2. Discuss the role of a technical specialist who might be needed to advise the IC in this setting

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2. Discuss the role of a technical specialist who might be needed to advise the IC in this setting. Choose any specialist you think appropriate. Be specific and thorough when you discuss the role.


Reading Assignment

1. Liberty County Plan EOP - ESSD Section 8

2. ESSD Section 9 - Resource Management Plan

MAIN TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1 2.0. Community Profile .................................................................................................................. 1 3.0. Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) ................................................................................... 1 4.0. Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act ................................................................... 1 5.0. Liberty County Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-651..................................... 1 6.0. Central City Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-468 .......................................... 1 7.0. Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency ........................................ 1 8.0. Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan ................................................................................... 1 9.0. Resource Management Plan ................................................................................................... 1 Appendix A. Key Facilities and Critical Workers ......................................................................... 1 Appendix B. Information Listing .................................................................................................. 1 Appendix C. Emergency Management .......................................................................................... 1 Appendix D. Communications ....................................................................................................... 1 Appendix E. Fire Service ............................................................................................................... 1 Appendix F. Law Enforcement ...................................................................................................... 1 Appendix G. Emergency Medical Services .................................................................................... 1 Appendix H. Liberty County Medical Resources .......................................................................... 1 Appendix I. Public Health ............................................................................................................. 1 Appendix J. Public Works/Utilities Organizations ....................................................................... 1 Appendix K. Private Sector Resources ........................................................................................... 1 Appendix L. Transportation ........................................................................................................... 1 Appendix M. Park and Recreation Resources ................................................................................. 1 Appendix N. Mass Care, Housing and Human Services ................................................................ 1 Appendix O. Special Facilities ...................................................................................................... 1 Appendix P. Shelter Information .................................................................................................. 1 Appendix Q. Educational Facilities ............................................................................................... 1 Appendix R. Animal and Agriculture Services .............................................................................. 1 Appendix S. National Guard – Unclassified .................................................................................. 1 Appendix T. Disaster Recovery Center Locations ......................................................................... 1 Appendix U. Federal Programs ...................................................................................................... 1 Appendix V. Media Resources ...................................................................................................... 1 Appendix W. Glossary and Terms ................................................................................................. 1 Appendix X. Authorities and References ...................................................................................... 1 Appendix Y. Acronyms and Abbreviations ................................................................................... 1 Appendix Z. Maps and Diagrams ................................................................................................. 1 Appendix AA. Organization Charts, Checklists, and Forms ............................................................. 1 Exercise Simulation System Document April 2012 Revision 3.0 1.0 INTRODUCTION The Exercise Simulation System Document (ESSD) has been prepared for the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS)/Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for use by the Emergency Management Institute (EMI) and other training and exercise organizations at the national, State, local, tribal, territorial governments, the private and nonprofit sectors, and the public. The ESSD is a compilation of information and resources that would typically be available in any community as they respond to and manage an emergency or disaster in a local community. EMI understands that not all communities are set up like the community described in this document. However, emergency responders and organizations may adapt the ESSD, as appropriate, in support of community-specific exercises and training events. The ESSD provides support for exercises ranging from the very simple to increasingly complex with participation of all levels of government (i.e., Federal, State, tribal, county, and local). When combined with scenarios, the ESSD facilitates the Incident Action Planning process and allows students to practice the onscene and off-scene coordination required by the National Incident Management System (NIMS) within the structure of an Emergency Operations Center/Multi-Agency Coordination Center (EOC/MACC). Introduction April 2012 Revision 3.0 1 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.0 COMMUNITY PROFILE TABLE OF CONTENTS 2.1. State of Columbia Profile ........................................................................................................ 3 2.1.1. General Description ......................................................................................................... 3 2.1.2. State Map.......................................................................................................................... 4 2.1.3. Roaring River Tribal Community (RRTC) ....................................................................... 5 2.1.4. Population ........................................................................................................................ 6 2.1.5. Government ...................................................................................................................... 7 2.1.6. Transportation.................................................................................................................. 8 2.1.6.1. Airports ..................................................................................................................... 8 2.1.6.2. International Airport ................................................................................................. 8 2.1.6.3. Regional Airports ...................................................................................................... 8 2.1.6.4. General Aviation Airports......................................................................................... 8 2.1.6.5. Seaport ...................................................................................................................... 8 2.2. Liberty County Profile ............................................................................................................. 9 2.2.1. General Description ......................................................................................................... 9 2.2.1.1. Coastal Liberty County ............................................................................................. 9 2.2.1.2. Liberty County Beaches and Marshes .................................................................... 10 2.2.1.3. Liberty Plateau ........................................................................................................ 11 2.2.1.4. Mineral Mountains .................................................................................................. 11 2.2.1.5. Albertville ............................................................................................................... 11 2.2.2. Liberty County Map ....................................................................................................... 13 2.2.3. Liberty County Demographics ....................................................................................... 14 2.2.4. Population ...................................................................................................................... 16 2.2.5. Liberty County Land Use ............................................................................................... 18 2.2.6. Civilian Labor Force...................................................................................................... 20 2.2.6.1. Residence-Based Employment ............................................................................... 20 2.2.6.2. Establishment-Based Employment ......................................................................... 18 2.2.7. Central City Map............................................................................................................ 19 2.2.8. Central City Demographics ........................................................................................... 19 2.2.9. Central City Population Zones ....................................................................................... 23 2.2.9.1. Central City Land Use ............................................................................................ 24 2.2.10. Central City Construction Types .................................................................................... 26 2.2.11. Liberty County Government ........................................................................................... 26 2.2.12. Liberty County Government Organizational Chart ....................................................... 27 2.2.13. Central City Government ............................................................................................... 27 2.2.14. Central City Government Organizational Chart ........................................................... 28 2.2.15. Governments of Other Communities in Liberty County ................................................. 29 2.2.16. Transportation................................................................................................................ 29 2.2.16.1. Roads....................................................................................................................... 29 2.2.16.2. Railroads ................................................................................................................. 30 2.2.16.3. Airport ..................................................................................................................... 30 2.2.16.4. Seaport .................................................................................................................... 30 2.2.17. Large Venues .................................................................................................................. 32 Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 1 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.2.17.1. Liberty Coliseum .................................................................................................... 32 2.2.17.2. Convention Center .................................................................................................. 30 2.2.17.3. John Chapman County Fairgrounds........................................................................ 30 2.2.17.4. Liberty County Fairgrounds .................................................................................... 30 2.2.17.5. Fluman Sloane Stadium .......................................................................................... 33 2.2.18. Major Employers ............................................................................................................ 33 2.2.19. Educational Facilities .................................................................................................... 36 2.2.20. Hospitals in Liberty County ........................................................................................... 37 Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 2 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.1. State of Columbia Profile 2.1.1. General Description The State of Columbia is roughly rectangular in shape and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and one State to the east, Canada to the north, Mexico to the south, and two States to the west. Columbia includes portions of three major natural regions of the United States: the Coastal Plain, the Liberty Plateau, and the Mineral Mountains. The Coastal Plain occupies about one-fifth of the State and rises gently to 500 feet from the Atlantic Ocean up to the Liberty Plateau. Included in the Coastal Plain are the Sea Islands off the coast of Columbia. The Liberty Plateau is an upland area that rises gradually from 400 feet to 1,200 feet along the northwestern edge. The Liberty Plateau is separated from the Coastal Plain by a major fault line. The Mineral Mountains in the northwestern corner of Liberty County meet the Liberty Plateau. This area of the county is a mountainous and mainly forested region. The land gradually flattens moving east in Columbia. All of the major rivers in Columbia flow generally south and southeastward across the State to the Atlantic Ocean. The four major rivers in Columbia are the Turtle River, Roaring River, the Big Blue River, and the Lonely River. There are no large natural lakes in Columbia besides Wolf’s Lake on the northern border, but several large lakes have been created for hydroelectric power purposes. The largest lakes are Lake Kilgore, Lake George, Lake Modor, Deer Lake, East Lake, and Guilz Lake. Columbia’s coastline extends 110 miles. However, if all bays, inlets, and islands are considered, the overall coastline measures 950 miles. Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 3 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.1.2. State Map Figure 2.1. State of Columbia Map Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 4 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.1.3. Roaring River Tribal Community (RRTC) RRTC has a population of 7,375 and is situated in the State of Columbia. It covers an area of about 1,200 square miles. It spans four counties: Liberty, Green, Kane, and Mineral. There are approximately 5,000 enrolled members living within the exterior boundaries of the tribal reservation. The population remains fairly constant throughout the year with no seasonal shifts. The rest of the population (2,375) within the tribal community is non-tribal members who provide goods and services within the tribal area. Figure 2.2. Roaring River Tribal Community Map Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 5 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.1.4. Population The current population of Columbia is 2,694,412. This population is spread among counties including the population of 1,232,000 in major cities as follows: County Apple Cass George Grand Granite Green Hamilton Johnson Kane Laye Liberty Lober Mineral Pine Redstone Stramford Witcher Total Population (2010 Census) 22,000 76,000 124,500 550,000 130,000 196,000 95,500 87,000 75,000 85,000 302,412 82,000 26,000 545,000 98,000 145,000 55,000 2,694,412 Table 2.1. Columbia Population by Counties City Triangle Porter Metropolis Jamestown Monroe Zurich Clifton Central City Capital City Brooksville Tower Beach County Cass George Grand Granite Green Green Kane Liberty Pine Redstone Stramford Total Population (2010 Census) 55,000 67,500 225,000 83,000 80,000 85,000 60,000 149,000 265,000 62,500 100,000 1,232,000 Table 2.2. Population of Major Cities in Columbia Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 6 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.1.5. Government Columbia has the standard State-level political structure (Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Attorney General, etc.). It also has a cabinet-level disaster preparedness and emergency response organization. The State maintains a State Office of Trade to support activities in its most important industries. Figure 2.3. State of Columbia Government Organizational Chart Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 7 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.1.6. Transportation As befitting a trade nexus, Columbia has a rich network of State roads and Interstate highways. Interstate 102 (I-102) cuts across the State from northwest to southeast and connects Capital City in Pine County with Central City in Liberty County. The interstate continues east to Monroe where it follows the coast to the northeast. Interstate 107 (I-107) goes from the northern-most part of the State in George County south through Metropolis in Grand County to Central City in Liberty County. From Central City, I-107 continues south where it terminates in Bayport on Masland Island. Numerous, well maintained State roads connect population and recreation centers throughout the State. Rail lines also connect the major commercial and industrial areas of the State. In the northern part of the State, a commercial rail line connects Metropolis with Brooksville in the east, with Capital City in the southwest, and with States located west of Columbia. In the south, a rail line connects Central City with Monroe and Clifton to the east and northeast and with Bayport and Tower Beach to the southwest and south. Train traffic also is routed to Mexico through Tower Beach and to Canada through Hot Springs. Light rail systems support the transportation needs of Central City, Capital City, and Metropolis. Major seaports, an international airport, and several regional airports support the transportation needs of Columbia residents and businesses. 2.1.6.1. Airports There are nine airports in Columbia. There is one international airport, four regional airports and four general aviation airports located in eight Columbia Counties. 2.1.6.2. International Airport Liberty International Airport in Kingston includes a full international terminal handling both passengers and freight. Connecting flights connect Kingston with Capital City, Metropolis, and other regional airports through Columbia and the United States. 2.1.6.3. Regional Airports Columbia regional airports are located in Monroe, Clifton, Capital City, and Metropolis. These airports handle both passengers and freight. All Columbia regional airports have connecting flights to Liberty International, Atlanta, and Cincinnati. 2.1.6.4. General Aviation Airports Columbia general aviation airports are located near the towns of Annville, Wexler, Phillipboro, and Holdrese. These small single runway airports handle business and private planes from across the country but no commercial flights. They handle Federal Express (FedEx) and United Parcel Service (UPS) aircraft daily but no other regular freight. 2.1.6.5. Seaport The Bayport Seaport is located on the eastern end of Masland Island. It has separate facilities for passenger and cargo vessels. During World War II (WWII), national strategic requirements resulted in the construction of an oil refinery in Bayport at the eastern tip of Masland Island. This refinery Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 8 Exercise Simulation System Document has recently received a major upgrade that increased its overall efficiency. There is a major fuel depot serving the mainland seaport on the outskirts of Fisherville. 2.2. Liberty County Profile Liberty County is primarily a rural coastal county of 302,412 people. There are ten incorporated communities in the county: Central City, Apple Valley, Bayport, Blue Water, Deep River, Fisherville, Gold Mine (part of the Roaring River Tribal Community), Harvest Junction, Jasper, and Kingston. 2.2.1. General Description 2.2.1.1. Coastal Liberty County The coastal areas of Liberty County were settled in 1752 by Welsh colonists who were attracted to the area’s plentiful fishing and hunting grounds. Fisherville was the first permanent community, established by charter in 1756. The town grew as more colonists arrived to settle in Columbia. In those times, Fisherville served as an important port and trading post for colonists who went up the Turtle River to settle the inland areas of the new colony. Soon after the American Revolution, tragedy struck the area in the form of the “Great Storm of 1780”, which all but wiped out the established settlements. Based on historical records, experts believe that this storm was at least a Category Three hurricane. Because of this storm, many survivors left the area for higher ground, many of whom settled in the community of Albertville which is now Central City. Those who remained at the coast established two new communities on the barrier islands. Bayport was founded by merchant Joshua Masland in 1781, and Buffets Landing was founded in 1784, led by fisherman James Buffet. These three communities—Fisherville, Bayport, and Buffets Landing—remained quiet fishing villages until the late 1880s when Bayport was “discovered” by railroad baron Robert Van Deusen. He and other wealthy industrialists from Central City bought up huge tracts of land on eastern Masland Island for seashore summer homes. To more easily access the area, Van Deusen built a spur of his Great Atlantic and Pacific (GA&P) Railroad to Fisherville and began regular ferry service to Bayport in 1891. The “Great Storm of 1934” ended this era of Bayport’s history. This storm, with sustained winds of 130 mph and a 12-foot storm surge, destroyed homes in Bayport and the railroad line. Because of the extent of the Great Depression, most of the private property in the area was taken over by the cities of Bayport and Fisherville due to unpaid taxes. All of these events contributed to make Bayport what it is today. Former engineer and then Bayport Mayor Bernard Marshall established a master plan for the city in 1938. He laid out the street grid envisioning a “…community of cottages for the common man. The beauty and grandeur of the sea should be available to all.” Marshall took advantage of New Deal era public works projects to begin street construction. WWII and the accompanying defense-related industrial requirements slowed these efforts, but at the end of the war development began. This includes the role of Bayport and a freight and passenger port. Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 9 Exercise Simulation System Document Through the 1950s, Bayport’s potential as a summer resort was hampered because it was only accessible by ferry or private boat. During this time, it remained primarily a fishing village with clusters of small summer homes and a few inns. Most of the year-round residents were retirees. 2.2.1.2. Liberty County Beaches and Marshes The southern border of Liberty County enjoys the benefits of several well managed coastal areas. In these areas, ocean beaches, barrier islands, State parks, and wildlife preserves coexist with modern commercial shipping piers and vacation-oriented ocean liners. Figure 2.4. Liberty County Beaches and Marshes Map Liberty County’s beaches have become famous for their diversification; the four public beaches offer something for everyone. Hayward Beach on the Atlantic Ocean is a surfer’s paradise complete with State-run lifeguard facilities, two sandwich shops, and public restrooms. Masland Beach situated on Columbia Bay is a haven for families with children due to its calm and warm waters. Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 10 Exercise Simulation System Document Like Hayward Beach, Masland Beach is also State run with a dozen lifeguard stands and information building for both the beach and Hayward State Park, picnic facilities, and a small shopping center with a grocery store and bait and tackle shop. Fisherville and Casper Park Beaches are both largely protected from the waves of the Atlantic Ocean by the barrier islands. These two beaches are nationally protected wetland interface beaches due to their close proximity to the large brackish water swamps. Pelican, Lowell, and Jordan Marshes are separate from the beach marshes. Unlike other regional marshes which contain brackish water, they contain fresh water from ground springs and rain. This Liberty County stretch of waterfront is serviced by Coastal Highway State Route (SR) 1 which runs parallel to the coast and is situated on relatively high ground that runs through the marsh. Additionally, the GA&P Railroad runs roughly parallel to SR 1. 2.2.1.3. Liberty Plateau The Liberty Plateau is primarily an agricultural area that stretches from Jasper in the southern part of the county to the Mineral Mountains in the northwest corner of the county. Cash crops in this fertile area include sugar cane, sweet potatoes, cotton, soy beans, and a variety of vegetable crops. Central City, the County Seat, is a major transportation hub that moves people and goods throughout the State of Columbia and beyond. Some light industry is also present in the towns of Deep River and Harvest Junction. On the western side of the plateau is the Van Deusen Park and Campground, a major outdoor recreation area that brings in tourists from across the United States. Activities in the park include water sports, hiking, and nature watching. 2.2.1.4. Mineral Mountains The Mineral Mountains are full of hardwoods like maple, oak, and walnut as well as pine trees. These mountains cut across the northwest corner of Liberty County. This sparsely populated area is used extensively by the timber industry. Fall foliage is a major tourist attraction in the autumn. 2.2.1.5. Albertville Albertville was founded in 1753 by a group of farmers moving south from the coastal regions of North Carolina. They left North Carolina to avoid the depredations of one of the county sheriffs who disliked their outspoken minister, Davidson Fowler, and tried to tax their corn mash. Some historians feel that this protest is the earliest recorded anti-government sentiment in what became the United States. In 1927, in her epoch history of the State of Columbia titled Mineral Mountains Heart of America, Marion Fluman suggested that this event was the birthplace of the American Revolution. While other historians do not universally agree with Ms. Fluman, there is no doubt that Albertville, named after the Grand Duke of Liechtenstein, was the earliest non-coastal community in Columbia. In 1778, after significant debate, Loyal County was renamed Liberty County. The city of Albertville, now Central City, has served as the county seat from 1781 through the present time. The city also was the seat of the Columbia State government from 1776 until 1799. It developed Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 11 Exercise Simulation System Document into a bustling commercial center for the mostly agricultural county due to its sea access, an important feature for the small barges in use at the time. Not much of historic Albertville can be seen today. Other than the residential neighborhood called Albertville around R and 15th, most buildings were demolished during and after the Civil War. The neighborhood of Albertville is made up of 35 homes. They consist of some of the finest examples of Corinthian and Doric architectural design in the United States. For almost 35 years, these columned homes allowed Albertville to challenge other communities—such as West Chester, Pennsylvania—for the title of “Athens of America.” This was a major coup during America’s Greek revival period. Some of these homes rival those located in some of the best neighborhoods of Washington, Richmond, and Philadelphia. Albertville and its residents are engaged in obtaining additional National Historic Register classifications for a number of the homes. Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 12 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.2.2. Liberty County Map Figure 2.5. Liberty County Map Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 13 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.2.3. Liberty County Demographics Liberty County is primarily a rural county with a population of 302,412 people. The following tables summarize the profile of general demographic characteristics of Liberty County at the present. Characteristic Total Population Total Households Total Housing Units Median Age Average Household Size Average Family Size Homeowner Vacancy Rate Rental Vacancy Rate Average Household Size of Owner-Occupied Units Average Household Size of Renter-Occupied Units Data 302,412 122,214 146,217 35 2.59 3.14 1.7% 6.8% 2.69 2.40 Table 2.3. Liberty County General Demographics Characteristic Male Female Total Population Number 148,484 153,928 302,412 Percent 49.1 50.9 100 Table 2.4. Liberty County Total Population by Sex Characteristic One race • White • Black or African American • Hispanic • American Indian and Alaska Native • Asian • Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander • Some other race Two or more races Number 293.154 183,011 40,600 47,224 3,722* 2,122 604 6,613 9,258 Percent 97.0 60.5 13.4 15.6 1.2 0.7 0.2 2.2 3.1 *2,722 is the Liberty County Portion of the Roaring River Tribal Community population Table 2.5. Liberty County Total Population by Race Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 14 Exercise Simulation System Document Characteristic Number 293,944 8,468 In households In group quarters Percent 97.2 2.8 Table 2.6. Liberty County Total Population by Relationship Characteristic Family households (families) Number 83,228 Percent 68.1 Non-family households Total Households 38,986 122,214 31.9 100 Table 2.7. Liberty County Total Population by Household by Type Characteristic Households with individuals under 18 years Households with individuals 65 years + Number 43,997 28,598 Percent 36.0 23.4 Table 2.8. Liberty County Total Population by Household by Age Characteristic Number Percent Occupied housing units 133,057 91.0 Vacant housing units 13,160 9.0 146,217 100 Total Housing Units Table 2.9. Liberty County Total Population by Housing Occupancy Characteristic Owner-occupied housing units Number 88,084 Renter-occupied housing units 44,973 33.8 Total Occupied Housing Units 133,057 100 Table 2.10. Liberty County Total Population by Housing Tenure Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 15 Percent 66.2 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.2.4. Population The following tables present the population growth of Liberty County from 1960 to the present and the population distribution for incorporated and unincorporated areas in Liberty County. The population of Liberty County by the year 2010 is expected to be in excess of 330,000. Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 16 Exercise Simulation System Document Year Current 2010 2000 1990 1980 1970 Population 302,412 284,912 247,251 219,641 184,073 153,394 Table 2.11. Liberty County Population Growth Location Central City Apple Valley Bayport Blue Water Deep River Fisherville Gold Mine Harvest Junction Jasper Kingston Unincorporated Areas Total Population 149,00 5,500 15,500* 4,500 14,000 23,000** 6,500*** 21,000 5,000 17,000 41,412 302,412 *Bayport’s population increases by 100,000 in the summer. **Fisherville’s population increases by 50,000 in the summer. ***Gold Mine’s populations is split between members and non-members of the RRTC and totals may not match. Table 2.12. Liberty County Population Distribution Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 17 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.2.5. Liberty County Land Use Liberty County is a rural area that has large tracts of forests, grazing lands, and farmlands. Industrial areas are located in Central City, Bayport, Kingston, and Harvest Junction. These industrial areas are found along the GA&P Railroad, I-102, and I-107. The Bayport industrial area is located in the vicinity of the port. The following map identifies the primary land use areas of Liberty County. Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 18 Exercise Simulation System Document Figure 2.6. Liberty County Land Use Map Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 19 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.2.6. Civilian Labor Force 2.2.6.1. Residence-Based Employment Current 2010 2009 2008 2007 Nonagricultural wage/salary workers Employed Labor Force 64,595 65,712 66,813 65,353 63,786 Other nonagricultural workers 12,520 13,012 12,540 12,570 12,555 Agricultural workers 11,330 88,445 11,340 90,064 11,330 90,683 11,350 89,273 11,380 87,721 Employed Total Table 2.13. Employed Residence-Based Civilian Labor Force Unemployed Labor Force Percent of civilian labor force Unemployed Total Current 10.2% 2010 8.5% 2009 8.3% 2008 7.9% 2007 8.9% 10,045 8,366 8,207 7,657 8,569 Table 2.14. Unemployed Civilian Labor Force Percentages 2.2.6.2. Establishment-Based Employment Labor Force Construction Finance, insurance, and real estate Government Mining Manufacturing (total) Non-manufacturing Service and miscellaneous Transportation and utilities Wholesale and retail Total Current 2010 2009 2008 2007 3,939 4,136 25,547 4,924 12,382 77,000 19,993 4,432 19,698 172,051 3,930 4,030 26,004 4,896 12,608 77,900 19,773 4,550 19,760 173,451 3,936 4,050 25,970 4,890 12,695 78,000 19,770 4,540 19,770 173,621 3,990 4,045 25,420 4,950 12,498 77,000 19,820 4,600 19,840 172,163 3,900 4,131 24,905 4,940 12,280 76,000 19,690 4,486 19,665 169,997 Table 2.15. Establishment-Based Civilian Labor Force Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 20 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.2.7. Central City Map Central City (population 149,000) is the county seat for Liberty County. Figure 2.7. Central City Map 2.2.8. Central City Demographics The following tables summarize the profile of general demographics characteristics of Central City at the present. Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 21 Exercise Simulation System Document Characteristic State Total Population Total Households Total Housing Units Median Age Average Household Size Average Family Size Homeowner Vacancy Rate Rental Vacancy Rate Average Household Size of Owner-Occupied Units Average Household Size of Renter-Occupied Units Data Columbia 149,000 60,215 72,042 35 2.59 3.14 1.7% 6.8% 2.69 2.40 Table 2.16. Central City General Demographics Characteristic Number 73,159 75,841 149,000 Male Female Total Population Percent 49.1 50.9 100 Table 2.17. Central City Total Population by Sex Characteristic One race • White • Hispanic • Black or African American • American Indian and Alaska Native • Asian • Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander • Some other race Two or more races Number 144,272 70,451 29,417 31,327 1,000 8,584 298 3,195 4,728 Percent 96.8 47.2 19.7 21.0 0.7 5.7 0.2 2.1 3.2 Table 2.18. Central City Total Population by Race Characteristic In households In group quarters Number 144,828 Percent 97.2 4,172 2.8 Table 2.19. Central City Total Population by Relationship Characteristic Family households (families) Non-family households Total Households Number 41,006 Percent 68.1 19,209 60,215 31.9 100 Table 2.20. Central City Total Population by Household by Type Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 22 Exercise Simulation System Document Characteristic Households with individuals under 18 years Households with individuals 65 years + Number 21,678 14,090 Percent 36.0 23.4 Table 2.21. Central City Total Population by Household by Age Characteristic Occupied housing units Vacant housing units Total Housing Units Number 65,558 6,484 72,042 Percent 91.0 9.0 100 Table 2.22. Central City Total Population by Housing Occupancy Characteristic Owner-occupied housing units Renter-occupied housing units Total Occupied Housing Units Number 43,399 22,159 65,558 Percent 66.2 33.8 100 Table 2.23. Central City Total Population by Housing Tenure 2.2.9. Central City Population Zones Zone Number 1 2 A B 3 4 C D 5 6 E 7 8 9 F 10 11 12 G 13 14 Community Profile April 2012 Zone Type Single Family Housing Single Family Housing Multi-Family Housing Multi-Family Housing Single Family Housing Single Family Housing Multi-Family Housing Multi-Family Housing Single Family Housing Single Family Housing Multi-Family Housing Single Family Housing Single Family Housing Single Family Housing Multi-Family Housing Single Family Housing Single Family Housing Single Family Housing Multi-Family Housing Single Family Housing Single Family Housing Revision 3.0 23 Population 5,000 6,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 12,000 6,000 2,000 1,000 13,000 4,000 2,000 4,000 9,000 4,000 3,000 2,500 5,500 4,000 2,500 3,000 Exercise Simulation System Document Zone Number H Commercial and Downtown Areas Zone Type Multi-Family Housing Population 4,000 Single and Multi-Family Housing Total Population 44,500 149,000 Table 2.24. Central City Population Zones 2.2.9.1. Central City Land Use Central City is a diverse city that has several clearly defined land use areas within the city boundaries. Industrial areas are located along the east/west main line of the GA&P Railroad and along the west side of the Roaring River. Commercial areas are found along SRs 5/10, 13, and 100. Commercial areas are also found along 15th Street and along I-107. Single family subdivisions are found throughout the city. Several multi-family housing complexes are located in the city. Two of these complex areas are located west of the river and six are located east of the river. There is a robust downtown area that contains several high-rise office buildings east of the river, south of SR 5/10, and north of the railroad. Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 24 Exercise Simulation System Document Figure 2.8. Central City Land Use Map Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 25 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.2.10. Central City Construction Types Construction Single Family Dwellings Multi-Family Dwellings Industrial Buildings Commercial Buildings Description Predominantly wood frame with some unreinforced masonry structures. No significant support at the foundations; cripple stud foundations. Predominantly wood frame for the smaller units. For larger units in the older part of the city, mainly unreinforced masonry. Larger units in the newer part of the city are either reinforced concrete or steel frame. In the older parts of the city, unreinforced masonry. In the newer parts, a mix of reinforced concrete, steel frame, and tilt-up wall structures. In the older parts of the city, low rise commercial buildings are either unreinforced masonry or wood frame. High rise buildings in these areas are unreinforced masonry. In newer parts of the city, low-rise buildings are reinforced concrete or steel frame. Table 2.25. Central City Construction Types The State of Columbia has adopted a statewide minimum building code. Liberty County and the City of Columbia adopted the standard in 2009 for compliance with the sprinkler requirement that all new construction and structure retrofits in excess of 51% of existing building will meet said standard. 2.2.11. Liberty County Government The governing body of Liberty County is the Board of Supervisors, consisting of five individuals. The members of the board are elected at large for staggered four-year terms and serve on a part-time basis. The board elects one of its own members as president to direct meetings. It also selects a county manager, county clerk, and county attorney to serve at its pleasure. The Columbia State Constitution specifies that counties elect the following 17 county officials (although the law makes allowances for varying county size): • Supervisors (5) • Sheriff • Recorder of Deeds • Clerk of Courts • District Attorney • Treasurer • Board of Schools (7) The county manager, selected by the Board of Supervisors, is responsible for all day-to-day operations of the county government. The county manager selects five deputies to oversee county departments and offices: • Public Information Officer (PIO) • Internal Auditor • Assistant County Managers (2) • Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Other officials are provided by statute. County Supervisor appointed authorities operate the East Lake Dam. The East Lake Dam provides water to northern Liberty County and southern Mineral County, the Liberty Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 26 Exercise Simulation System Document International Airport, and the Bayport Seaport. Liberty County Airport Authority operates the Liberty County International Airport in Kingston The County Courthouse is located in the Palmer Building at X and 19th Streets. There is an alternate Emergency Operations Center (EOC). • • • • • The Nelson Center at FF & 11th Streets houses the Liberty County: Health Department Housing and Humans Services Department Planning and Zoning Department Community Services Department 2.2.12. Liberty County Government Organizational Chart Figure 2.9. Liberty County Government Organizational Chart 2.2.13. Central City Government The government of Central City is a council-manager form with seven council members comprising the legislative body. The council is elected at large on a nonpartisan ballot for four-year terms. The council elects one of its own members as mayor to preside over meetings and to vote on matters before the council; the mayor has no veto power. Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 27 Exercise Simulation System Document The city manager, who is the chief administrative officer of the city, is selected by the council and serves at its pleasure. The city manager is responsible for all day-to-day operations of city government. The city manager carries out the ordinances of the council, makes recommendations to the council, prepares and executes the annual budget, negotiates with labor unions, and appoints and removes department heads and other administrative personnel. The manager has no vote in council meetings. City Hall is located at Z and 21st Streets. 2.2.14. Central City Government Organizational Chart Figure 2.10. Central City Government Organizational Chart Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 28 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.2.15. Governments of Other Communities in Liberty County The governments of smaller communities in Liberty County are organized as follows: • • Communities of 0 to 25,000 have a mayor and a five-member council. Communities of 25,000 to 50,000 have a mayor and a seven-member council. Figure 2.11. Other Communities in Liberty County Government Organizational Chart 2.2.16. Transportation 2.2.16.1. Roads Interstate I-107 I-102 Description Coastal Liberty County to Mineral County through the western portion of Central City Green County to Granite County passing southwest of Central City Alignment North-South East-West Table 2.26. Liberty County Interstate Highways State Roads Description Alignment State Route 3 Apple Valley to the Coastal Highway North-South State Route 19 From Mineral County through Central City to Coastal Highway North-South Highway 69 Harvest Junction through Kingston and Jasper to the Coastal Highway North-South State Route 13 Central City to SR 52 North-South Forder Pike Jasper towards Central City (from SR19 to SR 69) North-South Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 29 Exercise Simulation System Document State Roads Description Alignment Fowler Pike Central City north to SR 52 (part of SR 5) North-South Orchard Pike Deep River past Apple Valley North-South State Route 1 Coastal Highway connects to I-107 East-West State Route 1A Island Highway East-West State Route 5 Gold Mine to Central City East-West State Route 18 Jasper to Van Deusen Park and Campground East-West State Route 10 Harvest Junction through Central City to Apple County East-West State Route 52 South of Gold Mine past East Lake East-West State Route 100 From I-102 east through Central City to SR 10 East-West State Route 22 From Hwy 69 east through Harvest Junction to Green County East-West Note: See Figure 2.7., “Liberty County Map” for reference. Table 2.27. Liberty County State Roads 2.2.16.2. Railroads The GA&P Railroad operates and maintains two lines within Liberty County. The line running east-west, paralleling SR 10, is both a passenger and a freight route. Passenger trains are scheduled to pass through Central City daily at 7:30 a.m., noon, and 5 p.m. There are four freight trains scheduled during the late evening and mid-morning hours. The rail line running from Mexico through Tower Beach to Fisherville continuing through Jasper is strictly a freight line, hauling mining machinery and material. An excursion railroad, the Liberty Railway Adventures (LRA), runs sightseeing and dinner theme trains during warm weather to Van Deusen Park and to Bayport. 2.2.16.3. Airport The Liberty International Airport, located east of Kingston in the southeast part of the State, is capable of handling large passenger and cargo planes. With runways of 9,000, 10,300, and 13,120 feet, the Liberty International Airport has the capability of serving all commercial aircraft in use. Direct flights are available to the District of Columbia (DC), New York, Atlanta, Detroit, Dallas/ Fort Worth, Chicago, Charlotte, Newark, and Houston. There is also a dedicated freight facility for international air cargo shipments. The international freight terminal handles daily flights from Canada and Mexico as well as weekly flights from many major European cities. Occasional flights from the Middle East are also scheduled. Last year there were approximately 33,000 departures from Liberty International, with 810,796 passengers boarding flights. Additionally, 300,000 pounds of United States (U.S.) Mail and 4,750,000 pounds of freight were handled at Liberty International Airport. 2.2.16.4. Seaport The Bayport Seaport is located in the city of Bayport on the eastern part of Masland Island. Cargo and cruise ships moor at a special series of docks located east of I-107. West of I-107, private Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 30 Exercise Simulation System Document vessels moor at the municipal piers. A fuel depot (tank farm) serves the seaport on the mainland just south of Fisherville. There is a significant fishing operation on the Columbia Bay between Masland Island and the primary shore of Columbia. It runs from Bayport to the southwest end of the island. Many sport fishermen operate from Bayport, Fisherville, Harbor Place, and Tower Beach locations. Note: CSU = Columbia State University, ICE = Immigration and Customs Enforcement, LNG = Liquefied Natural Gas, NPS = National Park Service, SS = Substation, USCG = United States Coast Guard Figure 2.12. Buffets Landing (Unincorporated), City of Bayport Map Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 31 Exercise Simulation System Document 2.2.17. Large Venues 2.2.17.1. Liberty Coliseum The Liberty Coliseum was completed in 1985 and accommodates the Lightning, a semiprofessional basketball team; the Pounders, a semiprofessional hockey team; and the Liberty Regional Concert Orchestra. The coliseum seats 12,000 people and has parking facilities for 8,000 cars. It is located at the intersection of SR 10 and I-102. 2.2.17.2. Convention Center The Convention Center was erected in 1976 and has 95,000 square feet of usable floor space, 350 exhibit booths, and meeting space for 8,000 people. It is co-located with the Liberty Coliseum and shares parking facilities. 2.2.17.3. John Chapman County Fairgrounds The John Chapman Fairgrounds is located on SR 3 just south of Apple Valley. In continuous operation since 1887, the fairgrounds houses an outdoor stage, exhibit rinks, and indoor displays as well as food tents and animal exhibits. There is parking for 5,400 cars, and it is within walking distance of the Apple Valley Railroad Station. 2.2.17.4. Liberty County Fairgrounds The Liberty County Fairgrounds are centrally located within one mile of Interstate 107, just northwest of Central City. The indoor and outdoor facilities at the Liberty County Fairgrounds are available for rent and are utilized throughout most of the year. Trade fairs, craft shows, festivals, and the annual Liberty County fair and rodeo are hosted at the fairgrounds. The land area consists of 127 acres. On-site parking is available for 7,500 vehicles. Overnight RV parking is also available. Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 32 Exercise Simulation System Document Figure 2.13. Liberty County Fairgrounds Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 33 Exercise Simulation System Document Building # 1 Name Event Center 2 Multi-Purpose Exhibit Hall #1 3 Exhibit Hall #2 (Blue Exhibit Hall) 4 Indoor Arena 5 Butler Livestock Barn 6 Fleming Livestock Barn • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 7 Outdoor Arena • 8 Horse Stalls 9 Outdoor Stage Community Profile April 2012 • • • • • • • • Amenities 93,000 sq. ft. heated indoor arena 150' x 300' arena floor (dirt floor) Fully equipped for rodeos and horse events 100' x 300' concrete exhibit and bleacher seating Two concession booths 60' x 300' livestock barn with wash racks ATM is available at the front entrance. Permanent bleacher seating is 3,100 but seating capacity depends on the event. Fairgrounds Business Office 104' x 110' Hall #1 Maximum seating is 900 people. One concession counter Two 40' x 40' air conditioned meeting rooms Seating capacity for each room is 85–100 people. Restrooms 60' x 70' multiple use space Maximum seating is 250 people. Air conditioned One concession counter Restrooms 30,000 sq. ft. heated indoor arena 100' x 240' arena floor (dirt floor) 25' x 240' concrete exhibit and bleacher seating Full-service concession stand Bleacher seating is 900 but portable bleachers are available. Restrooms 60' x 300' open sided North end of the barn has an 80' concrete slab. Wash racks are adjacent to the barn for washing and grooming animals. 60' x 180' metal building. West side of the building is sided; the rest is open. Wash racks are adjacent to the barn for washing and grooming animals. Building may be used for a multitude of events or projects (animal pens, displays, portable stalls, or exhibit area). Restrooms with showers 150' x 260' paneled arena (lighting available for evening events) Fully equipped for rodeos and horse-related events (8 bucking chutes, roping chute, pens, return alleys, fully enclosed announcers stand with public address (PA) system, warm up area, and stripping chute). Partially covered spectator seating (approximately 900 permanent seats) Covered handicapped seating Restrooms 88 permanent horse stalls, fully enclosed with split doors 14 open faced stalls 80 additional portable stalls are available under a covered 56' x 250' barn 18' x 20' covered stage Park-like setting Special stage lighting not available; utility power available Revision 3.0 34 Exercise Simulation System Document 10 RV Parking 11 Grandstand • • • • • Spaces available year-round Power, water, and sewer hookups available Balcony seating for 2,000 Ground floor standing for 4,000 Night racing under the lights in the summer season Table 2.28. Liberty County Fairground Facilities 2.2.17.5. Fluman Sloane Stadium Located just northeast of Harvest Junction is Fluman Sloane Stadium, home of the Central City Pounders, a Double A affiliate of the Baltimore Orioles. The stadium is also used for baseball playoffs of local college and high school teams. It has outdoor seating for 9,700 and parking for 5,100 cars. 2.2.18. Major Employers The following is a partial listing of the county’s major employers, their products or services, and their number of employees: Facility Bayport Refinery Employees 1302 Product Oil Refinery Bayport Seaport 1143 Shipping & Receiving Blue Water Nuclear Facility 1039 Electricity Central City Hospital 958 Medical Facility Colonial Baking Company 626 Baking Columbia State Prison 1300 State Prison Columbia State University 2062 Education Columbia Veterans Hospital 564 Medical Facility Criswell Chemical 1207 Chemical Refining Dorsey Drug Company 510 Medicine Dupont Chemical 4243 Missile Fuel, Solvents Edison Electric 455 Electric Generation & Distribution Eicker Electronics 876 Electronic Components Faith Hospital 620 Medical Facility Farmers A&M University 725 Educational Fay Fertilizer Company 401 Fertilizer Fisherville Port Fuel Enbarquement Facility 403 Bulk Oil Reception from Barges and Tankers Fisherville Bulk Fuel Storage 407 Fuel Storage Fisherville LNG Bulk Storage 457 LNG Storage and Transfer Facility Great Grapes Winery 401 Wine Huge Mining Company Lance Glass Company 5010 450 Coal Glass/Bottles Liberty County Regional Postal Facility 750 Regional Postal Services Liberty International Airport 1027 Air Transportation Palumbo Plastics Company 417 Plastics Table 2.29. Liberty County Major Employers Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 35 Exercise Simulation System Document Liberty County Library System Liberty County has created an extensive library system that has established a library in each incorporated Liberty County community. The Liberty County Library System has ten branch locations all supported through the main branch in Central City. The table below shows where those libraries are located. The main library has 50 employees that provide administrative, logistical, and maintenance support for all of the branches. The main library also runs a bookmobile to outlying areas of the county. Liberty County began training library employees to work as Public Information Officers (PIOs) during emergencies in the late 1990’s. This program has become very successful and has been copied by several jurisdictions in the State of Columbia. Name Central City Branch Central City Main Apple Valley Branch Bayport Branch Blue Water Branch Deep River Branch Fisherville Branch Gold Mine Branch Harvest Junction Branch Jasper Branch Kingston Branch Address Location D & 10th Streets U & 22nd Streets 123 Van Deusen Park Hwy 816 Marine Blvd 46 Comanche Drive 722 Main Street 1433 Coastal Highway 89 Cherokee Drive 445 King Street 14 Center Street 224 Market Street Central City Central City Apple Valley Bayport Blue Water Deep River Fisherville Gold Mine Harvest Junction Jasper Kingston Number of Employees Number of Trained PIOs 12 50 5 8 3 8 9 3 10 8 8 3 7 0 2 0 2 2 0 3 0 2 Table 2.30. Liberty County Library System 2.2.19. Educational Facilities The county encompasses six school districts including Liberty County School District, Central City Municipal Separate School District, Fisherville Municipal Separate School District, Harvest Junction Municipal Separate School District, Kingston Municipal Separate School District, and the Bayport Municipal School District. Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 36 Exercise Simulation System Document The county’s public school enrollment for the last ten years is as follows: School Year Present Last year 2 years ago 3 years ago 4 years ago 5 years ago 6 years ago 7 years ago 8 years ago 9 years ago 10 years ago Enrollment 28,429 27,596 27,485 27,205 27,060 26,915 26,795 26,589 26,390 26,291 26,112 Table 2.31. Liberty County Public School Enrollment Columbia State University (CSU), located at KK Street and 29th Street in Central City, has an annual enrollment of 15,000 students. Farmers A&M University, also located in Central City at GG Street and 4th Street, has an annual enrollment of 5,500 students. 2.2.20. Hospitals in Liberty County Hospital Central City Hospital Columbia Veterans Hospital Faith Hospital Levine Hospital Bayport Clinic Noble General Hospital Harvest Junction Community Hospital Kingston Regional Medical Facility Address D & 31st Streets J & 7th Streets S & 14th Streets MM & 17th Streets 5th Ave & Bay Blvd S & 1st Streets C & 3rd Streets P & 18th Streets Table 2.32. Hospital Locations Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 37 Location Central City Central City Central City Central City Bayport Fisherville Harvest Junction Kingston Beds 360 100 110 43 10 100 100 100 Exercise Simulation System Document Blank Intentionally Community Profile April 2012 Revision 3.0 38 3.0 HAZARD/VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS (HVA) TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.1. Columbia State/Liberty County Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) ....................................... 3 3.1.1. Terrorism (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear Explosive [CBRNE]) Event ...................................................................................................................................... 3 3.1.2. Hurricane.......................................................................................................................... 7 3.1.3. Flood ................................................................................................................................. 9 3.1.4. Earthquake...................................................................................................................... 13 3.1.5. Tornado .......................................................................................................................... 13 3.1.6. Wildland Fires ................................................................................................................ 13 3.1.7. Severe Weather ............................................................................................................... 14 3.1.8. Winter Storms ................................................................................................................. 14 3.1.9. Blizzards ......................................................................................................................... 14 3.1.10. Ice Storms ....................................................................................................................... 15 3.1.11. Agricultural Disaster ...................................................................................................... 15 3.1.12. Drought ........................................................................................................................... 16 3.1.13. Pandemic Illness (Specifically Pandemic Influenza)..................................................... 16 3.1.14. Enemy Military Attack .................................................................................................... 17 3.1.15. Hazardous Materials Accident – Fixed Site ................................................................... 17 3.1.16. Hazardous Materials Accident – Transportation ........................................................... 18 3.1.17. High-Pressure Gas Line Blowout ................................................................................... 18 3.1.18. Fuel and/or Commodity Shortage .................................................................................. 19 3.1.19. Major Structural Fire ..................................................................................................... 19 3.1.20. Dam Failure ................................................................................................................... 19 3.1.21. Aircraft Accident............................................................................................................. 20 3.1.22. Civil Disturbance............................................................................................................ 20 3.1.23. Fixed Nuclear Facility Incident ...................................................................................... 21 3.1.24. Maritime Incident ........................................................................................................... 21 3.2. After Action Report ........................................................................................................................ 22 3.2.1. Hurricane Edward .......................................................................................................... 22 3.2.1.1. Plans and Procedures ..................................................................................... 22 3.2.1.2. Update on Status of After Action Report ...................................................... 23 Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 1 Blank Intentionally Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 2 3.1. Columbia State/Liberty County Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) The HVA attempts to identify the most likely hazards that may affect Liberty County and the communities within the county. These are by no means the only possible incidents that could occur in the county. The Liberty County Emergency Management Agency (EMA) conducts annual briefings with all county and city employees on the potential hazards and vulnerable areas of the communities within the county. Modifications are made to the HVA based on a continued assessment of risks countywide. A specific threat analysis review occurs each year with State assistance. Some hazardous events occur on an almost annual basis; others may not occur within a lifetime. Additionally, not every hazardous event occurs with notable damage or loss of life. For this reason, hazards are assessed by comparing the experienced frequency of the event versus the potential impact that may result. Planning begins with events that are expected to occur often and have potentially high impacts on life and property followed by those with more moderate probabilities or moderate impacts. Jurisdictional strategies are dependent on the philosophy and experiences of local officials. 3.1.1. Terrorism (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear Explosive [CBRNE]) Event Predictability and detection are impacted by the degree of activity within the county of persons with relationships to terrorist linked individuals and groups. Targets include all Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III sites, Blue Water Nuclear Power Station, Columbia State University, and other governmental and non-governmental (private sector) facilities in the county. Other potential targets include large venues such as the sports venues, Liberty Coliseum, and Convention Center. There are reports of militia-style groups using the Mineral Mountains as a training area. Based upon factors such as law enforcement intelligence, simplicity of attack, and degree of damage, conventional explosive attacks are viewed as having the highest probability. Biological events, particularly those with Category A agents, while perceived as less likely, have the potential for severe impact. As a result, they are of primary concern. Detection of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) materials is dependent upon available intelligence disseminated to the appropriate parties. This intelligence, coupled with proper application of detection tools and techniques, will assist Liberty County in detecting potential WMD materials at the ports of entry and preventing their use within Columbia and the Nation. Five national ports of entry are within Liberty County, requiring coordination with Canada and Mexico. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) screen ships, trains, and truck cargo coming into and going out of the Port of Bayport. Passengers and crews on cruise ships are also screened at the port. CBP also screens passengers, crews, and cargo coming into and out of the Liberty International Airport, Capital City Regional Airport, and Metropolis Regional Airport. Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 3 In addition, the United States and the State of Columbia have established cargo monitoring stations on the Great Atlantic and Pacific (GA&P) Railroad where the railroad enters the State of Columbia, the GA&P has three main lines traveling east and west through the cities of Metropolis, Central City, Tower Beach, and Bayport. Monitoring stations for these rail lines are located in Tower Beach, Clifton, Brooksville, and seven miles west of Red Cloud in Cass County. Several major Interstate Highways and State Routes (SRs) cross through the State of Columbia. Many have weigh stations where cargo is monitored. The highways with weigh stations are Interstates 102 and 107; SRs 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20; and Coastal Highway SR 1. These weigh stations not only ensure that trucks coming into and passing through Columbia meet requirements but are also able to screen trucks for WMD cargo and illegal immigrants. The following table provides information on ports of entry and highway weigh stations. Name Brooksville State Route 19 Campbell State Route 14 Capital City Regional Airport Clifton State Route 12 Weigh Station Clifton State Route 5 Weigh Station Compton State Route 12 Weigh Station Elliot State Route 14 Weigh Station Funk State Route 15 Weigh Station Holdrese State Route 20 Weigh Station Hot Springs I-107 Weigh Station Hunter I-102 Weigh Station Hunter State Route 18 Weigh Station Huntley State Route 18 Weigh Station Liberty International Airport Metropolis Regional Airport Millers Crossing State Route 10 Weigh Station Monroe I-102 Weigh Station Naponee State Route 7 Weigh Station Phillipboro State Route 20 Weigh Station Port of Bayport Tower Beach Coastal Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Type Weigh Station Location Truck Weigh Station Focus SR 19 Weigh Station Port of Entry Truck Weigh Station Capital City Airport SR 14 Air Cargo Truck Weigh Station SR 12 Truck Cargo Truck Weigh Station SR 5 Truck Cargo Truck Weigh Station SR 12 Truck Cargo Truck Weigh Station SR 14 Truck Cargo Truck Weigh Station SR 15 Truck Cargo Truck Weigh Station SR 20 Truck Cargo Truck Weigh Station I-107 Truck Cargo, Illegal Aliens Truck Weigh Station I-102 Truck Cargo, Illegal Aliens Truck Weigh Station SR 18 Truck Cargo Truck Weigh Station SR 18 Truck Cargo Port of Entry 1200 Aviation Drive Port of Entry Metropolis Airport Passengers, Crews, Air Cargo Air Cargo Truck Weigh Station SR 10 Truck Cargo Truck Weigh Station I-102 Truck Cargo, Illegal Aliens Truck Weigh Station SR 7 Truck Cargo Truck Weigh Station SR 20 Truck Cargo Port of Entry Truck Weigh Station Bayport Coastal Hwy Ship, Rail, Truck Cargo Truck Cargo Revision 3.0 4 Name Hwy Weigh Station Type Location Table 3.1. Ports of Entry and Weigh Stations Figure 3.1. Columbia State and International Ports of Entry Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 5 Focus Frequency is dependent on law enforcement risk assessments, which are based on local, State, and Federal intelligence gathering and analysis operations as coordinated through the Columbia State Fusion Center in the Department of Public Safety, Capital City. Prevention is dependent on coordinated actions in response to detection of potential WMD materials at the inspection station. Controllability is dependent on a coordinated and planned response to the event by crisis and consequences management agencies. In terms of a biological attack, the health care community’s ability for early detection, identification, and rapid epidemiologic investigations will invariably impact the control of the agent. Duration of a terrorist event could be from a few hours to more than one week, depending upon the type of CBRNE event. Scope of damage may be widespread, affecting life, property, and the economy, or it may be very narrow in scope. Scope of damage is also depends upon the type of CBRNE event. Intensity of impact of a terrorist event would seriously impair life, property, and the economy. Mass casualties may be expected. 3.1.2. Hurricane Predictability of a hurricae affecting Liberty County and coastal Columbia is certain, based on past experience with several major storms, including Hurricane Edward in 1997, which was one of the most devastating storms ever recorded. Minimum daylight warning time for hurricane landfall is 18–24 hours. Frequency of a major hurricane (Category Three to Five) has historically been one every ten years. Minor storms, including the classic northeaster, can be expected as often as every year. Controllability of hurricane damage is limited to the mitigation measures of building codes, landuse management, and setback and elevation criteria. Like many coastal States, Columbia can be viewed as a victim of its own success; southeastern Columbia is very susceptible to the extreme forces of nature due to overbuilding and population build-up in the coastal areas. Duration of the actual onslaught is from several hours to several days, depending upon the forward movement of the hurricane. The duration of the aftereffects varies with the severity of the storm and can range from several days to several years. Depending on the severity of the hurricane, scope of damages ranges from minimal damage to nearly total destruction of community facilities, businesses, and residences. Building collapses and major flooding may create major mass casualty incidents. Intensity of impact ranges with scope and location of damage. Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 6 Storm surge could have a major impact on southern Columbia. The State of Columbia and Liberty, Stramford, and Green Counties have historically been impacted by storm surges from hurricanes. The communities of Tower Beach, Bayport, Buffets Landing, Fisherville, Casperville, LaPort, Monroe, Coale, Pony, Deep River, and Zurich are all at risk of a storm surge from a hurricane. Deep River and Pony, although inland, could be impacted by a storm surge running up the Roaring River and/or the Turtle River. The following map shows the areas of Columbia that will potentially be impacted by a hurricane storm surge. See the Hurricane Edward After Action Report in Section 3.2. Figure 3.2. Columbia Storm Surge Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 7 3.1.3. Flood Predictability of flooding on the Roaring River, Turtle River, East Lake River, Muddy Creek, and Mineral Creek is enhanced through the rain gauge system and staff gauge installation established in 1992. The system is owned and monitored by the Department of Emergency Management and the Liberty County Department of Public Works. Other streams and rivers in Liberty County are not monitored. Frequency of moderate flooding is at least once a year; major flooding is generally limited to once in five years. A severe flood in 1997 killed 28 people, injured 656, and caused the evacuation of 75,000; it also heavily damaged 377 permanent homes, 65 businesses, and completely destroyed 203 mobile homes. Controllability of flood damage is limited to land-use management and elevation criteria. Clearance of debris along stream ways can also affect flooding. Snow runoff and ice damming are not considered to be major contributors to flooding in Columbia. Duration of actual onslaught is from several hours to several days. Scope of damage ranges with the severity of the flood and damages from minimal to nearly total destruction of community facilities, business, or residences. Intensity of impact ranges from a few houses to several hundred houses involved and may include road and utility washouts and bridge damage. Dam Break Flooding from East Lake Dam and all of the other dams in Columbia could threaten areas that have not historically had flooding problems. Catastrophic failure of East Lake Dam could impact Liberty County and Central City. Floods from the East Lake River, Roaring River, Swatera Creek, and Turtle River could impact the communities along their banks following the failure of the East Lake Dam. If the failure occurs during a period of heavy rains, all four waterways could be impacted and flooding could occur along their banks. The following three maps show the flood zones in Liberty County and in Central City. Flood Inundation Maps of Liberty County show elevation contours and the 2, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 500 year flood zones for Central City and northern and southern Liberty County. Also shown on the South Liberty County Map are the areas of expected flooding during a hurricane. Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 8 Figure 3.3. North Liberty County Flood Map Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 9 Figure 3.4. South Liberty County Flood Map Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 10 Figure 3.5. Central City Flood Map Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 11 3.1.4. Earthquake Predictability of an earthquake in Liberty County is limited to early history (1911) and knowledge of tectonic studies and seismic information. The county is vulnerable to the Apple Valley Fault Zone. Frequency of earthquake activity is limited to a few minor tremors, detectable only by instrumentation and activity noted in the 1911 Apple Valley quake and again in 1959 and last year. Controllability of earthquake damage is limited to local plans and building codes. Duration of earthquake damage can range from minutes to years. Scope of damages varies, depending on the severity of the quake. However, it is noted that Columbia has not been involved in programs to quake-proof buildings. Thus, most buildings, particularly pre-1990 unreinforced masonry buildings, are susceptible to major damage. Intensity of impact ranges from minor impact to major damage. 3.1.5. Tornado Predictability of tornadoes in Liberty County is uncertain since the county lies on the edge of the National Weather Service (NWS) Doppler radar system located in Capital City. Frequency of a major tornado, based on past history, is approximately two to three years, with two or three minor yearly occurrences, including straight line shear winds. Controllability of tornado damage is limited to local plans, building codes, and rapid warning. Duration of actual onslaught is relatively short. Depending on the severity of a tornado, the scope of damages ranges from moderate to total destruction. Intensity of impact includes the scope and location of damage. 3.1.6. Wildland Fires Predictability of a wildland fire is based on the condition of natural growth along with the impact of weather. Of concern are Van Deusen Park, Gish Island Wildlife Preserve, Masland Island, Casper Park, and the Mineral Mountains. Frequency of wildland fires in Liberty County, based on experience, is approximately 150 natural cover and wildland interface fires each year. Controllability of a wildland fire is limited by weather conditions, the topography of the fire’s location, and the capability to rapidly mobilize and deploy firefighting resources. Duration of a fire could be from a few days to several months. Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 12 Scope of damage could be widespread, affecting life, property, and the economy. Intensity of impact of a wildland fire could adversely affect and seriously impair life, property, and the economy for an extended period of time. 3.1.7. Severe Weather Predictability of a severe weather event is based on the capability of the NWS and other private and public weather forecasting and monitoring services to correctly predict pending storms. Frequency of a severe weather event, based on experience, is approximately two severe and eleven moderate storms per year. Controllability of a severe weather event is limited to mitigation measures carried out prior to a disaster to reduce the impacts of high wind, hail, and flooding. Duration of a severe weather event could be from a few hours to several weeks. Scope of damage could be widespread, affecting life, property, and the economy. Scope will vary depending on the type and intensity of the storm. Intensity of impact of severe weather would seriously impair life, transportation, property, and the economy. 3.1.8. Winter Storms Predictability of a winter storm is based on the capability of the NWS and other private and public weather forecasting and monitoring services to correctly predict pending storms. Frequency of a winter storm, based on experience, is one storm involving the accumulation of five inches of snow or more and three storms involving the accumulation of 0.5 to 5 inches experienced annually. Controllability of a winter storm is limited to pre-disaster mitigation measures to reduce the impacts of snow and improve response by streets and road snow plowing crews. Duration of a winter storm ranges from less than one hour to several days. Scope of damage could be widespread, affecting life, property, and the economy. Intensity of impact of a winter storm would seriously impair life, transportation, property, and the economy. 3.1.9. Blizzards Predictability of a blizzard is based on the capability of the NWS and other private and public weather forecasting and monitoring services to correctly predict and track pending storms. Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 13 Frequency of a blizzard, based on experience, is one blizzard of more than 25 inches accumulation every 25 years. Controllability of a blizzard is limited to pre-disaster mitigation measures to reduce the impacts of snow and improve response by streets and road snow plowing crews supported by policy making on the part of elected officials to ban travel. Duration of a blizzard can range from several hours to more than one week. Scope of damage could be widespread, affecting life, property, and the economy. Intensity of impact of a blizzard storm would seriously impair life, transportation, property, and the economy. 3.1.10. Ice Storms Predictability of an ice storm is based on the capability of the NWS and other private and public weather forecasting and monitoring services to correctly predict and track pending storms. Frequency of an ice storm, based on experience, is one ice storm of more than one inch accumulation of ice every twenty-five years and one storm of less than one inch every five years. Controllability of an ice storm is limited to pre-disaster mitigation measures. Mitigation measures, supported by elected officials and policy, reduce the impacts of ice accumulation and response. Policy may include banning travel, having streets plowed by snow crews, and having utilities to maintain service. Duration of an ice storm ranges from several hours to more than one month. Scope of damage could be widespread, affecting life, property, and the economy. Intensity of impact of an ice storm would seriously impair transportation, property, and the economy. 3.1.11. Agricultural Disaster Predictability of an agricultural disaster is based on the condition of transportation systems and the impact of severe weather. Frequency of an agricultural disaster in historical record is limited, though there are recent concerns about drought. Controllability of an agricultural disaster is limited to conservation and rationing measures. Duration of an agricultural disaster could range from a few weeks to several years. Scope of damage could be widespread, affecting agricultural production and distribution, prices, property, and the economy. Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 14 Intensity of impact of an agricultural disaster would seriously impair life, property, and the economy. 3.1.12. Drought Predictability of a drought or other water shortage is based on the condition of public and private water sources and the impact of severe weather. Frequency of a drought or other water shortage in historical record is limited. However, global warming may be creating a more frequent occurrence of droughts. Controllability of a drought or other water shortage is limited to the mitigation measures of conserving and rationing and the provisioning of alternate sources of supply. There has been water restrictions imposed twice in the last decade. Duration of a drought or other water shortage could range from a few days to several years. Scope of damage could be local or widespread, affecting life, property, and the economy of the county. Intensity of impact of a drought or other water shortage would seriously impair life, property, and the economy. 3.1.13. Pandemic Illness (Specifically Pandemic Influenza) Predictability of a pandemic outbreak reaching Liberty County is based upon a number of factors, including the susceptibility of the population, the general health of the community, the weather, the distribution and efficacy of vaccines, and the efforts of the international community to manage emerging threats. Emerging strains of Avian Influenza (Influenza A), also known as bird flu, are currently the greatest risks. The frequency with in the United States (U.S.) National Strategy for Pandemic affirms, Pandemics have occurred intermittently over centuries. The last three pandemics (in 1918, 1957, and 1968) killed approximately 40 million, 2 million, and 1 million people worldwide, respectively. Although the timing cannot be predicted, history and science suggest that we will face one or more pandemics in this century. Controllability of a pandemic illness is related to the particular characteristics of the illness. Presently, an emerging Influenza A - sub-strain type H5N1, is a risk that is being closely monitored by community officials. A notable feature of the H5N1 virus is its ability to infect a wide range of hosts, including birds and humans. To date, the virus is known to have infected birds in 16 countries and killed approximately 200 million birds across Asia. Additionally, 121 people in four countries are known to have contracted the illness, causing 62 deaths over the past two years. Duration of a pandemic could be from a few months to, more likely, a year to several years. Scope of damage would be catastrophic, particularly in terms of loss of life. Based upon previous pandemics, fatalities could reach tens of thousands within the community in addition to hundreds Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 15 of thousands of hospitalizations. The impact on the economy, both in terms of direct and indirect costs, would be similarly devastating. Intensity of impact of a pandemic outbreak would adversely affect and seriously impair life and the economy for an extended period of time. 3.1.14. Enemy Military Attack Predictability of enemy military attack is considered low as based on an assessment of international tension and world events. Liberty County is listed as a host area for residents from other more vulnerable locations in the State of Columbia; although this possibility is somewhat heightened due to the Blue Water Nuclear Power Station being a potential target for an enemy military attack. Frequency of enemy military attack is limited to historical evidence and past conflicts. This is tempered by the international capability of weapon carrying missiles. Controllability of enemy military attack is vested with the Federal government. Federal organizations have resources and personnel for the four phases of attack activity. State and local governments have preparedness, response, and recovery capability, including shelter management and radiological monitoring. Local government must deal with initial response alone until outside help is mobilized. Duration of enemy attack could be from a period of a few minutes, if the incident is nuclear, to weeks or months if it is conventional, biological, or chemical in nature. Scope of damage of an enemy attack would be widespread, possibly nationwide. Life, property, and the economy would be affected. The attack could initiate many of the hazards identified below. Intensity of impact would be widespread, if not nationwide. Life, property, and the economy would be adversely affected and seriously impaired, dependent upon the outcome and damage incurred. 3.1.15. Hazardous Materials Accident – Fixed Site Predictability of a fixed site hazardous materials accident is uncertain due to lack of fixed site monitoring equipment. Hazardous materials are commonly used and produced in Liberty County in quantities which, if released into the environment during an accident, could be harmful or injurious to humans, animals, property, and the economy. Frequency of a fixed site hazardous materials accident ranges from five or more minor incidents a year to one of major consequence every five years. Controllability of a fixed site hazardous materials disaster is limited to SARA Title III enforcement; Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) activities; hazardous materials, State, Federal, and private sector team response; local plans; zoning; and training of response and management forces for both public and private sectors. Duration of an incident can be for as little as a few minutes to as long as several days, weeks, or months. Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 16 Scope of damage ranges with the severity of the incident but is generally localized unless vital community infrastructure is located nearby. See Appendix O for Tier II facilities. Intensity of impact ranges with the scope of damage but may have an adverse impact on life safety as well as surrounding property conservation and facilities. 3.1.16. Hazardous Materials Accident – Transportation Predictability of a transportation hazardous material accident is uncertain; however, hazardous materials are commonly transported throughout Liberty County and beyond in quantities which, if released into the environment during an accident, could be harmful or injurious to humans, animals, property, and the economy. Frequency of a transportation hazardous-material accident ranges from ten to fifteen minor or potential incidents a year to one of major consequence every five years. Controllability of a hazardous-material disaster is limited to local plans, State and Federal routing controls, resources, State trucking law enforcement, and training of response and management forces. Duration of an incident can be for as little as a few minutes to as long as several days or weeks. Scope of damage ranges with the severity of the incident but is generally localized. Intensity of impact ranges with the scope of damage and location of the incident. 3.1.17. High-Pressure Gas Line Blowout Predictability of an incident is uncertain, despite pipeline companies’ routine maintenance and internal inspection of pipeline runs. High-pressure lines in Liberty County are located in the vicinity of the right of way of the GA&P Railroad and along Highway (Hwy) 69 south of the railroad to SR 1. The gas line runs west along SR 1 over the interstate bridge into Bayport. A terrorist attack on this gas line cannot be ruled out and must be planned for accordingly. Frequency of a blowout is limited to two incidents in the last two years, both of which were minor in scope. Controllability of a hazard is limited to the mitigation efforts of the industry, the State and Federal regulation, the local planning for warning and response, and the response of private and public teams. Duration of an incident is generally short in nature, limited to no more than several hours. Scope of damage is generally limited, except for evacuation. Intensity of impact ranges with scope of damage in relation to location. Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 17 3.1.18. Fuel and/or Commodity Shortage Predictability of a fuel or commodity shortage is based on the condition of world events, international tensions, transportation systems, and strikes, along with the impact of severe weather. Frequency of a fuel or commodity shortage is limited to historical events. Controllability of a fuel or commodity shortage is limited to the mitigation measures of conserving and rationing. Duration of a fuel or commodity shortage could be from a few days to several years. Scope of damage may be widespread, affecting life, property, and the economy depending on which product is involved. Intensity of impact of a fuel or commodity shortage would seriously impair life, property, and the economy. 3.1.19. Major Structural Fire Predictability of a major fire is based on the condition of the environment to include buildings and facilities in the community along with the impact of weather. Frequency of a major fire is based on Liberty County fire departments’ experience of thirty-two extra alarm fires each year. Of these, five exceed the third alarm. A fifth or greater alarm has been experienced on a once per decade basis. Controllability of a major fire is limited to the efforts of firefighting and support agencies operating within the community pre-incident plan. Duration of a major fire could be from a few hours to several days. Scope of damage may be widespread, affecting life, property, and the economy. Intensity of impact of a major fire would severely disable life, property, and the economy. 3.1.20. Dam Failure Predictability of a dam failure is based upon inspections by the Army Corps of Engineers and its classifications of dams. Liberty County has one roller compacting concrete dam classified as red (East Lake Dam). It is possible that an earthquake of more severity than expected may affect dam safety. Frequency is limited to historical events and projection of dam failure based on scientific indicators and current conditions. Controllability of a dam failure is based on dam safety inspection/compliance programs. Duration of failure onslaught would be rapid, causing flooding of a major portion of the northwest Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 18 section of Central City. The scope of damage could range from minor flooding to the flooding of several hundred homes and businesses. Intensity of impact ranges with scope of damage. 3.1.21. Aircraft Accident Predictability of an aircraft accident is based upon increased air traffic, unpredictable wind shear conditions, and other unknown contingencies. Frequency of aircraft accidents, historically, has been three in ten years, two of which were minor incidents. Controllability of aircraft accidents is limited to mitigation measures of air traffic control, landuse management of landing and takeoff approaches, and the state of readiness of local response services. Duration of an incident can range from a few minutes to several days or weeks. Scope of damage ranges with the intensity of the accident but is always localized. Passenger aircraft crash sites will be declared as biohazard sites. Intensity of impact of an accident depends on the severity of the accident and the location and the type of aircraft involved. 3.1.22. Civil Disturbance Predictability of a civil disturbance is dependent on intelligence about the specific area involved. Areas of concern include Gish Island Wildlife Preserve, Columbia State University, Farmers A&M University, Columbia State Prison, Liberty County Detention Facility, Columbia Veterans’ Hospital, and Liberty County Health Department Family Health clinics and Animal Shelter. All may attract protests by groups or individuals that could escalate to civil disturbances. Frequency of a civil disturbance is limited to historical events. Note that tensions existed in Liberty County during the late 1960s and 1970s but no events occurred. Controllability of a civil disturbance depends on the rapid response of local law enforcement supplemented by available State police resources. National Guard involvement will need to be coordinated. Duration of a civil disturbance could be from a few hours to more than a week. Scope of damage would be limited, affecting life, property, and the economy in the immediate area only. Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 19 Intensity of impact of a civil disturbance would add strain to public facilities and resources along with other peaceful protests. 3.1.23. Fixed Nuclear Facility Incident Predictability of a fixed nuclear facility incident is uncertain given the industry’s experience since Three Mile Island (TMI). The Edison Electric Company has operated the Blue Water Nuclear Power Plant for eighteen years. During this period, there have been ten incidents classified as unusual events in addition to three alerts. The plant is located 11.5 miles north of Central City on I-107. This means that Liberty County Emergency Management has responsibility for both the tenmile Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) and the fifty-mile Ingestion Pathway Control Zone actions within Liberty County. Frequency of a fixed nuclear facility incident above the classification level of an alert is estimated at one in 30 years but must be considered as a potential target for terrorist activity. Controllability of a fixed nuclear facility incident is limited to operator training and maintenance/ safety programs at the facility along with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s resident inspector program and the utility off-site emergency training. Duration of an actual onslaught could range from hours to months or longer. Scope of damages ranges from the sheltering of people in homes to evacuating a ten-mile EPZ within Liberty County and interdiction of the fifty-mile food ingestion pathway. Intensity of impact ranges with scope of damage. 3.1.24. Maritime incident. Predictability of a maritime incident is dependent on the volume and type of shipping using the coast and ports of Liberty County. The intra Coastal Water Way runs inside the Masland and Gish barrier islands. This mixes commercial and non-commercial traffic in the same seaways. Frequency of a maritime incident is considered as a high probability with 18 minor events per year and one major every seven years. Controllability of a maritime incident is dependent on size and scope of the involved vessels and the exact location versus the location of response agencies. Duration of an actual incident could range from hours to months or longer. Scope of damages ranges from the sheltering of people on cruise ships to major environmental issues resulting from fuel or chemical releases into environmentally sensitive areas. Intensity of impact ranges with scope of damage. Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 20 3.2. After Action Report 3.2.1. Hurricane Edward Hurricane Edward moved offshore past Columbia on Wednesday, June 21, 2007, with little wind force but brought torrential rains. The storm caused Roaring River to overflow. Because the ground was saturated from previous rains, it could not absorb the water in low-lying areas. The Liberty County Emergency Mangagement organization was activated on the evening of June 21. Roaring River overflowed its banks in the early morning hours of June 22, causing $28.3 million worth of damage, 28 deaths, 656 injuries, and the evacuation of 75,000 people from lowlying areas in Liberty County. The plans, procedures, resources, and communications systems did not achieve the Emergency Management Center’s objectives. The following list of shortcomings was derived from an analysis of the operations initiated by Liberty County Emergency Management in response to Hurricane Edward. 3.2.1.1. Plans and Procedures The storm’s initial onslaught began at approximately 2:30 p.m. on June 21, 2007. The heavy rains continued until approximately 3:00 a.m. on June 22. The county’s warning system, established to alert sleeping citizens in the rural areas between Central and Capital Cities, proved totally inadequate. Virtually all deaths occurred as a result of failure of Liberty County Emergency Management to initiate timely warnings and to implement evacuation of the low-lying areas between Central and Capital Cities. Evacuated residents were placed in school systems in Liberty County and Pony, and in Danton, Clifton, Jamestown, and counties surrounding Wicks. There were no procedures established for evacuating and sheltering residents; this led to confusion. The following shortcomings were noted: • Evacuation traffic control procedures were not coordinated among State police, county sheriff, and local law enforcement officials. This resulted in a traffic gridlock that delayed evacuation. • Red Cross was not tasked to operate the opened shelters. The management of each shelter directly depended on the management skills of the school system. There was no previous training of school system personnel on shelter operation. In addition, there were no written materials available on shelter operation. • Shelter management was marginal, at best, and there was no registration and systematic processing of evacuees. This was believed to be the underlying cause for the rumors that developed on June 21, stating that Hurricane Edward caused hundreds of deaths. These rumors resulted in hours of anxiety for relatives and close friends of the evacuees. • Private-sector resources were not effectively used. Many private-sector resources useful in the response and recovery activities were immediately available but were left unused Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 21 because of lack of previous coordination. • The Liberty County commercial telephone facility at the intersection of H & 5th Streets was damaged as were many of the telephone lines. Without telephones, Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES) communication was used to transmit critical information. There was no prior effort to organize RACES personnel and to incorporate their systems and capabilities into the emergency plan. • The county did not have a communication plan that integrated the fire service, law enforcement, and emergency medical service personnel into the overall communication plan. 3.2.1.2. Update on Status of After Action Report Mary Smith was appointed by the Board of Supervisors as the new emergency program manager, replacing the director of emergency management. The Board of Supervisors specifically directed Ms. Smith to implement integrated emergency management concepts. Every attempt should be made to integrate all response agencies into the emergency planning process. The directive stated that mitigation and preparedness measures were to be emphasized and that the new Department of Emergency Management was to work closely with the Planning Board, as well as with other county and city departments. In addition, privatesector resources were to be integrated into the planning. Ms. Smith’s first steps in initiating the Board of Supervisors’ directive were to develop a comprehensive HVA for Liberty County, revise the Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan, complete a resource listing, and hold stakeholder meetings. Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 22 Blank Intentionally Hazard/Vulnerability Analysis (HVA) April 2012 Revision 3.0 23 4.0 COLUMBIA DISASTER AND EMERGENCY SERVICES ACT TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.7. 4.8. 4.9. 4.10. 4.11. 4.12. 4.13. 4.14. 4.15. 4.16. 4.17. 4.18. 4.19. 4.20. 4.21. Title ......................................................................................................................................... 3 Purpose..................................................................................................................................... 3 Limitations .............................................................................................................................. 4 Definitions................................................................................................................................ 4 Powers of the Governor ........................................................................................................... 6 State Division of Disaster and Emergency Services ................................................................ 8 Financing.................................................................................................................................. 9 Disaster Agencies and Services ............................................................................................. 10 Local Disaster Emergencies ................................................................................................... 10 Disaster Prevention ................................................................................................................ 11 Compensation ....................................................................................................................... 11 Mutual Aid ............................................................................................................................. 12 Districts and Operational Areas ............................................................................................. 12 State of War Emergency ........................................................................................................ 13 Local Emergency ................................................................................................................... 13 Preservation of Local Government ........................................................................................ 13 Columbia Emergency Council ............................................................................................... 14 Local Emergency Councils ................................................................................................... 14 Effective Date ........................................................................................................................ 14 Implementing the National Incident Management System .................................................... 15 State Mutual Aid System ....................................................................................................... 17 Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 1 Blank Intentionally Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 2 4.1. Title This Act shall be cited as the Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act. 4.2. Purpose 1. 2. The State of Columbia has long recognized its responsibility to mitigate the effects of natural and technological/man-made emergencies which result in conditions of disaster or peril to life, property, and the resources of the State. The State further recognizes its responsibility to ensure that appropriate preparations are made within the State to deal adequately with such emergencies and disasters. It is, therefore, necessary to declare and enact authority as follows: a. To confer upon the governor and upon the chief executives and governing bodies of the political subdivisions of the State of Columbia the emergency powers provided herein, and to provide for State assistance in the organization and maintenance of the emergency programs of such political subdivisions; b. To provide for a State agency to be known and referred to as the Division of Disaster and Emergency Services, which will operate within the governor’s office, and to prescribe the powers and duties of the director of that office; c. To provide for the assignment of functions to State agencies to be performed during a disaster emergency and for the coordination and direction of the emergency actions of such agencies; d. To provide for the rendering of mutual aid by State government departments and agencies and by the political subdivisions of the State in carrying out the purposes of this Act; e. To authorize the establishment of such organizations and the taking of such actions as are necessary and appropriate to carry out the provisions of this Act; f. To reduce the vulnerability of the people and communities of the State to damage, injury, and loss of life and property resulting from natural or manmade catastrophes, riots, terrorism, or hostile military or paramilitary action; g. To prepare for prompt and efficient rescue, care, and treatment of persons victimized or threatened by a disaster emergency; h. To provide conditions conducive to the rapid and orderly restoration and rehabilitation of persons and property affected by disaster emergencies; i. To clarify and strengthen the roles of the governor, State agencies, and departments and local governments in the prevention of, preparation for, response to, and recovery from disaster emergencies; j. To authorize and provide for cooperation in disaster prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery; k. To authorize and provide for coordination of activities relating to disaster prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery by agencies, departments, and officers of the State and similar State-local, interstate, Federal-State, and foreign activities in which the State and its political subdivisions may participate; l. To provide a disaster management system embodying all aspects of pre- Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 3 3. 4. disaster preparedness and disaster response and post disaster recovery; m. To assist in prevention of disasters, which might be caused or aggravated by inadequate planning for and regulation of public and private facilities and land use; n. To supplement, without in any way limiting, the authority conferred by previous statutes and to increase the capability of the State and local agencies which have responsibilities for emergency management. It is further declared to be the purpose of this Act and the policy of the State that all State emergency service functions be coordinated as far as possible with the appropriate, comparable agencies and departments of the State’s political subdivisions as well as the various departments and agencies of the Federal government and other States and private agencies so that the most effective use may be made of all personnel, resources, and facilities for dealing with any disaster or emergency. All State emergency service functions will be accomplished in accordance with the National Preparedness System (NPS), National Incident Management Systems (NIMS), National Disaster Recovery Framework (NDRF), and National Response Framework (NRF). 4.3. Limitations Nothing in this Act shall be construed to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Interfere with any actions authorized by other laws, but all actions authorized by this Act may be taken when necessary to forestall or mitigate imminent danger to the public health or safety. Interfere with the dissemination of news or commentary, but any communications facility or organization (including but not limited to radio, television, wire services, and newspapers) may be required to transmit or print public service messages, furnishing information or instructions in connection with a disaster or emergency; such actions may be taken during an emergency or disaster to restrict the intrusion of media representatives in disaster-affected areas for the purpose of preserving life and property. Affect the jurisdiction or responsibilities of police forces, fire fighting forces, units of the armed forces of the United States, or of any personnel thereof, when on active duty, but State, local, and inter-jurisdictional disaster or emergency plans shall place reliance upon all forces available for performance of appropriate functions related to disasters and emergencies. Limit, modify, or abridge the authority of the governor to proclaim martial law or exercise any other powers vested in him or her under the constitution, statutes, or common law of this State, independent of, or in conjunction with, any provisions of this Act. 4.4. Definitions 1. Unless the provision or context otherwise requires, the definitions contained in this section govern the construction of the terms used in this Act. a. “Disaster” means occurrence or imminent threat of widespread or severe Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 4 b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. damage, injury, or loss of life or property resulting from any natural or man-made cause, including, but not limited to, fire, flood, earthquake, wind, storm, wave action, oil spill or other water contamination which requires emergency action to avert danger or damage, volcanic activity, epidemic, air contamination, blight, drought, infestation, energy shortage, explosion, riot, terrorism, or hostile military or paramilitary action. “Local disaster” means the duly proclaimed existence of conditions of disaster or extreme peril to the safety of persons and property within the territorial limits of a political subdivision caused by any of the conditions enumerated in Paragraph (2a), supra, which are or are likely to be beyond the control of services, personnel, equipment, and facilities or that political subdivision or, with respect to regulated energy utilities, a sudden and severe energy shortage requiring extraordinary measures beyond the authority vested in the Columbia Public Utilities Council. “State of war emergency” means the condition which exists immediately, with or without a proclamation thereof by the governor, whenever this State or Nation is attacked by an enemy of the United States or the condition which exists upon receipt by the State of a warning from the Federal government indicating that such an enemy attack is probable or imminent. “Public Health emergency” means the duly proclaimed existence of conditions or imminent threat of illness or health condition that: • believed to be caused by any of the following: o bioterrorism, or o the appearance of a novel or previously controlled or eradicated infectious agent or biological toxin; • poses a high probability of any of the following harms: o a large number of deaths in the affected population, o a large number of serious or long-term disabilities in the affected population, or o widespread exposure to an infectious or toxic agent that poses a significant risk of substantial future harm to a large number of people in the affected population. “State disaster” means the duly proclaimed existence of conditions of disaster or extreme peril to the safety of persons and property within the State caused by such conditions as are enumerated in Paragraph (2a), supra, or other conditions causing a state of emergency, which, by reason of their magnitude, are or are likely to be beyond the control of the services, personnel, equipment, and facilities of any single local jurisdiction, and require the combined forces of a mutual aid region or regions to combat. “Political subdivision” means any county, city, town, village, township, district, or other unit of local government authorized by law. “Governor” means the chief executive of the State of Columbia or the person upon whom the powers and duties of the Office of Governor have devolved pursuant to the Columbia Constitution. “State agency” means any department, division, commission, independent establishment, or branch of the executive branch of the State government. “Governing body” means the Board of County Supervisors; County Executive and County Council; Boards of trustees, alderman, or directors; or other administrative managing entity of a political subdivision. Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 5 j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. “Chief Executive” means that person authorized by law to act in an administrative and executive capacity for the governing body of a political subdivision. “Public facility” means any facility of the State or a political subdivision which is owned, operated, or maintained by any combination thereof, through money derived by taxation or assessment. “Sudden and severe energy shortage” means a rapid, unforeseen shortage of energy, resulting from, but not limited to, events such as an embargo, sabotage, or natural disaster, and which has statewide, regional, or local impact. “A mutual aid region” is a subdivision of the State emergency services organization established to facilitate the coordination of mutual aid and other emergency operations within an area of the State consisting of two or more county operational areas. “Master Mutual Aid Agreement” means the Columbia Disaster Master Mutual Aid Agreement, made and entered into by and between the State of Columbia, its various departments and agencies, and the various political subdivisions of the State to facilitate implementation of the purposes of this Act. An “operational area” is a level of the State emergency services organization consisting of a county and all political subdivisions within that county. “Emergency plans” means those official and approved documents which describe the principles, policies, procedures, activities, and methods to be followed in carrying out emergency operations or rendering mutual aid during emergencies and disasters. These plans include such matters as continuity of government, the emergency services of governmental agencies, mobilization of resources, mutual aid, and public information. “State emergency plan” means the State of Columbia Emergency Plan as approved by the governor. 4.5. Powers of the Governor 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The governor is responsible for responding appropriately to the dangers to the State and its people presented by disasters. The governor shall have the powers granted by this Act, which powers shall be in addition to any other powers granted to him by law. The governor may issue, amend, and rescind executive orders, proclamations, and regulations, which shall have the force and effect of law, to carry out the provisions of this Act, but in so doing, he should give due consideration to the plans and actions of the Federal government. The governor is empowered to expend any appropriation for support of the Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act to carry out the provisions of this Act. The governor is authorized to establish a Disaster Emergency Council to advise him on matters relating to disasters. A disaster emergency shall be declared by executive order or proclamation of the governor if he finds a disaster has occurred or that this occurrence or the threat thereof is imminent. The state of disaster emergency shall continue until the Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 6 7. 8. 9. governor finds that the threat or danger has passed or the disaster has been dealt with to the extent that emergency conditions no longer exist and terminates the state of disaster emergency by executive order or proclamation. All executive orders or proclamations issued under this subsection shall indicate the nature of the disaster, the area or areas affected or threatened, and the conditions which have brought it about or which justify the state of disaster emergency. An executive order or proclamation shall be disseminated promptly by the best means for bringing its contents to the attention of the general public, and, unless the circumstances attendant upon the disaster prevent or impede doing so, the executive order or proclamation shall be promptly filed with the State Office of Disaster and Emergency Services, the Columbia State Archives, and the local records-keeping agency in the area or areas to which it applies. An executive order or proclamation of a state of disaster emergency shall activate the disaster response and recovery aspects of the State, local, and inter-jurisdictional disaster emergency plans applicable to the political subdivision or area in question and shall be the authority for the deployment and use of any forces to which the plan or plans apply and for the use or distribution of any supplies, equipment, materials, and facilities assembled or stockpiled to be made available pursuant to this Act or any other provisions of law relating to disaster emergencies. During the continuance of any state of disaster emergency, the governor is commander-in-chief of the National Guard and of all other forces available for emergency duty. To the greatest extent practicable, the governor shall delegate or assign command authority by prior arrangement in appropriate executive orders or regulations, but nothing herein is intended to restrict his authority to do so by orders issued at the time of the disaster emergency. In addition to any other powers conferred upon the governor by law, he may: a. Suspend the provision of any regulatory statute prescribing the procedures for conduct of State business, or the orders, rules, or regulations of any State agency if strict compliance with the provisions of said statute, order, rule, or regulations would in any way prevent, hinder, or delay necessary action in coping with the emergency. b. Utilize all available resources of the State government and of each political subdivision of the State as is reasonably necessary to cope with the disaster emergency. c. Transfer the direction, personnel, or functions of State departments and agencies or units thereof for the purpose of performing or facilitating emergency services. d. Be subject to any applicable requirements for compensation required by law, commandeer or utilize any private property if it is necessary for coping with the disaster emergency. e. Direct and compel the evacuation of all or part of the population from any stricken or threatened area within the State if it is deemed necessary for the preservation of life or for disaster mitigation, response, or recovery. f. Prescribe routes, modes of transportation, and destinations in connection with an evacuation. g. Control ingress and egress to and from a disaster area, the movement of persons within the area, and the occupancy of premises therein. h. Suspend or limit the sale, dispensing, or transportation of alcoholic beverages, firearms, explosives, and combustibles. Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 7 i. Make provisions for the availability and use of temporary emergency housing. 4.6. State Division of Disaster and Emergency Services 1. 2. 3. 4. A Division of Disaster and Emergency Services (DDES) is hereby established in the Office of the Governor. The division shall have a director appointed by the governor with the consent of the State Senate and shall serve at the pleasure of the governor. The division shall have a planning officer and such other professional, technical, secretarial, and clerical employees as is necessary for the performance of its functions. The division director shall have all the rights and powers of a department head as provided by the Columbia Government Code. The Division of Disaster and Emergency Services shall prepare and maintain a State disaster plan and keep it current. This plan may include: a. Prevention and minimization of injury and damage caused by disaster. b. Prompt and effective response to disasters. c. Emergency relief. d. Conducting a hazard vulnerability analysis, identifying areas which are particularly vulnerable to disasters, and identifying those disasters to which the State is most susceptible. e. Recommending zoning, building, flood plain, and other land-use control; safety measures for securing mobile homes or for non-permanent or semipermanent structures; and other preventive and preparedness measures designed to eliminate or reduce disasters or their impact. f. Assistance to local officials in designing local emergency action plans. g. Authorization and procedures for the erection or other construction of temporary works designed to protect against or mitigate danger, damage, or loss from flood, conflagration, or other disaster. h. Preparation and distribution to the appropriate State and local officials of catalogues of Federal, State, and private assistance programs. i. Organization of manpower and chains of command. j. Coordination of Federal, State, and local disaster activities. k. Coordination of the State disaster plan with the disaster plans of the federal government and the State’s political subdivisions. l. Other activities which might be necessary and appropriate. The division shall take an integral part in the development and revision of local and inter-jurisdictional disaster plans prepared under provisions of this Act. To this end, it shall employ or otherwise secure the services of professional and technical personnel or consultants who are capable of providing expert assistance to political subdivisions, their emergency agencies, and inter-jurisdictional planning and emergency agencies. These personnel or consultants shall work with subdivisions and agencies on a regularly scheduled basis and shall make field examinations of the areas, circumstances, and conditions to which particular local and interjurisdictional disaster preparedness plans are intended to apply and may suggest revisions. In preparing and revising the State disaster preparedness plan, the division shall seek the advice and assistance of local subdivisions’ elected and appointed officials, as well as business, labor, industry, agricultural, civic, and volunteer and community organizations. In advising local and inter-jurisdictional agencies, the division shall Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 8 5. 6. 7. 8. encourage them also to seek advice from these representative sources. Subject to statutory authority, the State disaster preparedness plan or any part thereof may be incorporated in regulations of the division which shall have the force and effect of law. The division shall: a. Determine the requirements of the State and its political subdivisions for food, clothing, and other necessities in the event of an emergency. b. Procure and pre-position supplies, medicines, materials, and equipment which might be required in the emergency. c. Promulgate standards and requirements for local and inter-jurisdictional disaster preparedness plans. d. Periodically review local and inter-jurisdictional disaster preparedness plans and make recommendations for revision where appropriate. e. Provide for mobile support units. f. Establish and operate or assist political subdivisions, their disaster agencies, and inter-jurisdictional disaster agencies to establish and operate training programs, including practice exercises and programs of public information and education. g. Conduct surveys of industries, resources, and facilities within the State, both public and private, as are necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. h. Plan and make arrangements for the availability and use of any private facilities, services, and property, and if in fact used, provide for payment for such use under terms and conditions agreed upon or according to existing law. i. Establish a register of persons with types of specialized training and skills which might be useful in emergency prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. j. Establish a register of mobile and construction equipment and temporary housing for possible use in a disaster emergency. k. Prepare, for issuance by the governor, executive orders, proclamations, and regulations which are necessary and appropriate for implementation of this Act. l. Cooperate with the Federal government and any public or private agency or entity in achieving the purposes of this Act and in implementing programs for disaster prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. m. Engage in other activities that are necessary and appropriate for the implementation of this Act. The governor may assign all or part of his powers and duties under this Act to the director of the Division of Disaster and Emergency Services. During a state of emergency, the division director shall coordinate the emergency activities of all State agencies in connection with such emergency, and every State agency and officer shall cooperate with the division director in rendering all possible assistance in carrying out the provisions of this Act. 4.7. Financing 1. 2. It is the intent of the legislature and declared to be the policy of the State that funds to meet disaster emergencies shall always be available. A Disaster Contingency Fund is hereby established which shall receive monies Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 9 3. 4. appropriated therefore by the legislature; these monies shall not be expended for any purpose other than to cope with a disaster emergency. It is the legislative intent that the first recourse shall be funds which are regularly appropriated for State and local agencies. If the governor finds that the demands for funds in coping with a particular disaster emergency exhaust or unreasonably reduce these appropriated funds, the governor may make funds available from the Disaster Contingency Fund. If monies available from this fund are inadequate and if the governor finds that other sources of money to cope with the disaster are not available or are insufficient, the governor may transfer and expend monies appropriated for other purposes or borrow for a term not to exceed two years from the United States Government or any other private or public source. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to limit the governor’s authority to apply for, receive, administer, and expend grants, gifts, or payments in aid of disaster prevention, preparedness, response, or recovery. 4.8. Disaster Agencies and Services 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Each political subdivision within this State shall be within the jurisdiction of, and be served by, the Columbia Division of Disaster and Emergency Services and by a local or inter-jurisdictional agency responsible for disaster prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. Each county and city within the State of Columbia shall maintain a disaster agency or participate in a local or inter-jurisdictional disaster agency. Notwithstanding any provision of this Act or other law to the contrary, the governor may require a political subdivision to establish and maintain a disaster agency jointly with one or more contiguous political subdivisions if he finds that the establishment and maintenance of such an agency or participation therein is made necessary by circumstances or conditions that make it unusually difficult to provide for disaster prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery under the provisions of this Act. The mayor; county executive; chairperson of a board of supervisors or aldermen; or other principal executive officer of each political subdivision in the State shall notify the Division of Disaster and Emergency Services regarding the manner in which the particular political subdivision is providing or securing disaster planning and emergency services, the identity the person who heads the agency from which the service is obtained, and any additional information relating thereto as the division requires. It is mandated by this Act that each local and inter-jurisdictional agency prepare and keep current a local or inter-jurisdictional disaster emergency plan for its area. The governor may enter into a compact or compacts with other States if he finds that joint action with another State or States is desirable in meeting common intergovernmental problems of emergency disaster planning, prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. 4.9. Local Disaster Emergencies 1. A local disaster emergency may be declared only by the principal executive officer of a political subdivision or the executive head of a multi-jurisdictional entity created Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 10 2. 3. 4. among or between political subdivisions pursuant to the authority granted by this Act. A locally declared disaster emergency shall not be continued or renewed for a period in excess of seven days except by or with the consent of the governing board of the political subdivision or joint multi-jurisdictional entity. Any order or proclamation declaring, continuing, or terminating a local disaster emergency shall be given prompt and general publicity and shall be filed promptly with the principal records-keeping agency. The effect of a declaration of a local disaster emergency is the activation of the response and recovery aspects of any and all applicable local or inter-jurisdictional disaster emergency plans and the authorization of the furnishing and receiving of aid and assistance thereto. An inter-jurisdictional agency or official thereof may declare a local disaster and provide aid and services in accordance with the authority pursuant to which it functions. 4.10. Disaster Prevention 1. 2. In addition to disaster prevention measures as included in the State, local, and interjurisdictional disaster plans, the governor shall consider, on a continuing basis, steps that could be taken to mitigate, prevent, or reduce the harmful consequences of disasters. At the governor’s direction, and pursuant to any other authority and competence they have, State agencies including, but not limited to, those charged with responsibilities in connection with flood plain management, stream encroachment and flow regulation, weather modification, fire prevention and control, air quality, public works, land use and land use planning and construction standards, public health, and intelligence gathering shall make studies of disaster prevention-related matters. The governor from time to time shall make recommendations to the legislature, local governments, multi-jurisdictional entities, and other appropriate public and private entities as may facilitate measures for mitigation, prevention, or reduction of the harmful consequences of disasters. The appropriate State agency, in cooperation with the Division of Disasters and Emergency Services, shall continually study land uses and construction of structures and other facilities to identify areas which are particularly vulnerable to severe land shifting, subsidence, flood, or other catastrophic occurrences. The studies under this subsection shall concentrate on means for reducing or avoiding the dangers caused by the occurrence or the consequences of these events. 4.11. Compensation 1. 2. 3. No personal services may be compensated by the State or any subdivision or agency thereof except pursuant to statute or local law or ordinance. If the property was commandeered or otherwise used in coping with a disaster emergency and its use or destruction was ordered by an authorized individual or agency, appropriate compensation shall be paid. Any person claiming compensation for the use, damage, loss, or destruction of property under this Act shall file a claim therefore with the appropriate agency and in the form and manner prescribed. Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 11 4. Unless the amount of compensation for property damaged, lost, or destroyed is agreed to between the claimant and the appropriate State agency, the amount of compensation shall be calculated in the same manner as compensation due for a taking of property pursuant to the condemnation laws of the State. 4.12. Mutual Aid 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. It is the purpose of the Columbia Legislature in enacting this Act to facilitate the rendering of aid to areas stricken by an emergency. Nothing in this Act should be construed as discouraging political subdivisions from entering into mutual aid agreements with each other. However, emergency plans duly adopted and approved by the governor shall have the effect of satisfying the requirements for mutual aid operations provided for in the Master Mutual Aid Agreement, notwithstanding the absence of a formal mutual aid agreement. During any state of emergency, when the need arises for outside aid in any political subdivision, such aid shall be rendered in accordance with approved emergency plans. It shall be the duty of public officials to cooperate to the fullest extent possible in carrying out such plans. In periods other than a State or local emergency, State agencies and political subdivisions have the authority to exercise mutual aid powers in accordance with the Master Mutual Aid Agreements and local ordinances, resolutions, agreements, or plans therefore. Political subdivisions not participating in inter-jurisdictional arrangements pursuant to this Act nevertheless shall be encouraged and assisted by the Division of Disaster and Emergency Services to conclude suitable arrangements for furnishing mutual aid in coping with disasters. The arrangements shall include provision of equipment and aid by persons and units in public employ or in volunteer organizations, including, but not limited to, police, fire, public works, public information, building inspection, and other such services as might be needed in responding to and recovery from a disaster emergency. The governor, with the advice of the Division of Disaster and Emergency Services, is hereby authorized and empowered to divide the State into mutual aid regions for the more effective application, administration, and coordination of mutual aid and other emergency-related activities. 4.13. Districts and Operational Areas 1. The State of Columbia is divided into three operational districts. All State agencies use the districts to coordinate state and mutual-aid services. During activation of the statewide mutual aid system, responding agencies will coordinate through the State emergency management agency district office, with support from the State Emergency Operations Center (EOC). 2. Each county is designated as an operational area. In a state of emergency, each operational area shall serve as a link in the system of communications and coordination with the State’s Emergency Operation Center and DDES District offices. Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 12 4.14. State of War Emergency 1. During a state of war emergency, the governor shall have complete authority over all agencies of the State government and the right to exercise, within the area or regions designated, all police power vested in the State of Columbia in order to effectuate the purposes of this Act. In the exercise thereof, the governor shall promulgate and enforce such orders and regulations as he deems necessary for the protection of life and property in accordance with the provisions of this Act. 2. A DDES field representative, District Liaison Officer (DLO), will act as the principle liaison point of coordination between the State Emergency Operations Center and the county emergency management agencies. All request for assistance will be directed through this coordination point to include the requesting of state assets, EMAC , Incident Management Teams, and specialized federal assistance teams and resources. The DLO assigned to each of the districts will be supported by additional state level personnel as necessary based upon the magnitude of the incident. 4.15. Local Emergency 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A local emergency may be proclaimed by the governing body of the political subdivision or by an official so designated and authorized by ordinance or resolution adopted by such governing body. Whenever a local emergency is proclaimed by an official designated and authorized by ordinance or resolution, the local emergency shall not remain in effect for more than seven days unless it has been ratified by the governing body. The governing body shall review at least every 14 days, until such local emergency is terminated, the need for continuing the local emergency and shall proclaim the termination of such local emergency at the earliest possible date that conditions warrant. When two or more political subdivisions have created an inter-jurisdictional entity or policy group to jointly administer and coordinate the emergency response and recovery activities of the participating jurisdictions, the official selected by members of said policy group shall have the authority to proclaim a local emergency. In periods of local emergency, political subdivisions have the full power to provide mutual aid to any affected area in accordance with local ordinances, resolutions, emergency plans, or agreements thereof. State agencies may provide mutual aid, including personnel, equipment, and other available resources, to assist political subdivisions during a local emergency or in accordance with mutual aid agreements or at the direction of the governor. In an appropriately proclaimed State or local emergency, the cost of extraordinary services incurred by political subdivisions in executing mutual aid agreements shall constitute a legal charge against the State when approved by the governor in accordance with orders and regulations promulgated as prescribed in this Act. The governor may delegate this power of approval. During a local emergency, the governing body of a political subdivision or officials designated thereby may promulgate orders and regulations necessary to provide for Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 13 the protection of life and property, including orders or regulations imposing a curfew within designated boundaries where necessary to preserve the public order and safety. Such orders, regulations, amendments, and recessions thereof shall be in writing and shall be given widespread public notice. 4.16. Preservation of Local Government The legislature recognizes that, if this State or Nation were attacked by an enemy of the United States, many areas in Columbia may be subjected to the effects of said enemy attack and some or all of these areas could be severely damaged. During such attacks and in the reconstruction period following such attacks, law and order must be preserved and, so far as possible, governmental services must be continued or restored. To help preserve law and order and to continue or restore local governmental services, it is essential that the local units of government continue to function. Reference: The Emergency Interim Executive and Judicial Succession Act which provides for the continuity of the executive and judicial functions of the State by providing for additional officers who can act as governor, by providing for emergency interim succession to other executive offices of the State, by providing for special emergency judges, and by authorizing political subdivisions to enact resolutions and ordinances relating to this subject. 4.17. Columbia Emergency Council 1. 2. There is hereby created a Columbia Emergency Council to consist of individuals representing State and local agencies and private organizations, all of whom possess expertise or responsibilities with respect to preventing, preparing for, responding to, or recovering from disaster emergencies. Members of this council shall be appointed by the governor and shall serve at the governor’s pleasure. 4.18. Local Emergency Councils 1. 2. 3. Political subdivisions may create emergency councils to develop plans for meeting any condition constituting a local emergency, State emergency, or state of war emergency. Such plans shall provide for the effective mobilization of all the resources within the political subdivision, both public and private. The governing body of the political subdivision may, in any ordinance or resolution adopted pursuant to this section, provide for the organization, powers and duties, services, and staff of the emergency organization. Political subdivisions may enact ordinances and resolutions and establish rules and regulations or authorize emergency councils to recommend to the director of the local emergency organization rules and regulations for dealing with local emergencies. These political subdivisions may also voluntarily act to carry out mutual aid and may enter into mutual aid agreements with other jurisdictions. 4.19. Effective Date This Act shall take effect immediately. Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 14 4.20. Implementing the National Incident Management System Great State of Columbia Governor’s Office PROCLAMATION IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM July 20, 2007 WHEREAS, The National Response Framework (NRF) is part of the National Strategy for Homeland Security that presents the guiding principles enabling all levels of domestic response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. Building on the existing National Incident Management System (NIMS) as well as Incident Command System (ICS) standardization, the NRF’s coordinating structures are always in effect for implementation at any level and at any time for local, State, and national emergency or disaster response. WHEREAS, In Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD), the President directed the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security to develop and administer the National Incident Management System (NIMS), which would provide a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, local, and tribal governments to work together more effectively and efficiently to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity; and WHEREAS, the collective input and guidance from all Federal, State, local, and tribal homeland security partners has been, and will continue to be, vital to the development, effective implementation, and utilization of a comprehensive NIMS; and WHEREAS, it is necessary that all Federal, State, local, and tribal emergency agencies and personnel coordinate their efforts to effectively and efficiently provide the highest levels of incident management; and WHEREAS, to facilitate efficient and effective incident management it is critical that Federal, State, local, and tribal organizations utilize standard terminology; standard organizational structures; uniform personnel qualification standards; uniform standards for planning, training, and exercising; comprehensive resource management; and designated incident facilities during emergencies or disasters; and WHEREAS, the NIMS standardized procedures for managing personnel, Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 15 communications, facilities, and resources will improve the State’s ability to utilize Federal funding to enhance local and State agency readiness, maintain first responder safety, and streamline incident management processes; and WHEREAS, the Incident Command System components of NIMS are already an integral part of various incident management activities throughout the State, including all public safety and emergency response organization training programs; and Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 16 WHEREAS, the National Commission of Terrorist Attacks (9-11 Commission) recommended adoption of a standardized Incident Command System. NOW THEREFORE, Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the provisions of the Columbia State Code (2 Col. C.S. Section 7-1 et seq., as amended), I do hereby mandate the National Incident Management System be utilized for all incident management in the Great State of Columbia. I further proclaim this to take effect immediately. GIVEN under my hand and the Seal of the Governor, in Capital City, this twentieth day of July in the year of our Lord two thousand seven and of this State the two hundred and thirtieth. Robert Van Deusen Governor Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 17 4.21. State Mutual Aid System Great State of Columbia Governor’s Office PROCLAMATION CREATING A STATE MUTUAL AID SYSTEM OCTOBER 20, 2007 WHEREAS, The National Response Framework (NRF) is part of the National Strategy for Homeland Security that presents the guiding principles enabling all levels of domestic response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. Building on the existing National Incident Management System (NIMS) as well as Incident Command System (ICS) standardization, the NRF’s coordinating structures are always in effect for implementation at any level and at any time for local, State, and national emergency or disaster response. WHEREAS, In Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD), the President directed the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security to develop and administer the National Incident Management System (NIMS), which would provide a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, local, and tribal governments to work together more effectively and efficiently to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity; and WHEREAS, the collective input and guidance from all Federal, State, local, and tribal emergency management and homeland security partners has been, and will continue to be, vital to the development, effective implementation, and utilization of a comprehensive NIMS, and to effective response to the needs of the citizens of Columbia; and WHEREAS, the emergency officials of the State of Columbia have recommended the creation of a statewide mutual aid system in consonance with the national Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC); and WHEREAS, the Great State of Columbia is a signatory to EMAC and it is prudent public policy to better organize both internal and external mutual aid capability. NOW THEREFORE, Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the provisions of the Columbia State Code (2 Col. C.S. Section 7-1 et seq., as amended), I do hereby mandate that a State-Wide Mutual Aid System be established in consonance with the principles and doctrine of the Emergency Management Assistance Compact and that it shall be administered by the State of Columbia Division of Disaster and Emergency Services and the various county emergency management agencies. And, I do further mandate that these activities shall be carried out in conformance with the requirements of the National Incident Management System, including but not limited to resource typing and personnel credentialing. I further proclaim this to take effect immediately. GIVEN under my hand and the Seal of the Governor, in Capital City, this twentieth day of October in the year of our Lord two thousand seven and of this State the two hundred and thirtieth. Robert Van Deusen Governor Amended February 2008 to incorporate the issuing of the National Response Framework. Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 18 Blank Intentionally Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act April 2012 Revision 3.0 19 5.0 LIBERTY COUNTY DISASTER AND EMERGENCY SERVICE ORDINANCE 92-651 TABLE OF CONTENTS 5.1. Local Emergency ..................................................................................................................... 3 5.2. Preservation of Local Government ......................................................................................... 3 5.2.1. Title .................................................................................................................................. .4 5.2.2. Definitions ........................................................................................................................ 4 5.2.3. Liberty County/Central City Disaster Emergency Policy Group .................................... 4 5.2.4. Delegated Authority ......................................................................................................... 4 5.2.5. Composition of Liberty County/Central City Policy Group ............................................. 4 5.2.6. Executive Head of the Liberty County/Central City Policy Group .................................. 5 5.2.7. Continuity of Government ................................................................................................ 5 5.2.8. Emergency Interim Successors - Liberty County ............................................................. 5 5.2.9. Formalities of Taking Office ............................................................................................ 6 5.2.10. Period in Which Authority May be Exercised .................................................................. 6 5.2.11. Financing .......................................................................................................................... 6 5.2.12. Emergency Purchasing ..................................................................................................... 7 5.2.13. Effective Date ................................................................................................................... 7 5.3. Attachment 1: National Incident Management System (NIMS) Resolution ........................... 7 5.3.1. Liberty County, Columbia, Adoption of the National Incident Management System .............................................................................................................................. 7 Liberty County Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-65 April 2012 Revision 3.0 1 Blank Intentionally Liberty County Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-65 April 2012 Revision 3.0 2 Reference: The Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act, Sections 15 and 16, which are incorporated by reference in this ordinance state to wit: 5.1. Local Emergency A local emergency may be proclaimed by the governing body of the political subdivision or by an official so designated and authorized by ordinance or resolution adopted by such governing body. Whenever a local emergency is proclaimed by an official, the local emergency shall not remain in effect for more than seven days unless it has been ratified by the governing body. The governing body shall review at least every 14 days the need for continuing the local emergency. Termination of local emergencies shall be proclaimed at the earliest possible date that conditions warrant. When two or more political subdivisions have created an inter-jurisdictional entity or policy group to jointly administer and coordinate the emergency response and recovery activities of the participating jurisdictions, the official selected by members of said policy group shall have the authority to proclaim a local emergency. In periods of local emergency, political subdivisions have the full power to provide mutual aid to any affected area in accordance with local ordinances, resolutions, emergency plans, or agreements therefore. State agencies may provide mutual aid, including personnel, equipment, and other available resources, to assist political subdivisions during a local emergency or in accordance with mutual aid agreements or at the direction of the Governor. In an appropriately proclaimed State or local emergency, the cost of extraordinary services incurred by political subdivisions in executing mutual aid agreements shall constitute a legal charge against the State when approved by the Governor in accordance with orders and regulations promulgated as prescribed in this Ordinance. The Governor may delegate this power of approval. During a local emergency, the governing body of a political subdivision or officials designated thereby may promulgate orders and regulations necessary to provide for the protection of life and property, including orders or regulations imposing a curfew within designated boundaries where necessary to preserve the public order and safety. Such orders, regulations, amendments, and recessions thereof shall be in writing and shall be given widespread public notice. 5.2. Preservation of Local Government The Legislature recognizes that, if this State or Nation were attacked by an enemy of the United States, many areas in Columbia might be subjected to the effects of said enemy attack and some or all of these areas could be severely damaged. During such attacks and in the reconstruction period following such attacks, law and order must be preserved and, so far as possible, governmental services must be continued or restored. To help preserve law and order and to continue or restore local governmental services, it is essential that the local units of government continue to function. Liberty County Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-65 April 2012 Revision 3.0 3 5.2.1. Title This Ordinance shall be referred to as the “Liberty County Disaster and Emergency Services Ordinance.” 5.2.2. Definitions Unless otherwise clearly required by the context, as used in this ordinance: “Unavailable” means either that a vacancy in an office exists and there is no deputy authorized to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of the office; or that the lawful incumbent of the office and the deputy are absent, deceased, or otherwise unable to discharge the duties of the office. “Emergency interim successor” means a person designated pursuant to the law, in the event the officer is unavailable, to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of said office until a successor is appointed or elected and qualified as may be provided by the constitution, statutes, charters, and ordinances, or until the lawful incumbent is able to resume office. “Office” includes all county offices, the powers and duties of which are defined in the charter, laws, and regulations of Liberty County. “Political subdivision” includes counties, cities, towns, townships, villages, districts, authorities, and other public corporations and entities whether organized and existing under charter or general laws of Liberty County. 5.2.3. Liberty County/Central City Disaster Emergency Policy Group The Board of County Supervisors of Liberty County finds that the people of this county would be more effectively served by an inter-jurisdictional arrangement than by maintaining separate disaster agencies and services. In furtherance of this finding, there is hereby created by this ordinance and by an ordinance enacted by the City Council of Central City, the Liberty County/Central City Disaster Emergency Policy Group. 5.2.4. Delegated Authority Authority is hereby delegated to the policy group for conducting all activities relating to the prevention of, preparation for, response to, and recovery from disaster emergencies, including, but not limited to, creation of a disaster and Emergency Services inter-jurisdictional entity as authorized by the Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act, to prepare a joint disaster emergency plan, mutual aid agreements, and such other activities as shall be necessary and appropriate for carrying out the intent of this ordinance. See Section 5.3, Attachment 1 of this ordinance. 5.2.5. Composition of Liberty County/Central City Policy Group Each jurisdiction shall determine which agencies and personnel shall serve on the Liberty County/ Central City Disaster Emergency Policy Group and each jurisdiction is authorized to make such changes, deletions, or additions as may be appropriate and necessary from time to time. Other Liberty County Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-65 April 2012 Revision 3.0 4 political subdivisions may be admitted for inclusion in the inter-jurisdictional policy group when duly authorized by the governing body of the jurisdiction seeking admission and by the existing members of the policy group. 5.2.6. Executive Head of the Liberty County/Central City Policy Group The policy group itself shall choose its presiding officer from the members of the policy group. The policy group on behalf of the respective jurisdictions shall prepare and distribute to all appropriate officials in writing a clear and complete statement of the emergency responsibilities of all local agencies and officials and set forth the disaster emergency chain of command. When a disaster emergency is occurring or is imminent the policy group shall issue a policy statement for the guidance of the departments and agencies of the respective jurisdictions. 5.2.7. Continuity of Government To assure continuity of government through legally constituted leadership, authority, and responsibility in offices of the government of Liberty County, pursuant to the Columbia “Emergency Interim Executive and Judicial Succession Act”; to provide for the effective operation of the Liberty County government during an emergency; and to facilitate the early resumption of functions temporarily suspended, it is declared to be necessary to provide for additional officers who can discharge the duties of the head of government and to provide for emergency interim succession to governmental offices of Liberty County in the event the incumbents thereof and their duly authorized deputies, assistants, or other subordinate officers are unavailable to perform the duties and functions of such offices. 5.2.8. Emergency Interim Successors - Liberty County Pursuant to the provisions of the Columbia Emergency Interim Successors Act, all department and agency heads of Liberty County and all school, fire, power, and drainage districts shall designate by title, if feasible, or by named person, emergency interim successors and specify their order of succession. Such designations shall be reviewed and revised as necessary to insure their current status. The officer will designate a sufficient number of persons so that there will be not less than three, nor more than seven deputies or emergency interim successors or any combination thereof at any time. In the event that any officer of any political subdivision (or his or her deputy) is unavailable, the powers of the office shall be exercised and duties shall be discharged by the designated emergency interim successors in the order specified. The emergency interim successor shall discharge the duties of the office to which he or she is designated until such time as the vacancy is filled; or until the officer or his deputy becomes available to discharge the duties of the office. The chairmanship of the Board of County Supervisors shall devolve to the vice chairman and thereafter to the member or members in order of their succession to office. If two or more shall have the same seniority date, then lots shall be drawn by the highest ranking judicial officer available to determine the chairmanship. The powers of the sheriff and other elective officers shall devolve to his or her chief deputy and thereafter to the person of the next highest rank. If more than one person shares the same rank, Liberty County Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-65 April 2012 Revision 3.0 5 then succession shall be by seniority in entering on duty in the service of Liberty County. If two or more have equal entitlement to the office on the basis of these criteria, then the vacancy shall be filled by the Board of County Supervisors. 5.2.9. Formalities of Taking Office At the time of their designation, emergency interim successors shall take such oath as may be required for them to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of the office to which they are succeeding. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be required to comply with any other provisions of law relative to taking office as a prerequisite for assuming such temporary office. 5.2.10. Period in Which Authority May be Exercised Officials authorized to act pursuant to this ordinance are empowered to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of an office as herein authorized only after the disaster has created a vacancy in the office. The Board of County Supervisors by ordinance or resolution may at any time terminate the authority of said emergency interim successors or appoint different persons to serve in the appointive offices. When the disaster or emergency which created a vacancy in an elective office abates and the office is still vacant, then a special election shall be held at the earliest time feasible to fill such vacant elective office. The persons designated as emergency interim successors in appointive offices are authorized to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of an office until the vacancy no longer exists or until they are removed by the appropriate authority. All such emergency interim successors shall serve at the pleasure of the county supervisors and may be removed or replaced by the county supervisors with or without cause. Any disputes concerning a question of fact arising under this ordinance with respect to an office shall be adjudicated and resolved by the county supervisors. 5.2.11. Financing It is the intent of the Board of County Supervisors and declared to be the policy of Liberty County that funds to meet disaster emergencies shall always be available. A Disaster Contingency Fund is hereby established which shall receive monies appropriated therefore by the Board of County Supervisors and these monies shall not be expended for any purpose other than to cope with a disaster emergency. It is the Board of County Supervisors’ legislative intent that the first recourse shall be to funds which are regularly appropriated for county agencies. If the board finds that the demands for funds in coping with a particular disaster emergency exhaust or unreasonably reduce these appropriated funds, the board may make funds available from the Disaster Contingency Fund. If monies available from this fund are inadequate and if the board finds that other sources of money to cope Liberty County Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-65 April 2012 Revision 3.0 6 with the disaster are not available or are insufficient, the board may transfer and expend monies appropriated for other purposes or borrow for a term not to exceed two years from any private or public source. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to limit the board’s authority to apply for, receive, administer, and expend grants, gifts, or payments in furtherance of disaster prevention, preparedness, response, or recovery. 5.2.12. Emergency Purchasing Prior to any declaration of emergency or disaster, any department head or incident commander shall be authorized to purchase or procure goods, equipment, and services required to respond to any emergency as outlined within their budget. When an official disaster emergency has been declared in Liberty County, the laws, regulations, and procedures relating to the purchase or procurement of goods, equipment, or services may be waived. Department and agency heads and incident commanders shall be authorized during the declared emergency to purchase or procure goods, equipment, and services as required to respond to the emergency up to a limit of $30,000. Such authority shall exist so long as the declared emergency exists. For any purchase or procurement above $30,000, the approval of the chairman of the Board of County Supervisors or the chief administrative officer shall be required. The county finance department shall be authorized to establish and maintain a system of purchase orders and credit card, to implement the disaster purchasing policy. Individuals purchasing or procuring goods and services pursuant to this section shall maintain a record of said transactions and execute such forms as may be prescribed by the Liberty County Finance Office. 5.2.13. Effective Date This ordinance shall take effect immediately. 5.3. Attachment 1: National Incident Management System (NIMS) Resolution 5.3.1. Liberty County, Columbia, Adoption of the National Incident Management System WHEREAS, The National Response Framework (NRF) is part of the National Strategy for Homeland Security that presents the guiding principles enabling all levels of domestic response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. Building on the existing NIMS as well as Incident Command System (ICS) standardization, the NRF’s coordinating structures are always in effect for implementation at any level and at any time for local, State, and national emergency or disaster response. WHEREAS, Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD) Management of Domestic Incidents, the President directed the Secretary of Homeland Security to develop and administer NIMS. On March 1, 2004, the Secretary issued the NIMS to provide a comprehensive national approach to incident management, applicable to all jurisdictional levels across functional disciplines; and Liberty County Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-65 April 2012 Revision 3.0 7 WHEREAS, The NIMS provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, tribal, and local governments to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity; and WHEREAS, The NIMS establishes standard incident management processes, protocols, and procedures so that all responders can work together more effectively; and WHEREAS, The Federal National Integration Center (NIC) Division was established to oversee all aspects of NIMS, including the development of NIMS related standards and guidelines and support to guidance for incident management and responder organizations as they implement the system. The center will validate compliance with the NIMS and NRF responsibilities, standards, and requirements; and WHEREAS, The overwhelming majority of emergency incidents is handled on a daily basis by a single jurisdiction at the local government level and may involve multiple jurisdictions, functional agencies, and emergency responder disciplines. These instances require effective and efficient coordination across the spectrum of organizations and activities; and WHEREAS, The NIMS is based on an appropriate balance of flexibility and standardization in order to provide a framework for interoperability and compatibility during incident operations; and WHEREAS, The NIMS provides a consistent, flexible, and adjustable national framework within which government and private entities at all levels can work together to manage domestic incidents, regardless of their cause, size, location, or complexity. This flexibility applies across all phases of incident management: prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED BY THE LIBERTY COUNTY, COLUMBIA, SUPERVISORS that: SECTION 1: The County Supervisors hereby recognize the NIMS and adopts NIMS principles and policies. SECTION 2: The County Supervisors direct the Liberty County Office of Emergency Management to establish a NIMS baseline by determining which NIMS requirements have already been met. SECTION 3: The County Supervisors direct the Liberty County Office of Emergency Management to establish a time frame and develop a strategy for full county NIMS implementation. SECTION 4: The County Supervisors direct all county departments, agencies, organizations, and to institutionalize the use of the Incident Command System. Liberty County Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-65 April 2012 Revision 3.0 8 SECTION 5: This Resolution shall take effect immediately upon adoption. PASSED AND ADOPTED THIS (Corporate Seal) DAY OF . LIBERTY COUNTY BY ITS COMMISSION Presiding Officer ATTEST: County Attorney’s Office County Clerk Approved as to form and legal sufficiency. By: Date: Liberty County Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-65 April 2012 Revision 3.0 9 Blank Intentionally Liberty County Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-65 April 2012 Revision 3.0 10 6.0 CENTRAL CITY DISASTER AND EMERGENCY SERVICE ORDINANCE 92-468 TABLE OF CONTENTS 6.1. Local Emergency ..................................................................................................................... 3 6.2. Preservation of Local Government .......................................................................................... 3 6.2.1. Title................................................................................................................................... 4 6.2.2. Definitions ........................................................................................................................ 4 6.2.3. Liberty County/Central City Disaster Emergency Policy Group..................................... 4 6.2.4. Delegated Authority ......................................................................................................... 4 6.2.5. Composition of Liberty County/Central City Policy Group............................................. 4 6.2.6. Executive Head of the Liberty County/Central City Disaster Emergency Policy Group ................................................................................................................................ 5 6.2.7. Continuity of Government ................................................................................................ 5 6.2.8. Emergency Interim Successors - Central City ................................................................. 5 6.2.9. Formalities of Taking Office ............................................................................................ 6 6.2.10. Period in Which Authority May Be Exercised ................................................................. 6 6.2.11. Financing ......................................................................................................................... 6 6.2.12. Emergency Purchasing .................................................................................................... 7 6.2.13. Effective Date ................................................................................................................... 7 6.3. Attachment 1: National Incident Management System (NIMS) Resolution ........................... 7 6.3.1. Central City, Columbia, Adoption of the National Incident Management System .......... 7 Central City Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-468 April 2012 Revision 3.0 1 Blank Intentionally Central City Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-468 April 2012 Revision 3.0 2 Reference: The Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act, Sections 15 and 16, which are incorporated herein by reference, state to wit: 6.1. Local Emergency A local emergency may be proclaimed by the governing body of the political subdivision or by an official so designated and authorized by ordinance or resolution adopted by such governing body. Whenever a local emergency is proclaimed by an official, the local emergency shall not remain in effect for more than seven days unless it has been ratified by the governing body. The governing body shall review at least every 14 days the need for continuing the local emergency. Termination of such local emergencies shall be proclaimed at the earliest possible date that conditions warrant. When two or more political subdivisions have created an inter-jurisdictional entity or policy group to jointly administer and coordinate the emergency response and recovery activities of the participating jurisdictions, the official selected by members of said policy group shall have the authority to proclaim a local emergency. In periods of local emergency, political subdivisions have the full power to provide mutual aid to any affected area in accordance with local ordinances, resolutions, emergency plans, or agreements therefore. State agencies may provide mutual aid, including personnel, equipment, and other available resources, to assist political subdivisions during a local emergency or in accordance with mutual aid agreements or at the direction of the Governor. In an appropriately proclaimed State or local emergency, the cost of extraordinary services incurred by political subdivisions in executing mutual aid agreements shall constitute a legal charge against the State when approved by the Governor in accordance with orders and regulations promulgated as prescribed in this Ordinance. The Governor may delegate this power of approval. During a local emergency, the governing body of a political subdivision or officials designated thereby may promulgate orders and regulations necessary to provide for the protection of life and property, including orders or regulations imposing a curfew within designated boundaries where necessary to preserve the public order and safety. Such orders, regulations, amendments, and recessions thereof shall be in writing and shall be given widespread public notice. 6.2. Preservation of Local Government The Legislature recognizes that, if this State or Nation were attacked by an enemy of the United States, many areas in Columbia might be subjected to the effects of said enemy attack and some or all of these areas could be severely damaged. During such attacks and in the reconstruction period following such attacks, law and order must be preserved and, so far as possible, governmental services must be continued or restored. To help preserve law and order and to continue or restore local governmental services, it is essential that the local units of government continue to function. Central City Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-468 April 2012 Revision 3.0 3 6.2.1. Title This Ordinance shall be referred to as the “Central City Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance.” 6.2.2. Definitions Unless otherwise clearly required by the context, as used in this ordinance: “Unavailable” means either that a vacancy in an office exists, and there is no deputy authorized to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of the office; or that the lawful incumbent of the office and the deputy are absent, deceased, or otherwise unable to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of the office. “Emergency interim successor” means a person designated in the event an officer is unavailable, to discharge the duties of an office until a successor is appointed or elected and qualified as provided by the constitution, statutes, charters, and ordinances, or until the lawful incumbent is able to resume the duties of the office. “Office” includes all Central City offices, the powers and duties of which are defined in the charter, laws, and regulations of Central City. 6.2.3. Liberty County/Central City Disaster Emergency Policy Group The mayor and city council of Central City find that the people of this city would be more effectively served by an inter-jurisdictional arrangement with Liberty County than by maintaining separate disaster agencies and services. In furtherance of this finding, there is hereby created by this ordinance, and by a similar ordinance which has been enacted by the Board of County Supervisors of Liberty County, the Liberty County/Central City Disaster Emergency Policy Group. 6.2.4. Delegated Authority Authority is hereby delegated to the Liberty County/Central City Disaster Emergency Policy Group for conducting all activities relating to the prevention of, preparation for, response to, and recovery from disaster emergencies, including, but not limited to, the creation of a disaster and emergency services inter-jurisdictional entity as authorized by the Columbia Disaster and Emergency Services Act, the preparation of a joint disaster emergency plan and mutual aid agreements, and such other activities as shall be necessary and appropriate for carrying out the intent of this ordinance. See Section 6.3, Attachment 1, of this ordinance. 6.2.5. Composition of Liberty County/Central City Policy Group Each jurisdiction shall determine which agencies and personnel shall serve on the Liberty County/ Central City Disaster Emergency Policy Group and each jurisdiction is authorized to make such changes, deletions, or additions as may be appropriate and necessary on an intermittent basis. Other political subdivisions may be admitted for inclusion in the inter-jurisdictional disaster emergency policy group when duly authorized by the governing body of the jurisdiction seeking admission and by the existing members of the policy group. Central City Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-468 April 2012 Revision 3.0 4 6.2.6. Executive Head of the Liberty County/Central City Disaster Emergency Policy Group The policy group itself shall choose its presiding officer from the members of the policy group. The policy group, on behalf of the respective jurisdictions, shall prepare and distribute to all appropriate officials in writing a clear and complete statement of the emergency responsibilities of all local agencies and officials. This statement shall set forth the disaster emergency chain of command within the policy group. When a disaster is occurring or is imminent, the policy group shall issue a policy statement for the guidance of the departments and agencies of the respective jurisdictions. 6.2.7. Continuity of Government To assure continuity of government through legally constituted leadership, authority, and responsibility in offices of the Central City government, pursuant to the Columbia “Emergency Interim Executive and Judicial Succession Act”; to provide for the effective operation of the Central City government during an emergency; and to facilitate the early resumption of functions temporarily suspended, it is found and declared to be necessary to provide for additional officers who can exercise the powers and discharge the duties of the head of government and to provide for emergency interim succession to governmental offices of Central City in the event the incumbents thereof and their duly authorized deputies, assistants, or other subordinate officers are unavailable to perform the duties and functions of such offices. 6.2.8. Emergency Interim Successors - Central City Pursuant to the provisions of the Columbia “Emergency Interim Successors Act,” all department and agency heads of Central City and all school, fire, power, and drainage districts shall designate by title, if feasible, or by named person, emergency interim successors, and specify their order of succession. Such designations shall be reviewed and revised as necessary to insure their current status. The officer will designate a sufficient number of persons so that there will be not less than three, nor more than seven, deputies or emergency interim successors or any combination thereof at any time. In the event that any officer of any political subdivision (or his or her deputy) is unavailable, the duties shall be discharged by the designated emergency interim successors in the order specified. The emergency interim successor shall discharge the duties of the office to which he or she is designated until such time as the vacancy is filled, or until the officer or his deputy becomes available to discharge the duties of the office. The office of mayor shall devolve to the vice mayor and thereafter to the member or members of the city council in order of their succession to office. If two or more shall have the same seniority date, then lots shall be drawn by the highest ranking judicial officer available to fill the office of mayor on a temporary basis. The powers of other elective officers shall devolve to their chief deputy and thereafter to other persons on the basis of rank. If more than one person shares the same rank, then succession shall be by seniority in entering on duty in the service of Central City. If two or more have equal entitlement to the office on the basis of these criteria, then the vacancy shall be filled by the city council. Central City Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-468 April 2012 Revision 3.0 5 6.2.9. Formalities of Taking Office At the time of their designation, emergency interim successors shall take such oath as may be required for them to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of the office to which they are succeeding. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be required to comply with any other provisions of law relative to taking office as a prerequisite for assuming such temporary office. 6.2.10. Period in Which Authority May Be Exercised Officials authorized to act pursuant to this ordinance are empowered to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of an office as herein authorized only after the disaster has created the vacancy of the office. Emergency interim successors in non-elective offices shall serve at the pleasure of the mayor, and may be removed or replaced by the mayor with or without cause. When the disaster or emergency which created the vacancy abates and an elective office is still vacant, then a special election shall be held at the earliest time feasible to fill such vacant elective office. The persons designated as emergency interim successors are authorized to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of an office in accordance with this ordinance until such time as they are removed by appropriate authority. Any disputes concerning a question of fact arising under this ordinance with respect to an office shall be adjudicated and resolved by the city council. 6.2.11. Financing It is the intent of the city council and declared to be the policy of Central City that funds to meet disaster emergencies shall always be available. A Disaster Contingency Fund is hereby established which shall receive monies appropriated therefore by the city council and these monies shall not be expended for any purpose other than to cope with a disaster emergency. It is the city council’s legislative intent that the first recourse shall be to funds which are regularly appropriated for city agencies. If the mayor finds that the demands for funds in coping with a particular disaster emergency exhaust or unreasonably reduce these appropriated funds, the mayor may make funds available from the Disaster Contingency Fund. If monies available from this fund are inadequate, and if the mayor finds that other sources of money to cope with the disaster are not available or are insufficient, the mayor may transfer and expend monies appropriated for other purposes or borrow—for a term not to exceed two years—from any private or public source. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to limit the mayor’s authority to apply for, receive, administer, and expend grants, gifts, or payments in furtherance of disaster prevention, preparedness, response, or recovery. Central City Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-468 April 2012 Revision 3.0 6 6.2.12. Emergency Purchasing Prior to any declaration of emergency or disaster, any department head or incident commander shall be authorized to purchase or procure goods, equipment, and services required to respond to any emergency as outlined in their budgets. When an official disaster emergency has been declared in Liberty County, the laws, regulations, and procedures relating to the purchase or procurement of goods, equipment, or services may be waived. Department and agency heads and incident commanders shall be authorized during the declared emergency up to a limit of $30,000. Such authority shall exist so long as the declared emergency exists. For any purchase or procurement above $30,000, the approval of the chairman of the Board of County Supervisors or the chief administrative officer shall be required. The county finance department shall be authorized to establish and maintain a system of purchase orders and credit cards to implement the disaster purchasing policy. Individuals purchasing or procuring goods and services pursuant to this section shall maintain a record of said transactions and execute such forms as may be prescribed by the Liberty County Finance Office. 6.2.13. Effective Date This ordinance shall take effect immediately. 6.3. Attachment 1: National Incident Management System (NIMS) Resolution 6.3.1. Central City, Columbia, Adoption of the National Incident Management System WHEREAS, The National Response Framework (NRF) is part of the National Strategy for Homeland Security that presents the guiding principles enabling all levels of domestic response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. Building on the existing NIMS as well as Incident Command System (ICS) standardization, the NRF’s coordinating structures are always in effect for implementation at any level and at any time for local, State, and national emergency or disaster response; and WHEREAS, Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD), Management of Domestic Incidents, the President directed the Secretary of Homeland Security to develop and administer NIMS. On March 1, 2004, the Secretary issued the NIMS to provide a comprehensive national approach to incident management, applicable to all jurisdictional levels across functional disciplines; and WHEREAS, The NIMS provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, tribal, and local governments to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity; and WHEREAS, The NIMS establishes standard incident management processes, protocols, and procedures so that all responders can work together more effectively; and Central City Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-468 April 2012 Revision 3.0 7 WHEREAS, The Federal National Integration Center (NIC) Division was established to oversee all aspects of NIMS, including the development of NIMS-related standards and guidelines and support to guidance for incident management and responder organizations as they implement the system. The center will validate compliance with the NIMS and NRF responsibilities, standards, and requirements; and WHEREAS, The overwhelming majority of emergency incidents is handled on a daily basis by a single jurisdiction at the local government level and may involve multiple jurisdictions, functional agencies, and emergency responder disciplines. These instances require effective and efficient coordination across the spectrum of organizations and activities; and WHEREAS, The NIMS is based on an appropriate balance of flexibility and standardization in order to provide a framework for interoperability and compatibility during incident operations; and WHEREAS, The NIMS provides a consistent, flexible, and adjustable national framework within which government and private entities at all levels can work together to manage domestic incidents, regardless of their cause, size, location, or complexity. This flexibility applies across all phases of incident management: prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation; NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED BY THE CENTRAL CITY, COLUMBIA, COUNCIL that: SECTION 1: The City Council hereby recognizes the NIMS and adopts NIMS principles and policies. SECTION 2: The City Council directs the Central City Office of Emergency Management to establish a NIMS baseline by determining which NIMS requirements have already been met. SECTION 3: The City Council directs the City Office of Emergency Management to establish a time frame and develop a strategy for full Central City NIMS implementation. SECTION 4: The City Council directs all city departments, agencies, and organizations to institutionalize the use of the Incident Command System. SECTION 5: This Resolution shall take effect immediately upon adoption. PASSED AND ADOPTED THIS DAY OF . (Corporate Seal) CENTRAL CITY BY ITS COMMISSION Presiding Officer ATTEST: County Attorney’s Office City Clerk Approved as to form and legal sufficiency. By: Date: Central City Disaster and Emergency Service Ordinance 92-468 April 2012 Revision 3.0 8 Blank Intentionally 7.0 CENTRAL CITY/LIBERTY COUNTY DECLARATION OF DISASTER/EMERGENCY TABLE OF CONTENTS 7.1. Liberty County/Central City Declaration of Disaster/Emergency Sequence Checklist .......... 3 7.2. Liberty County/Central City Joint Emergency Services Agreement ....................................... 3 7.2.1. Resolution ......................................................................................................................... 3 7.3. Liberty County/Central City Joint Activation of Emergency Management Plan .................... 5 7.3.1. Resolution ......................................................................................................................... 5 7.4. Liberty County/Central City Joint Disaster Emergency Ordering Prohibitions ...................... 6 7.4.1. Proclamation .................................................................................................................... 6 7.5. Liberty County/Central City Joint Mandatory Evacuation Order............................................ 7 7.5.1. Proclamation .................................................................................................................... 7 7.6. Liberty County/Central City Joint Request to Governor of the State of Columbia to Proclaim a State of Emergency Therein and Obtain the Assistance of the State and Federal Governments ......................................................................................................... 8 7.6.1. Resolution ......................................................................................................................... 8 7.7. Liberty County/Central City Joint Termination of Disaster Emergency ................................. 9 7.7.1. Resolution ........................................................................................................................ 9 7.8. Liberty County/Central City, Columbia, Adoption of the National Incident Management System .................................................................................................................................... 10 7.8.1. Resolution ...................................................................................................................... 10 Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 1 Blank Intentionally Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 2 7.1. Liberty County/Central City Declaration of Disaster/Emergency Sequence Checklist Action 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Description Occurrence of emergency/disaster event has been confirmed City/County Emergency Management Plan (EMP) has been implemented City/County Emergency Operations Center (EOC) has been activated Event is significant. Mayor/Chairman declares “LOCAL EMERGENCY/DISASTER” in accordance with CESA10.2.4 • City/County Attorney review and approve as to form • City/County Clerk review and attest • Liberty County Office of Emergency Management notified Declaration of “LOCAL EMERGENCY/DISASTER” presented to City Council within 48 hours from time of proclamation City Manager conducts public/media notification City resources have been overwhelmed (or expected to be) Preliminary Damage Assessment (PDA) has been performed and reveals: Completed • Damages to uninsured public property are equal to or exceed a per capita allocation set in the Federal Register (i.e., 2009 sample 302,412 X $2.50 = $756,030) • Other catastrophic event with significant damage and/or loss of life Mayor/Chairman of the County Board of Supervisors issues proclamation requesting Governor to declare “STATE OF EMERGENCY/DISASTER” to acquire State and/or Federal assistance City/County Attorney review and approve as to form 9 City/County Clerk review and attest Fax/forward to Governor via Columbia Division of Emergency Management (DEM) within 2 hours. Request shall include: • • Copy of “LOCAL EMERGENCY/DISASTER” declaration Copy of PDA report Note: Action items 1–9 may occur sequentially or concurrently based upon the size and complexity of the event. Table 7.1. Liberty County/Central City Declaration of Disaster/Emergency Sequence Checklist 7.2. Liberty County/Central City Joint Emergency Services Agreement 7.2.1. Resolution WHEREAS, Liberty County and Central City have by ordinance established similar programs of disaster prevention and preparedness including the mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery phases of emergency management; and WHEREAS, the county and city find that vulnerability to many potential hazards is shared by the people of Central City and Liberty County; and Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 3 WHEREAS, the county and city further find that the common goals of emergency management can best be achieved through an organization which shares the combined resources of the county and city; and WHEREAS, The National Response Framework (NRF) is part of the National Strategy for Homeland Security that presents the guiding principles enabling all levels of domestic response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. Building on the existing National Incident Management System (NIMS) as well as Incident Command System (ICS) standardization, the NRF’s coordinating structures are always in effect for implementation at any level and at any time for local, State, and national emergency or disaster response; and WHEREAS, Homeland Security Presidential Directives (HSPDs) require that all State emergency services functions will be accomplished in accordance with NIMS. HSPD requires all Federal, State, local, and tribal agencies and jurisdictions to adopt NIMS and use it in their individual domestic incident management, emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation activities, as well as in support of all actions taken to assist local entities; and WHEREAS, The contemplated action is specifically authorized by State law and ordinance enacted by the Liberty County Board of County Supervisors and City Council of Central City; NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED That there is hereby established a joint emergency management organization to be known as the Liberty County/Central City Policy Group which shall consist of appropriate officers and employees of the county and the city as designated in a joint emergency plan or as determined by the governing bodies of both jurisdictions, together with representatives of such volunteer groups as may be desirable and appropriate; and BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That the chairman of the Liberty County Board of County Supervisors and the mayor of Central City mutually appoint an emergency management coordinator to coordinate all aspects of the county/city program of emergency management including the preparation and maintenance of a joint Emergency Management Plan (EMP) for Liberty County and Central City; and BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That Liberty County will use NIMS to manage domestic incidents within the county in all phases of emergency management; and BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That Liberty County and Central City welcome the inclusion of other municipalities or other political subdivisions which may want to participate in this multi-jurisdictional/multi-agency emergency management operating entity. Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 4 Liberty County/Central City Joint Emergency Services Agreement Figure 7.1. Resolution/Proclamation Passed, Adopted, and Approved Signature Form 7.3. Liberty County/Central Management Plan City Joint Activation of Emergency 7.3.1. Resolution WHEREAS, The City Council of the Central City and the Liberty Board of Supervisors of Liberty County have been informed that (Describe Emergency) within said city and county; and WHEREAS, Such (Describe Emergency) represents a disaster emergency and is a substantial and imminent peril to said city and county and to the residents thereof and the property therein; and WHEREAS, The City Council of Central City and Board of Supervisors of Liberty County hereby find that it will be necessary to take appropriate action to protect the public peace, health, and safety, and to preserve the lives and property of its residents; and WHEREAS, In light of the exigencies of this disaster emergency, said City Council further finds that it will be necessary to take such action without regard to the formalities which are prescribed by law; NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED AND DECLARED By Central City and Liberty County that a state of emergency exists as of time a.m., (day of week), (month and date), (year), within said city; and Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 5 IT IS THEREFORE ORDERED That the coordinator of emergency operations of said joint powers agreement be, and he hereby is, authorized, empowered, and directed to activate joint powers EMP, and he is further authorized, empowered, and directed to undertake such emergency management operations and to take such other and further actions as may be necessary or appropriate in order to respond to such emergency and to implement the provisions of said plan. Liberty County/Central City Joint Activation of Emergency Management Plan Figure 7.2. Resolution/Proclamation Passed, Adopted, and Approved Signature Form 7.4. Liberty County/Central City Joint Disaster Emergency Ordering Prohibitions 7.4.1. Proclamation WHEREAS, It appears that a disaster, as defined in the Columbia Emergency Services Act (Chapter 7, Title 2, Section 4), exists requiring emergency operations within Central City and/or Liberty County; and WHEREAS, Said disaster represents a threat to the safety and welfare of the citizens of Central City and/or Liberty County as well as a threat to their property within the County; and WHEREAS, The existence of this disaster threatens the ability of public safety authorities to maintain public order or afford adequate protection for lives or property; NOW, THEREFORE, By this Proclamation, a State of Disaster Emergency is hereby declared as of “TIME OF DAY” on this “DAY OF MONTH” day of “MONTH”, “YEAR”. Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 6 Pursuant to the proclaimed State of Disaster Emergency, the restrictions designated below are hereby imposed, subject to any parameters specifically indicated: 1. 2. 3. 4. The prohibition or regulation of the possession off one’s own premises of explosive, firearms, ammunition, or dangerous weapons of any kind, and the prohibition of the purchase, sale, transfer, or other disposition thereof. The prohibition or regulation of the buying or selling of intoxicating beverages of any kind, and the prohibition of their consumption off one’s own premises. The prohibition or regulation of the sale of gasoline (except when directly introduced into a motor vehicle), kerosene, naphtha, or any other explosive or inflammable fluids or substances. The prohibition or regulation of pedestrian or motor vehicle travel or presence upon any public street, highway, alley, or roadway, or upon any other public property, including the proclamation of a curfew. Liberty County/Central City Joint Disaster Emergency Ordering Prohibitions Figure 7.3. Resolution/Proclamation Passed, Adopted, and Approved Signature Form 7.5. Liberty County/Central City Joint Mandatory Evacuation Order 7.5.1. Proclamation WHEREAS, The mayor of Central City and the chairman of the Liberty County Board of Supervisors have proclaimed that a state of emergency exists and hereby finds that the situation that is created by such emergency is of such severity and magnitude to constitute an imminent peril to life in the area which is described as follows, to wit: Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 7 I, (mayor), as the mayor of Central City and I (chairman), as the chairman of the Liberty County Board of County Supervisors DO HEREBY PROCLAIM that the said described area shall be, and the same is hereby ORDERED to be, evacuated according to the evacuation and orders that are set forth in or promulgated pursuant to the EMP of said city/county and that this order shall remain in effect until order of the City Council of said city and the Board of County Supervisors of said county. Liberty County/Central City Joint Mandatory Evacuation Order Figure 7.4. Resolution/Proclamation Passed, Adopted, and Approved Signature Form 7.6. Liberty County/Central City Joint Request to Governor of the State of Columbia to Proclaim a State of Emergency Therein and Obtain the Assistance of the State and Federal Governments 7.6.1. Resolution WHEREAS, Central City and Liberty County have declared that a State of Disaster Emergency exists within the city/county; and WHEREAS, The situation is deemed by city/county of such severity and magnitude that substantial and imminent peril to life and property exists within the city; and WHEREAS, Central City/Liberty County have or will have expended all of its available resources and the resources that are available to it under its reciprocal aid agreements; and WHEREAS, Central City/Liberty County further find that even with the expenditure of all of such resources, said city/county will be unable to cope with such disaster emergency; Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 8 NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED By the mayor of Central City and the chairman of the Liberty County Board of Supervisors that the Governor of the State of Columbia be, and he hereby is, requested to proclaim that said city/county are in a state of emergency, to provide to said city/county with the support of said State and to request Federal government assistance for said city/county; and BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That the mayor of Central City and the chairman of the Liberty County Board of Supervisors be, and hereby are, authorized, empowered, and directed forthwith to forward certified copies of this resolution to the Governor of the State of Columbia; and BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Central City, city manager, and Liberty County, county manager, are hereby designated as the authorized representatives of said city and county for the purpose of the receipt, processing, and coordination of all inquiries and requirements that are necessary in order to obtain State and Federal assistance to enable said city and county to respond to and recover from the aforementioned emergency, and to repair and restore those public properties damaged or lost as a result thereof. Liberty County/Central City Make a Joint Request to Governor of the State of Columbia to Proclaim a State of Emergency Therein and Obtain the Assistance of the State and Federal Government Figure 7.5. Resolution/Proclamation Passed, Adopted, and Approved Signature Form 7.7. Liberty County/Central City Joint Termination of Disaster Emergency 7.7.1. Resolution WHEREAS, Central City and Liberty County are political subdivisions of the State of Columbia; and Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 9 WHEREAS, The Central City Council and the Liberty County Board of Supervisors found that on [Date] due to [DISASTER]; [DESCRIPTION and/or FEDERAL DISASTER NO.], a condition of extreme peril to life, health, safety, and welfare of persons and property occurred within the Liberty County; and WHEREAS, The effects of the [DISASTER] have subsided, Central City and Liberty County are now able to cope with the existing conditions; NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, That the Central City Council and the Liberty County Board of Supervisors, do hereby resolve that within Liberty County, the state of emergency that existed during the period [inclusive DATES], due to the conditions of [DISASTER], shall cease to exist on [DATE]. Liberty County/Central City Joint Termination of Disaster Emergency Figure 7.6. Resolution/Proclamation Passed, Adopted, and Approved Signature Form 7.8. Liberty County/Central City, Columbia, Adoption of the National Incident Management System 7.8.1. Resolution WHEREAS, The NRF is part of the National Strategy for Homeland Security that presents the guiding principles enabling all levels of domestic response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. Building on the existing NIMS as well as ICS standardization, the NRF’s coordinating structures are always in effect for implementation at any level and at any time for local, State, and national emergency or disaster response; and Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 10 WHEREAS, HSPD, Management of Domestic Incidents, the President directed the Secretary of Homeland Security to develop and administer a NIMS. On March 1, 2004, the Secretary issued the NIMS to provide a comprehensive national approach to incident management, applicable to all jurisdictional levels across functional disciplines; and WHEREAS, The NIMS provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, tribal, and local governments to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity; and WHEREAS, The NIMS establishes standard incident management processes, protocols, and procedures so that all responders can work together more effectively; and WHEREAS, The Federal NIMS Integration Center was established to oversee all aspects of NIMS, including the development of NIMS-related standards and guidelines and support to guidance for incident management and responder organizations as they implement the system. The center will validate compliance with the NIMS and NRF responsibilities, standards, and requirements; and WHEREAS, The overwhelming majority of emergency incidents are handled on a daily basis by a single jurisdiction at the local government level and may involve multiple jurisdictions, functional agencies, and emergency responder disciplines. These instances require effective and efficient coordination across the spectrum of organizations and activities; and WHEREAS, The NIMS is based on an appropriate balance of flexibility and standardization in order to provide a framework for interoperability and compatibility during incident operations; and WHEREAS, The NIMS provides a consistent, flexible, and adjustable national framework within which government and private entities at all levels can work together to manage domestic incidents, regardless of their cause, size, location, or complexity. This flexibility applies across all phases of incident management: prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation; NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED BY THE CENTRAL CITY COUNCIL AND THE LIBERTY COUNTY BOARD OF SUPERVISORS, COLUMBIA, that: SECTION 1: The Central City Council and the Liberty County Board of Supervisors hereby recognize the NIMS and adopts NIMS principles and policies. SECTION 2: The Central City Council and the Liberty County Board of Supervisors direct the Liberty County Office of Emergency Management to establish a NIMS baseline by determining which NIMS requirements have already been met. SECTION 3: The Central City Council and the Liberty County Board of Supervisors direct the Liberty County Office of Emergency Management to establish a time frame and develop a strategy for full county NIMS implementation. SECTION 4: The Central City Council and the Liberty County Board of Supervisors direct all city and county departments, agencies, and organizations to institutionalize the Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 11 use of the Incident Command System (ICS). SECTION 5: This Resolution shall take effect immediately upon adoption. Liberty County/Central City, Columbia, Adoption of the National Incident Management System Figure 7.7. Resolution/Proclamation Passed, Adopted, and Approved Signature Form Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 12 Central City/Liberty County Declaration of Disaster/Emergency April 2012 Revision 3.0 13 8.0 LIBERTY COUNTY BASIC EMERGENCY PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS 8.1. Purpose ................................................................................................................................... 3 8.1.1. Statement .......................................................................................................................... 3 8.1.2. Plan .................................................................................................................................. 3 8.2. Situation and Assumptions ...................................................................................................... 3 8.2.1. Situation ........................................................................................................................... 3 8.2.2. Assumptions ...................................................................................................................... 3 8.3. Concept of Operations ............................................................................................................. 4 8.3.1. General ............................................................................................................................. 4 8.3.2. Five Phases of Management ............................................................................................ 5 8.4. Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities................................................................... 5 8.4.1. General ............................................................................................................................. 5 8.4.2. Organization..................................................................................................................... 6 8.4.2.1. Emergency Management Policy Group ..................................................................... 6 8.4.2.2. Emergency Management Coordination Group .......................................................... 6 8.4.2.3. Emergency Management Operations Section ............................................................ 8 8.4.3. Task Assignments (Not Exhaustive) ................................................................................. 9 8.5. Direction and Control ............................................................................................................ 14 8.6. Continuity of Government ..................................................................................................... 15 8.6.1. Succession of Command ................................................................................................. 15 8.6.2. Preservation of Records ................................................................................................. 15 8.7. Administration and Logistics................................................................................................. 15 8.7.1. Emergency Authority ..................................................................................................... 15 8.7.2. Declaration Procedures ................................................................................................. 16 8.7.3. Mutual Aid ...................................................................................................................... 16 8.7.4. Consumer Protection...................................................................................................... 16 8.8. Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) ...................................................................... 16 8.9. Evacuation Operations ........................................................................................................... 17 8.10. Joint Information Center (JIC) .............................................................................................. 18 8.11. Multiagency Coordination System ........................................................................................ 18 8.12. Termination of Disaster or Emergency ................................................................................. 19 8.13. Plan Development and Maintenance ..................................................................................... 19 8.14. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization........................... 20 8.15. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization – Joint Information Center ................................................................................................................. 20 8.16. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization – Emergency Operations Center Support Team ........................................................................................... 22 8.17. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization – Operations Section .................................................................................................................................... 22 8.18. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization – Communications .................................................................................................................... 23 Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 1 Blank Intentionally Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 2 8.1. Purpose 8.1.1. Statement The purpose of the Liberty County Emergency Operations Plan is to develop a comprehensive emergency management program that establishes a systematic, coordinated, and effective delivery of emergency services to respond to and mitigate the effects of an emergency, preserve life and minimize damage, respond during emergencies, provide necessary assistance, and establish a recovery system in order to return the community to a normal state of affairs. 8.1.2. Plan This plan, along with all references, appendices, and annexes, attempts to define who does what when, where, and how, in order to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from the effects of natural and technological disasters. 8.2. Situation and Assumptions 8.2.1. Situation Liberty County is vulnerable to many hazards, each with varying degrees of likelihood, all of which have the potential for disrupting the community, causing damage, and creating casualties. As described in the Liberty County Hazard Vulnerability Assessment, these may be natural or technological/industrial (man-made) events. The former category includes, but is not limited to, meteorological (e.g., hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, forest fires, earthquakes) and agricultural events, as well as naturally-occurring illnesses (e.g., food-borne diseases, pandemic influenza). The County has considered the threat of terrorism-related Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear Explosive (CBRNE) incidents, in addition to other disasters that could develop from a hazardous materials spill, nuclear power plant accident, major transportation accident, civil disorder, etc. 8.2.2. Assumptions Liberty County will be exposed to the hazards noted above as well as to others that may develop in the future. The extent of casualties and damage will depend upon factors such as whether the event was anticipated, the amount of warning time, the time of the occurrence, the severity of the impact, weather conditions, population density, the type of infrastructure affected/ compromised, and the potential triggering of secondary events. The preservation of life shall have priority over the preservation of property and the environment. The safety of citizens and personnel from county departments, supporting agencies, and volunteers will be a primary concern. High risks to personnel may be incurred to protect salvageable lives. Minor to moderate risks to personnel may be incurred to protect salvageable property or prevent major impact to the environment. No risks to personnel will be incurred to protect non-salvageable lives or property. Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 3 Local government officials recognize their responsibilities with regard to public safety and well being. These same government officials will assume their normal responsibilities in the implementation of the emergency management plan or in other assigned or required duties. Consistent with the Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD) and the executive order of the Governor of the State of Columbia, the National Incident Management System (NIMS) is integrated into this plan, and use of the Incident Command System (ICS) is a basic tenet of the emergency management process. All county agencies will implement a unified ICS structure, as stipulated in the NIMS for on-scene activities and during response, recovery, and mitigation operations. Liberty County and the municipalities and agencies within the county will endeavor to have sufficient capability to operate for at least 72 hours without external aid and will recommend that all citizens have at least a 96-hour capability. 8.3. Concept of Operations 8.3.1. General It is the responsibility of the Liberty County government to undertake comprehensive emergency management in order to protect life and property from the effects of hazardous events. Local government has the primary responsibility for emergency activities. When the emergency exceeds the local government’s capability, supplemented by normal mutual aid, to respond and recover, assistance will be requested from the State government. This aid will be supplied by State resources or out-of-State mutual aid through the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC). The Federal government will provide assistance to the State when appropriate and requested by the Governor or directed by the President. This plan is based upon the concept that all local resources will be committed or potentially committed to the emergency before outside aid will respond. It is also based on the philosophy that emergency functions for the various groups involved in emergency management will parallel their normal, day-to-day functions. To the extent possible, the same personnel and resources will be employed in both cases. However, there may be cases where personnel will have to work outside of their normal function. Day-to-day functions that do not contribute directly to the emergency operation may be suspended or reduced for the duration of the emergency as directed by upper management. This will require addressing those activities with a constitutional mandate. The efforts that would normally be required for those functions will be redirected to accomplish the emergency task by the agency concerned. A comprehensive emergency management plan is concerned with all types of hazardous situations that may develop in Liberty County; it is more than an operations plan in that it accounts for activities prior to, during, and after emergency operations. Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 4 8.3.2. Five Phases of Management Mitigation: Mitigation activities are those that eliminate or reduce the probability of a disaster occurrence. They also include those long-term activities that lessen the undesirable effects of unavoidable hazards. Prevention: Prevention activities are those that prevent the occurrence of a disaster by either interrupting unlawful activities or increasing legal action such as code enforcement and public education. Preparedness: Preparedness activities develop the response capabilities needed if an emergency should arise. Planning and training are among the activities conducted under this phase. Response: Response is the actual provision of emergency services during a crisis. These activities help to reduce casualties and damage and speed recovery. Response activities include warning, evacuation, rescue, and other similar operations. Recovery: Recovery is both a short-term and long-term process. Short-term operations restore vital services to the community and provide for the basic needs of the public. Long-term recovery focuses on restoring the community to its normal, or improved, state of affairs. The recovery period is also an opportune time to institute mitigation measures, particularly those related to the recent emergency. Examples of recovery actions would be provision of temporary housing and food, restoration of vital government services, and reconstruction of damaged areas. Conceptually, pre-disaster intelligence can be used to prevent or prepare for the occurrence of a threat to public safety or order. Post-disaster intelligence may be used to manage outcomes of the incident. As such, intelligence-gathering activities and intelligence analysis may operate within any of the phases. In some cases, sensitive information may have to be compartmentalized. 8.4. Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities 8.4.1. General Most of the departments within local government have emergency functions in addition to their normal duties as assigned by charter or legislation. Each department is responsible for developing and maintaining its own emergency management procedures, subject to review and approval of the board after analysis by Liberty County emergency management. Specific responsibilities for major county-wide disasters are outlined below under “Task Assignments” as well as in individual annexes (not included in this sample). Responsibilities for certain organizations that are not part of local government are also presented. Not all members of all groups will be represented in all situations. Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 5 8.4.2. Organization The Liberty County Emergency Operations Center (EOC) (located within the Emergency Management Center at the intersection of AA and 39th Streets, Central City, with an alternate location at 10th and FF Streets) will function as the Multiagency Coordination System (MACS) for all emergencies and disasters within or impacting Liberty County. The EOC will operate under the NIMS definition of MACS. A major responsibility of the EOC is to ensure that capability is maintained to respond to unanticipated emergencies and disasters that have not yet occurred within the county. 8.4.2.1. Emergency Management Policy Group The Liberty County emergency management policy group is responsible for all policy decisions relating to emergency management, including delegations of authority, and will act as the executive leadership of the joint city/county response. The standing members of this group are: • County Representatives – County Manager – Chairperson of the Board of Supervisors – Board of Supervisors members – Sheriff – County Attorney – Public Information Officer (PIO) – Chief Financial Officer – County Fire Coordinator – County Public Health Director – County Public Works Director – County School Superintendent – Emergency Program Manager – Hospital Representative • City Representatives – City Manager – Chairperson of City Council (Mayor) – Board of City Council members – City Attorney – Fire Chief – City Financial Director – City Public Works Director – Chamber of Business and Industry Designee 8.4.2.2. Emergency Management Coordination Group The emergency management coordination group will ensure that emergency policies, support activities, and resources are coordinated among the spectrum of participating organizations. This group will prepare requests for outside aid beyond that of every day mutual aid. They will Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 6 be organized to fulfill the off incident site responsibilities of Planning, Logistics, and Finance with section chiefs, branch directors, and unit leaders appointed from the membership. Depending on the type and scope of the disasters, liaisons may be required from the other municipalities in Liberty County. The members of the emergency management coordination group are: • County Representatives – Assistant Emergency Program Manager/Emergency Planning Director – Assistant County Manager – Chief Deputy, Sheriff’s Department – Assistant Public Works Director – Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Director – County Planning Director – Public Health Representative – Deputy School Superintendent – Planning Board Director – Power Company Manager – County Engineer – County Medical Examiner – Information Technology (IT)/Geographic Information System (GIS) Manager – Municipal Liaisons • City Representatives – Assistant City Manager – Assistant Fire Chief – Assistant Police Chief – Assistant City Finance Director – City Planning Director – City School Superintendent – Central City Hospital Liaison – City IT/GIS Manager – City Tourism Director – External Representatives – Water Manager – Gas Company Manager – Telephone Company Manager – County Highway Superintendent – Red Cross Representative – Director, Local Housing Authority – Director, Local Public Assistance Office – Transit Authority Representative – Community Info/Hotline Coordinator – Purchasing Manager – National Guard Liaison (if activated) – Chamber of Business and Industry Designee Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 7 8.4.2.3. Emergency Management Operations Section The emergency management operations section will ensure that policies and activities are implemented according to the decisions of the policy group and the guidance of the coordination group. The primary responsibility of the operations group is to coordinate the deployment of the appropriate resources to overcome and reduce the impact of major emergencies. They will be organized to provide direct support to Incident Commanders while providing community-wide services as directed by the policy group operating from the community EOC. The members of the emergency management operations section include operations officers, support personnel, and agency liaisons. The membership may include, depending on the nature of the disaster: • County Representatives – Assistant County Manager – Assistant Homeland Security/Emergency Program Manager – Emergency Operations Director – Assistant Public Works Director – Liberty County Public Health Emergency Preparedness Coordinator – Deputy, Sheriff’s Department – Assistant to County Medical Examiner – Assistant County Engineer – Emergency Medical Services Coordinator – IT/GIS Manager – Public Health Liaison – Deputy School Superintendent – Strategic National Stockpile Coordinator • City Representatives – Operations Section Chief – Fire Operations Branch Director – Fire Dispatcher – Law Enforcement Operations Branch Director – City Police Operations Officer – Police Dispatcher – Federal Law Enforcement Liaison • Other Representatives – Federal Law Enforcement Liaison – Disease Control – Health Educator/Environmental Health Representative – Public Health Branch Director – Street Superintendent – Sewer Superintendent – Water Superintendent – Community Service Branch Director – Assistant Public Health Official – Building/Code Enforcement Official Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 8 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – School Official Public Works Branch Director Public Works Dispatcher Red Cross Representative Power Company Superintendent Gas Company Superintendent Telephone Company Superintendent Deputy, Sheriff’s Department Sheriff’s Dispatcher EMS Operations Branch Director Emergency Medical Dispatcher State Police Representatives PIO Local Military Liaison State Highways Liaison Officer IT/GIS Representatives Shelter Operations Unit Leader Higher Education Representative Hospital Representative The organization of functions means that the coordination group will fulfill the Logistics, Finance, and Planning Section functions and the operations group will satisfy the Operations section function under ICS. The Intelligence function will be activated in the management organization that is appropriate for the incident. These will be linked to the appropriate section in operation at the incident command post in the field. 8.4.3. Task Assignments (Not Exhaustive) • Emergency Program Management – Coordination of all five phases of emergency management – Comprehensive emergency management planning – Staff and responder training – Radiological Defense (RADEF) Program management and training – Resource management (e.g., county and city department oversight, external resource requests including State and Federal assistance, mutual aid) – Communications and warning – Hazardous Materials Training and Response – Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III activities – Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) support – Management of drills and exercises – Evaluation of community preparedness – Development of the Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) – Distribution of emergency information – Establishment of interface with Federal agencies – Management of financial ramifications of disaster – Coordination of the county response activation Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 9 • Law Enforcement – Warning and threat assessment/validation support – RADEF monitoring support – Maintenance of law and order – Traffic control (including aerial and ground traffic flow monitoring, enforcement of travel restrictions) – Control of restricted areas (access and egress) – Protection of vital installations (physical structures and soft targets) – Security of any field operating sites or facilities – Damage assessment support – Liaison and coordination with other law enforcement – Wildland search and rescue – Establish Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI); Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF); Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA); United States Coast Guard (USCG), and Customs and Border Protection (CBP) interface as needed – Coordination with National Guard on security issues – Fatality identification – Aerial rescue support – Medical rescue support – Policy, coordination, and operations group support – Advise policy group on cancellation of events, restrictions, etc. – Re-entry management – Assist Joint Information Center (JIC) with release of emergency public information • Fire Service – Fire control – Fire prevention inspections – Operation of fixed and mobile siren units – Search and rescue operations – Assistance for traffic control – RADEF monitoring and decontamination support – Damage assessment – Hazardous materials operations – Wildland fire control – Mine Rescue – Communications support – Urban search and rescue – Assist JIC with the release of emergency public information • Emergency Medical Services System – – – – Mobilize to handle casualties Triage, treat, and transport casualties Maintain coverage for unaffected areas Coordinate medical helicopter evacuation Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 10 – – – – – Manage mass casualty equipment caches Manage inter-facility transfers Support public inoculation sites Deliver additional service as directed by the public health director Assist JIC with the release of emergency public information • Health Department – Investigate sanitation conditions – Inspect food and drink supplies (and emergency shelters) – Provide public health education and information – Advise policy group with emergency public health matters – Assist JIC with the release of emergency public information – Oversee delivery of Emergency Medical Service System – Serve as liaison to local, State, and Federal medical communities, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), during a major disaster or emergency resulting in casualties – Assist with acquisition of medical personnel to staff alternate care facilities – Perform surveillance activities and detect biological agents – Provide laboratory testing support and epidemiologic investigations – Monitor and manage local pharmaceutical caches – Request and acquire the Strategic National Stockpile and State/local caches – Advise on provision of health/medical and treatment protocols for agent/illness – Advise on quarantine/isolation decisions – Interface with law enforcement to assist with crime scene measures (e.g., evidence preservation, chain of custody, crime scene investigation) – Veterinary/zoonotic issues – Environmental testing and remediation – Provision of disaster behavioral health support • Hospitals – Advise on issues related to hospitals – Coordinate hospital plans – Provide mass patient care – Manage hospital bed programs – Monitor and report on patients – Monitor and report on supply issues and staffing needs – Track and coordinate patients – Coordinate forward movement from facilities • Public Works/Utilities – Maintenance of water and sewage system – Maintenance of debris and garbage disposal operations – Road and bridge repairs – RADEF decontamination support – Fuel storage – Provision of (specialized) personnel, equipment, supplies, and other resources as needed Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 11 – Maintenance of water pressure – Damage assessment support – Provision of potable water – Coordination with Health Department on water tests – Policy and coordination groups staff support – Search and rescue support – Building Inspection Program, as needed – Traffic control support (and constructing temporary emergency access routes) – Restoration of vital facilities – Clearance of debris • County Engineering – Provision of emergency engineering services and counseling – Flood control – Damage assessment support • Finance Department – Maintain records – Procure supplies – Provide staff support for coordination group – Prepare reimbursement applications – Process the financial part of damage assessment – Provide staff compensation and injury processing • Schools – Protection of school children – Provision of public shelters – Security of school facilities – Coordination of student-family reunification – Provision of space for mass immunization/prophylaxis (pre-defined Point of Dispensing [POD]) – Provision for public education regarding emergency management – Provision of buses for transportation – Mobilization of school staff to support emergency management/shelter operations • Medical Examiner Office – Collection, identification, and committal of the deceased victims – Chain of custody and evidence preservation to assist law enforcement operations – Coordination with other services, including funeral homes, military, and Federal authorities • County/City Attorney – Legal advice support – Policy group support – Preparations of ordinances and orders Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 12 • Community Services Department – Coordination of all personal relief activities – Identification of client needs – Maintenance of medical drug support to clients – Expansion of community crisis intervention programs – Operation of special needs shelters – Identification of vulnerable populations • Red Cross – Mass Care Shelter Operations – Mass Care Feeding (fixed sites and mobile) – Individual/family assistance – Public education and information support – First aid and nursing support – Blood drives – Counseling support • Telephone Company – Provide advice regarding telephone maintenance and operation – Load line control – Provide communications assistance to requesting agencies as needed – Coordinate communications planning activities with the EOC – Assess damage to cellular telecommunications infrastructure and communicate findings to EOC – Coordinate and conduct repairs as needed • Department of Information Technology (IT) – Coordinate the assessment of telecommunications systems’ integrity during and after a disaster or emergency – Establish emergency communications protocol, including the assignment or reassignment of existing communications equipment – Establish telephone and Intra/Internet communications capability between emergency response departments, as able, based upon availability and infrastructure integrity – Operate and maintain citywide telecommunications systems – Provide support assistance, as available, and within technical capabilities. (Note: The responsibility for all unique telecommunications systems resides with the host department/agency.) – Provide necessary GIS capabilities • Power Company – Power distribution advice – Advice regarding power outages and impact predictions – Damage assessment and repairs Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 13 • Gas Company – Gas distribution system advice – Advice regarding natural gas shortages, outages, and impact – Damage assessment and repairs • Transit Authority – Coordinate mass public transportation resources – Provide advice regarding public transportation issues – Implement emergency functions to include traffic control if requested – Identify and supervise emergency vehicle mobilization areas – Assist in assessment of impacted transportation routes – Identify alternative routes for emergency response vehicles – Initiate emergency repairs to allow for response to critical facilities and impacted areas if alternate routes cannot be identified • Local Housing Authority – Advice regarding status and condition of housing – Provision of short- and long-term shelters • Military Support – Warning support – Traffic control support – Law and order support – Search and rescue support – Medical services support – Debris clearance support – Fire control support – Logistics support – Engineering support – Shelter support – Communications support 8.5. Direction and Control As outlined in the Liberty County/Central City Joint Powers Agreement on Emergency Management and the supporting resolutions and ordinances, the final responsibility for all emergency management belongs to the elected official chairing the policy group. The policy group is responsible for all policy-level decisions. They are also required to be the approving agency for public information releases to the public. During response operations, the elected officials of the policy group will be available to their constituents to handle problems. The emergency program manager trains and directs the EOC staff. This staff may make routine decisions within the limits of disaster authority. During emergency operations, the emergency program manager ensures that all groups are working in a concerted, supportive effort to overcome the disaster. Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 14 Specific people and agencies are responsible for fulfilling their obligations as presented in the basic plan. Each agency will follow its own operating procedures during response operations. All Liberty County/Central City agencies have been notified of the possibility of their staffs being called upon to staff emergency management missions such as rumor control/public information hotlines. 8.6. Continuity of Government 8.6.1. Succession of Command In order for any organized emergency response effort to be effective and efficient, the individuals with key emergency management responsibilities must not only be familiar with their assignments, they must also be available to execute these duties. Emergencies may arise, however, in which certain critical personnel are either absent (from the community) or are isolated or incapacitated due to the disaster itself. To prepare for this contingency, this section of the plan has predefined lines of succession for critical decision-makers to ensure the continuity of county government in the advent of a disaster. The line of succession of the county board of supervisors is from the president to the vice president through the members of the board in order of their seniority on the board. The line of succession of the city council is from the mayor through the members of the council, in order of their seniority on the council. The line of succession of the county manager is to the sheriff then to the chief deputy sheriff. The line of succession of the city manager is to the chief of police then to the city fire chief. The line of succession of the emergency program manager is to the deputy program manager then to the operations officer. The line of succession to each department head is according to the operating procedures established by each department and filed in writing with the emergency program manager. 8.6.2. Preservation of Records In order to develop after-action reports, all messages and logs will be maintained and submitted to the emergency program manager immediately after deactivating emergency operations. Consideration must be given to the protection of those records that are critical to the operation of government and those of historical note. 8.7. Administration and Logistics 8.7.1. Emergency Authority A compendium of existing State and local legislation pertaining to disaster preparedness and response and emergency management is shown in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 15 8.7.2. Declaration Procedures Any emergency or disaster may tax response and recovery efforts beyond the capabilities of Central City and Liberty County. The Policy Group, acting on behalf of the county and the city, may, upon declaring a local state of emergency, request an emergency declaration from the Governor of Columbia. If local and State resources are deemed inadequate to effectively manage the event, the Governor may request a Presidential Emergency or Major Disaster Declaration. Such procedures are described in the Columbia Emergency Services Act. In situations where damage is obviously severe and requires immediate support, the Governor has the option of making a State Disaster Declaration and immediately dispatching damage assessment teams. The sample emergency declarations are presented as a suggestive guide to the content and format for resolutions by the Central City and Liberty County authorities. The sample provides an acceptable format for declaring a local emergency or disaster and requesting the Governor to declare a State emergency. The content should include a description of the emergency conditions and known damage, a description of actions already taken, and a statement of the extent to which local resources are depleted. 8.7.3. Mutual Aid Should local government resources prove to be inadequate during an emergency operation, requests will be made for assistance from other local jurisdictions and higher levels of government according to existing or emergency-negotiated mutual-aid agreements and understandings. Such assistance may take the form of equipment, supplies, personnel, or other available capabilities. All agreements and understandings will be entered into by duly authorized officials and will be formalized in writing whenever possible. 8.7.4. Consumer Protection Consumer complaints pertaining to alleged unfair or illegal business practices will be referred to the State Attorney General’s Consumer Protection Division through the responsible police agency. 8.8. Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) In voluntary compliance with the HSPD, Central City and Liberty County have adopted the National HSAS to trigger certain preparedness activities and disseminate information about the risks of terrorist threats. The system is a color-coded set of graduated threat conditions, with a higher probability of attack associated with each new level: • • Low/Green indicates a low threat of terrorist attack; Guarded/Blue indicates a general risk condition; Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 16 • • • Elevated/Yellow indicates a significant risk; High/Orange indicates a high risk; and Severe/Red indicates a severe risk of terrorist attack. Risk includes both the probability of the occurrence of an attack and its potential gravity. The local law enforcement community has the primary responsibility for conducting continuous risk assessments. However, other entities such as public health and health care organizations are crucial in anticipating and detecting potential biological threats. Threat condition levels may be set for the entire Nation or specific geographical regions based upon the available intelligence information. The assignment of threat levels prompts the implementation of various operational conditions in order to reduce vulnerabilities and increase response capabilities of public safety and support agencies. The county also posts the current threat condition level on its emergency information website in order to keep the public informed of existing conditions and to provide an opportunity for citizens to better prepare for potential emergencies. 8.9. Evacuation Operations Evacuation of citizens from their homes during an emergency requires a coordinated effort among several public safety agencies. A determination must be made to either physically evacuate people to a safe location or in-place shelter. The decision to evacuate may be made by the Incident Commander when a clear and immediate danger to human life or health is identified (e.g., a toxic chemical spill). When the threat to life or health slowly increases over time (e.g., dangerous strengthening of a hurricane with a projected track to impact the county and increasing chances of heavy flood damage), the decision to evacuate may be made after the declaration of an emergency and shall be so ordered by the declaring authority (refer to Emergency Evacuation Order). The Liberty County Sheriff and Central City Police Departments shall have the primary responsibility and authority to conduct an evacuation once they are directed to do so by an Incident Commander or by the authority declaring a disaster. Assistance may be provided by the Fire Service, Parks and Recreation, Public Works, the Columbia National Guard, and other allied agencies. Evacuation of persons in imminent danger is considered mandatory when ordered by the authority. Persons disobeying a legitimate order to evacuate may be arrested in accordance with State and local authorities. Evacuations conducted as a precautionary measure are considered to be voluntary in nature and persons who refuse to be evacuated may be left in their premises at their own risk and peril. Upon receipt of a directive to evacuate a defined area, officers of the municipal police department or sheriff’s department will first establish a perimeter to prevent entry into the area to be evacuated and will then establish clear and mandatory avenues of egress from the designated area. Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 17 8.10. Joint Information Center (JIC) The city/county EOC will establish a JIC and media center to provide timely and accurate press releases to inform the public about the disaster or emergency using a Joint Information System (JIS). The primary JIC is located in the EOC building but not within the EOC itself. The county’s PIO (or designee) will serve as the official spokesperson issuing press releases on behalf of the mayor/chairman of the County Board of Supervisors and City Council and the City/County Manager. Such press releases will serve as the official statements of Central City and Liberty County. The mayor and City Council members, Chairman and County Board members, and City/County Manager may also elect to issue statements coordinated by the PIO. Intelligence information about the disaster or emergency will be routed from the EOC to the JIC for collection, validation, and public dissemination. PIO personnel from various departments and supporting agencies will staff the JIC operations. Information relative to law enforcement matters will be reviewed with the appropriate law enforcement agency or agencies prior to public release to ensure operational security and investigation integrity. The same holds true for subject matter expertise of the various disciplines staffing the JIC (e.g., public health). The Liberty County JIC will coordinate with the PIO/JIC for activities in surrounding jurisdictions and at the State and Federal government levels. The key strategy is that each component will address issues only within its area or responsibility. 8.11. Multiagency Coordination System For extraordinarily large, complex incidents occurring in the city or county involving numerous agencies and/or jurisdictions, a MACS will be established for coordinating and supporting incident management activities. A combination of government and/or allied agency facilities, equipment, personnel, and communications will be integrated to coordinate interagency and intergovernmental issues regarding incident management policies, priorities, and strategies. MACS may contain one or more EOCs, Department Operations Centers (DOCs), a multiagency coordination entity, group, or center. This entity will consist of representative(s) from each involved agency/jurisdiction and, in some instances, may operate within the EOC. In other instances, it may be fulfilled by the activated EOC. Principal functions and responsibilities of a MACS include ensuring that each agency involved is providing appropriate situational awareness and resource status information, establishing priorities between multiple incidents and/or Area Commands in concert with the unified command, acquiring and allocating resources in concert with the unified command, anticipating and identifying future resource requirements, coordinating and resolving policy issues arising from the incident(s), and providing strategic coordination as required. Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 18 8.12. Termination of Disaster or Emergency Once the field forces have determined that emergency response is no longer necessary to save lives or protect property, and when recovery is the primary concern necessary to repair infrastructures and restore normalcy in the community, the disaster or emergency will be terminated or modified through a joint city/county proclamation (see Termination Declaration). The termination declaration will be transmitted to the Governor and concurrently routed through the county. It will be presented to the City Council and County Board for ratification during the next regularly scheduled meeting. Upon declaring a local emergency for which the Governor proclaims a state of emergency, the Liberty County Policy Group shall complete and transmit an after-action report to the Governor’s Office after closure of the incident period as determined by the State. The afteraction report shall, at a minimum, be a review of response actions, suggested modifications to plans and procedures, identified training needs, and recovery activities to date. 8.13. Plan Development and Maintenance If a plan is to be effective, its contents must be known and understood by those who are responsible for its implementation. The emergency program manager and involved department heads will brief appropriate public/private sector officials in emergency management and this plan in particular. There will be training for all involved staff once each quarter. The plan shall be updated at least once a year and tested by a simulated emergency, regardless of actual events, in order to provide practical, controlled, operational experience to those individuals who have emergency responsibilities. Departments will be assigned prime responsibility for their component of the plan. Telephone and contact lists are to be updated every three months with a full plan review every year. Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 19 8.14. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization Figure 8.1. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization 8.15. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization – Joint Information Center Figure 8.2. Initial Response or Local Incident Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 20 Note: VIP = Very Important Person Figure 8.3. Escalating Incidents Figure 8.4. Large-Scale Incidents Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 21 8.16. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization – Emergency Operations Center Support Team Figure 8.5. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization – Emergency Operations Center Support Team 8.17. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization – Operations Section Note: EMS = Emergency Medical Service Figure 8.6. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization – Operations Section Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 22 8.18. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization – Communications Note: ARES = Amateur Radio Emergency Services; RACES = Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service Figure 8.7. Liberty County/Central City Emergency Operations Center Organization – Communications Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 23 Blank Intentionally Liberty County Basic Emergency Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 24 9.0 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS 9.1. Purpose .................................................................................................................................... 3 9.2. Situation .................................................................................................................................. 3 9.2.1. Assumptions ..................................................................................................................... 3 9.2.2. Situation ........................................................................................................................... 3 9.3. Concept of Operations ............................................................................................................. 3 9.3.1. Phases of Resource Management .................................................................................... 4 9.3.1.1. Mitigation. ........................................................................................................... 4 9.3.1.2. Preparedness ........................................................................................................ 4 9.3.1.3. Response ............................................................................................................. 4 9.3.1.4. Recovery .............................................................................................................. 4 9.3.1.5. Prevention ............................................................................................................ 5 9.4. Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities .................................................................. 5 9.5. Direction and Control .............................................................................................................. 5 9.6. Continuity of Government ...................................................................................................... 5 9.7. Administration and Logistics .................................................................................................. 5 9.7.1. Communication ................................................................................................................ 5 9.7.2. Resources ......................................................................................................................... 5 9.8. Plan Development and Maintenance ....................................................................................... 6 Resource Management Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 1 Blank Intentionally Resource Management Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 2 9.1. Purpose The purpose of this annex is to provide for the proper coordination of resources when preparing for, responding to, and recovering from an emergency/disaster. Prompt and orderly deployment of public and private resources is necessary for effective response to and recovery from an incident. Local government has the overarching responsibility for taking initial actions in preparation, response, and recovery. 9.2. Situation 9.2.1. Assumptions An emergency situation can result from a natural or technological/man-made occurrence, including Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) incidents, and can cause loss of life or property. During an emergency, it is the responsibility of local government to protect the lives and property of citizens. Efforts to minimize the impact of these problems are coordinated through the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and/or Incident Command Post (ICP). 9.2.2. Situation This plan is designed to do the following: • • • • • Provide guidance to local government for the management of public and private resources in an emergency situation. Outline procedures for requesting, receiving, and sending assistance and resources during an emergency. Provide assistance in acquiring resources through the utilization of mutual-aid agreements, intra-state mutual-aid assistance, the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), and Federal resources management assets through the FEMA regional resources processes. Establishment of protocols and procedures to acquire and track resources as necessary. Provide proper coordination of available resources and their sources through management. 9.3. Concept of Operations It is the responsibility of local government to protect the lives and property of local citizens. Among actions to be taken toward this end are the following: • • • • Commit all available resources that are necessary to protect lives and property and to relieve suffering and hardship to the survivors of an incident. Seek assistance from surrounding mutual-aid agencies and/or the Columbia Emergency Management Agency (EMA) in the event that all local resources have been depleted or committed. Maintain a list of available resources to be used in advance and during an emergency. Maintain records of all resources expended, such as personnel, equipment, and materials. Resource Management Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 3 9.3.1. Phases of Resource Management 9.3.1.1. Mitigation • Implement lessons learned from prior incidents and exercises through the gap analysis process for the identification of additional resources necessary. 9.3.1.2. Preparedness • • • • • • • • • • Identify emergency resources and sources for requesting assistance. Plan resource services to be provided in an emergency. Coordinate activities through EOCs. Prepare and update list of needed resources. Establish communications and inter-operability protocols. Establish potential mutual-aid agreements. Coordinate resources with other agencies and volunteers to maintain adequate resources. Where needs exist, acquire resources within emergency purchasing procedures. Plan for and train adequate personnel for maximum use of resources of the responding governments/organizations. Prepare to coordinate and use all available resources during an emergency. 9.3.1.3. Response • • • • • • • • Distribute and manage resources. Coordinate resources to aid disaster survivors. Identify resource distribution centers. Establish communications and inter-operability protocols. Coordinate services with county and local municipalities and port authorities. Make available list of sources to provide materials, equipment, and other resources during emergencies. Coordinate local efforts with other agencies. Keep records of services and resources rendered as well as costs incurred during an emergency. 9.3.1.4. Recovery • • • • • • • Assess needs of survivors. Estimate costs to provide resources. Assess impact of the emergency on the available resources and identifiable needs. Coordinate resource management. Establish communications and inter-operability protocols. Provide public information for proper communication to survivors. Record resource needs and available supplies. Resource Management Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 4 9.3.1.5 Prevention • • • • • • • • • • Defined modular organization Defined incident support facilities and locations Maintaining a comprehensive resource management program Establishing a chain of command and command structure Information and intelligence management programs Implementation of ongoing training and exercise program Public information plan and established relationships Clean definition of re-imbursement guidelines Established public / private cooperation Established management & emergency plans review process Resource Management Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 5 9.4. Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities The day-to-day operations of local emergency management agencies provide planning and personnel training to ensure maximum use of available resources and materials in the event of an emergency. During the emergency, local government will coordinate and identify essential resources to be rendered to disaster survivors. The aim of the resource management annex is to use resources and trained personnel to carry out each assignment effectively. These resource management areas are to be addressed in addition to the normal emergency role of the department during emergencies (specific problems are addressed in appropriate annexes of the plan). 9.5. Direction and Control The Incident Command Post (ICP) and/or EOC will be responsible for the coordination of resource management activities. The major responsibility is to identify available sources from which needed resources can be obtained during an emergency situation. Coordination of these resources during emergencies will be handled from the EOC. Additionally, periodic personnel accountability checks must be accomplished to ensure safety and adequate manpower resources. Up-to-date personnel rosters that include levels of training must be maintained as a means for credentialing. Routine checks of supplies will be made in order to maintain an accurate list of supplies. 9.6. Continuity of Government Lines of succession are in accordance with the basic plan. Resources to support such continuity of government are critical. The EOC is directly responsible for proper coordination of the resource management area. 9.7. Administration and Logistics 9.7.1. Communication Establishing cross-agency communications capability, preferably through a secure system, is highly desired. The resource management network of communication is a primary responsibility of the EOC and should function effectively during an emergency situation. 9.7.2. Resources The Logistics Section within the EOC, Incident Commander (IC), and other related organizations maintain an up-to-date resource management database for implementation as the incident requires. Resource Management Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 6 9.8. Plan Development and Maintenance It is the responsibility of emergency management agencies to keep an accurate and updated list of all available sources that will supply resources during an emergency. The coordination and planning of these services will be handled by emergency management agencies. Individual agencies are to keep all agency-specific plans required to support emergency operations up to date, including response, recovery, and mitigation. Resource Management Plan April 2012 Revision 3.0 7

Tutor Answer

RyanTopTutor
School: UCLA

Attached.

Running Head: ROLE OF TECHNICAL SPECIALIST

Role of Technical Specialist
Name
Course
Instructor
Date

ROLE OF TECHNICAL SPECIALIST

2

Technical specialists offer scientific expertise to Incident Commandant to allow them to
make operational decisions during an emergency. They play a significant role in emergency
management and should always form part of emergency management team. The technical
specialists should advise the IC to promote safety while aiding decisions that are objectiv...

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