struggle and exploitation of one class by another in society are the main propelling forces behind all historical developments. The Manifesto defines class struggle and relationship by means of production of a particular era or period. However, with time, this kind of relationship becomes incompatible with the developing forces of market production and exploitation. It is at this point that revolution occurs and new class emerges to rule over the other (Mark, 2012). 1 Running Head: Karl Marx: The Communist Manifesto This process, suggests Karl and Friedrich, depicts “the march of history” as motivated and propelled by economic forces in society. The modern industrial revolution in society is particularly characterized by class conflict and struggle between proletariat and bourgeoisie. However, the production forces of market capitalism, with time, become incompatible this exploitative and humiliating relationship. Eventually, the proletariat class declares a revolution (Rostow, 2010). Nevertheless, this kind of revolution tends to be of different characteristic nature than all the preceding ones – preceding revolutions being a reallocation of property and resources in favor of the ruling class. However, given the nature of their class in society, the proletariat members have no means of appropriating and distributing property. Hence, when the proletariats gain a full control they have a power to destroy the private ownership of property and this can lead to disappearance of all classes. The bourgeoisie as a class came to rise due to the effects of industrialization. Manufacture of goods was no longer under small groups but was now spread to more of the working class. As the demand and the market for products kept growing something had to be done to up production. (Mark, 2012). It is at this point that machinery was slowly introduced. The manufacturing industry would include more use of machines and division of labor. The owners of these manufacturing companies are what have come to be the owners and leaders of modern day industries hence the modern bourgeoisie The proletariat on the other hand consists of industry workers, most commonly referred to as the working class. Due to the use of machinery labor became more scarce and the laborers many in number. Their work now turned to manning of the machines under supervision by other laborers slightly above the proletariat’s payroll. Shopkeepers 2 Running Head: Karl Marx: The Communist Manifesto and other small tradesmen fall under this group too since their earning cannot compare to that of the bourgeoisie. Sex and age are no longer factors to consider for these laborers for they have to work hard for their pay. (Mark, 2012).They are practically slaves of their bourgeoisie counterparts kept under the strict watch of supervisors and managers all so that the more privileged maximize their profits. This oppression of the proletariat causes uproar and they have to fight back. They destroy the machinery they are supposed to man and burn down factories. In so doing they are putting to an end the machinery that competes with their provision of labor. This revolution starts with one worker and quickly spreads to those in a department and finally the whole workplace in retaliation to the bourgeoisie directly above them. (Rostow, 2010). The tools that are responsible for making the bourgeoisie rich are now used against them. These attacks however have little effect on the bourgeoisie as the workers causing trouble are few. With the growth in the industry so does the workers grow and hence increase the number of the rioters. Use of machinery greatly reduces their wages to a minimum and thus the need to fight for themselves. They form trade unions against the bourgeoisie since they realize they have to fight in all they numbers. They fight for increase in their wages and do this through contests and demonstrations that often turn into riots. The bourgeoisie are now backed into a corner and have to fulfill the workers demands but this victory does not last long. But the proletariat does not fade. (Mark, 2012). It is more a conservative group to maintain its livelihood. The small manufactures, peasants and shopkeepers struggle to maintain their relevance as members of the middle class. 3 Running Head: Karl Marx: The Communist Manifesto Economic development can be classified in five groups. The first is the traditional society. Here the society uses less technology since production is also small. What is produced equally satisfies all in the community hence no need for market expansion. Second we have the pre conditions for takeoff. (Rostow, 2010). Now technology is introduced to help in production but is met by resistance. This is the stage at which the traditional society is now being transformed to the modern one where the use of technology is more embraced. Third stage of economic growth is now the take off. Resistance met on the introduction of technology is now overcome. With the economy now modernized the economy grows steadily and so does the number of entrepreneurs in the private sector. Fourth stage is called the drive to maturity. With the use of technology in every sector of the economy it is now steady and even leads to increase in population. The economy however changes with change in technology and techniques as new industries are formed and the older ones fade. The last is the age of high mass consumption. (Rostow, 2010). An increase in economic growth leads to an increase in the standards of living. This now further leads to a population increase. The increased population and the fact that people are now fully using new products; leads to an increase in consumption of produced goods. Unexpectedly as the industry increases the bourgeoisie does not go with it. He instead sinks into poverty that he is now a pauper. With this new state the bourgeoisie is now not fit to make rules. Not fit to be a slave master and to have the proletariat under their rule. For in order to be a ruler over an oppressed class, certain conditions have to be met 4 Running Head: Karl Marx: The Communist Manifesto and the bourgeoisie no longer meets these conditions. Thus with his own doing the bourgeoisie has dug his own grave. The proletariat now rises and becomes victorious. In the Manifesto, the two philosophers argue that this development cannot be stopped and eventually occurs. They argue that market capitalism is unstable and will eventually fail. The purpose of communism is to promote and champion the ideals of revolution and have to promote associations and parties that are propelling history to its natural culmination. It is argued in the Manifesto that elimination of class struggle in society cannot and will not be borne of changes or reforms in the government, rather, revolution will be a must for any viable change (Rostow, 2010). 5 Running Head: Karl Marx: The Communist Manifesto Work cited Mark, K., & Engels, F. (2012). The communist manifesto. Penguin. Rostow, W. W. (2010). The stages of economic growth: A non-communist manifesto. Cambridge university press. 6

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School: UC Berkeley

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Wow this is really good.... didn't expect it. Sweet!!!!

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