PSY_ Homework

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I need you to answer the 5 questions. Each respond for each question should be at least 2 paragraphs

Question 1) Module 7 Discussion -- Depression sucks Depression is the most common of the psychological disorders after phobias. Recent studies show that between 15 and 25 percent of us have suffered a clinically diagnosed major depressive episode in the past few years -- up to half of us will likely experience at least one such depression at some point in our lives (Patton, 2009). Feelings of depression are often the result of a very sad experience or difficult circumstances and then are normal and expected, and even helpful to us so that we realize how seriously our situation is affecting us so we can get help and support or make changes, but other times it spirals out of control and becomes dangerous. The DSM-5 lists the following criteria for depression: Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure. (1) depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels sad or empty) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful). Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood. (2) markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated by either subjective account or observation made by others) (3) significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day. Note: In children, consider failure to make expected weight gains. (4) insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day (5) psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down) (6) fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day (7) feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick) (8) diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either by subjective account or as observed by others) (9) recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide ------------ ---------------Please consider all three of these ideas carefully: a) Imagine someone who has global, stable and internal explanations for why she has problems with friendships. Give some specific sentences she might use to describe her situation. b) Can you see how these explanations are related to shame and may lead to depression? c) Study the discussion of Beck’s cognitive therapy carefully. Can you see how Beck tries to bring his clients away from “awfulizing” their situation? Comment on how he helps them understand their irrational thoughts, and then consider irrational thoughts that are evident in your own life or that of others you know. Question 2) Module 7 Discussion -- Developing anti-social personality disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder is perhaps the most chilling of the personality disorders. People with this condition, often termed psychopaths or sociopaths, make up about 1 of 100 people in the general population. They're social predators who do as they please, hurting others without remorse as they go about fulfilling their own needs. People with this disorder are usually quite apparent -- lying constantly, violent, irresponsible, unable to keep a job -- but some become especially skilled at manipulating others' emotions and can operate without detection. When famous (and deadly), they are a subject of public fascination and horror, as in the cases of Ted Bundy and Jeffrey Dahmer. To be diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder, the DSM-IV manual requires three or more of the following: (1) Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest; (2) Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeatedly lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure; (3) Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; (4) Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults; (5) Reckless disregard for safety of self or others; (6) Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations; (7) Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another. ---------------- ------------• • How can Michael Lewis’s ideas about the development of emotion (re: our discussion about Lewis in the emotion forum) inform our understanding of how antisocial personality disorder could develop? Where do you think you might be likely to find people with this disorder (in terms of occupations or facilities)? Question 3) Module 7 Discussion -- Exploring the most mysterious condition of all -- Schizophrenia It is becoming increasingly clear that schizophrenia involves a cluster of abnormalities in the brain. (Some areas of the brain have deteriorated or didn’t develop properly -- gaps appear throughout the brain, and the frontal cortex is especially small.) Dopamine is also transmitted in unusual ways so that the net effect is that there’s too much of it. What’s not yet clear is why these abnormalities occur, though (1) genetic vulnerability, (2) a virus or other illness early in development, and (3) psychological stress may all come together in a perfect storm to cause schizophrenia. Durk Wiersma and his colleagues have done wonderful work in this area for decades, and if you are especially interested in this condition, I highly recommend you look at some of his studies (Check them out in PsychInfo – some great ones are from 1991, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010). One thing he has shown is that schizophrenia’s course is dramatically influenced by social support. Warm and close relationships help people cope with the condition. There are a number of “positive” symptoms of schizophrenia (not in the sense that they’re good things; they are called positive because they are aspects of experience schizophrenics have that the rest of us do not have). Examples include hallucinations, such as voices or visions, but also delusions, such as thinking people can read the schizophrenic’s thoughts. When a therapist works with a delusional patient, one main goal is to keep the patient focused on reality -- acknowledges the delusion’s presence, but searching for what might have triggered it and to help the patient understand that the delusion is unfounded. I read a brave post on PsychForum.com from a schizophrenic who tried to fight off his delusions by testing them He hoped to prove to himself that they were false. Here’s what he posted: “Did a little test today when I was out walking, these 2 ladies walked past me right after I said to myself "Hello lady with red jacket" just to check out her reaction. But nothing, not even a turn or anything. It gave me a smile, she couldn't hear my thought. Maybe I should explore this a little more, get some confidence with my anxiety, like that it's all in my head.” http://www.psychforums.com/schizophrenia/topic51995.html (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. This is an unusually insightful statement in that the patient is aware he has schizophrenia and is trying to show himself that his delusions are unfounded. Normally schizophrenics have real difficulty even accepting the possibility of this – their hallucinations feel as real as our real experience. If you lifted a book in your hands, felt its texture and weight, opened it, listened to the sound of the pages as you ruffled them, it would be very hard to accept that it isn’t real, even if no one else could see it. Instead, you might think there was something special about you. Maybe you know something other people don’t? In the cases where patients hear voices, the voices sound as real to them as if your friend was standing and talking right next to you, with all the normal sound and intonation and everything we experience with a real voice, and the conversation proceeds normally as if it were a real person. We might become very creative ourselves interpreting that experience, especially if we had it continually. Schizophrenics tend to create elaborate explanations for their hallucinations (I can read people’s minds; the government is beaming instructions into my head, God is telling me secrets, etc.) Again, I highly recommend the film A Beautiful Mind – it shows how real these illusions seem. Okay... here’s the question: Consider one of the positive or negative symptoms of schizophrenia and think about what could have led to it, how schizophrenics would tend to explain that symptom, and what approaches to treatment for it might be effective. Question 4) Module 7 Discussion -- Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Phobias Psychological disorders are fascinating to most of us, as they are to those who have them -- and it's an unusual one of us who doesn't at times suspect we have a disorder ourselves (especially after studying Intro to Psych!). Consider Russell Crowe's powerful and heartbreaking depiction in A Beautiful Mind of Princeton Professor and Nobel Laureate John Nash who suffers with schizophrenia, or Jack Nicholson's sad portrayal of a romance fiction novelist with OCD in As Good as it Gets -- the way people with psychological disorders think and experience life is intriguing, though frightening and often very sad. Psychological disorders can be categorized into four general areas -- anxiety disorders, personality disorders, mood disorders, and schizophrenia. Let's first take a look at the anxiety-related disorders and how they may relate to one another. Why might people with Generalized Anxiety Disorder or Panic Disorder develop a lot of phobias? What specific kinds of learning might be involved? (Many of us have phobias to snakes or mice -- why would someone with very high anxiety develop many such phobias? Try to base your proposals on psychological theories, not "common sense.") Question 5) Module 7 Discussion -- Resistance, transference and defense mechanisms Bear with me on this brief mind experiment and I think it will really help you understand this topic. Write down on a piece of paper something important and personal about yourself that you have NEVER told anyone else - a secret wish, feeling, belief or experience from your past. (Rest assured, NO ONE will see what you’ve written.) Take a moment to do that now…. OK, fold the paper in half. Now imagine we are all together as a group, and I walk over to you and ask if you could give me the paper, saying, “Trust me, I won’t look at it or show it to anyone.” Imagine me standing in front of you and reaching out my hand. Imagine yourself giving it to me. OK, now imagine me asking if it is okay with you if I open it and read aloud what you’ve written? (I don’t actually open it, but imagine my asking you if I could?)... What do you feel? Anxiety? Anger? Embarrassment and shame? Helplessness? These are the kinds of feelings that clients struggle with in psychotherapy. Those feelings often show up through resistance where clients hesitate to utter an embarrassing thought. *** So here are the questions – 1. Can you see how resistance may hint that someone is defending themselves against difficult personal understandings? How can interpreting the resistance help them resolve underlying issues and anxieties? 2. How about transference – can you explain how transference can help people get past defense mechanisms and resolve underlying problems?

Tutor Answer

LesserGenius
School: University of Virginia

Attached.

Question 1)

Module 7 Discussion -- Depression sucks
Depression is the most common of the psychological disorders after phobias. Recent
studies show that between 15 and 25 percent of us have suffered a clinically
diagnosed major depressive episode in the past few years -- up to half of us will likely
experience at least one such depression at some point in our lives (Patton, 2009). Feelings
of depression are often the result of a very sad experience or difficult circumstances and
then are normal and expected, and even helpful to us so that we realize how seriously our
situation is affecting us so we can get help and support or make changes, but other times
it spirals out of control and becomes dangerous.
The DSM-5 lists the following criteria for depression:

Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week
period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is
either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.
(1) depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective
report (e.g., feels sad or empty) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful).
Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood.
(2) markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the
day, nearly every day (as indicated by either subjective account or observation made by
others)
(3) significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than
5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day.
Note: In children, consider failure to make expected weight gains.
(4) insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day
(5) psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not
merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down)

(6) fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day
(7) feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be
delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick)
(8) diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either
by subjective account or as observed by others)
(9) recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without
a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide
------------ ---------------Please consider all three of these ideas carefully:
a) Imagine someone who has global, stable and internal explanations for why she has
problems with friendships. Give some specific sentences she might use to describe her
situation.
I am not social and do not comprehend what is wrong with me
I am always uncertain if people will like me or find me interesting, so I do not approach
people.
People might judge me or make fun
I lack social skills thus I find social integration difficult
People always feel uncomfortable and try as much as possible to avoid associating with
me
When growing up I was told by classmates that I seem and act weird, so people see me as
an outcast
I am from a relatively underprivileged background, so it is hard to make friends with
well-off people
b) Can you see how these explanations are related to shame and may lead to depression?
Yes. There is a pervasive sense of low self-esteem and the person interprets her inability
not to make friends as a problem within her and not in the acquaintances. The feeling of
not feeling worthy, not being like and self-acknowledgement that they have a problem,

which maybe just but a false assumption, may result in depression. Again, experiences
could shape the ideology of low self-worth, for instance past abusive relationships, being
mistreated at home or being recurrently bullied in the early developmental stages. Also,
negative opinions of one-self or ones status can lead to false assumptions about who other
people view them. This could also lead to aspects of shame as well as depression.
c) Study the discussion of Beck’s cognitive therapy carefully. Ca...

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Anonymous
Thanks, good work

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