DISCUSSION BOARD 150-200 words

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timer Asked: Jul 5th, 2018
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Question description

For your fourth discussion, you will discuss what you learned from reviewing the student sample essays.

Part1:

Now that you have read the Rhetorical Analysis Student Sample Essays, reply to this thread in 150-250 words, and include the 4-6 most important things you observed when reading through the student sample essays. While bullet points or numbering is OK, you still must use complete sentences. Include a word count in parentheses at the end of your thread. You will not be permitted to view other students' threads until you post your own. You will also not be able to edit or delete your thread once it is posted, so be sure you have followed directions carefully and proofread your work.


R HETORICA L A NA LYSIS P ACKET E NGLISH 120 I. PARTS OF AN ARGUMENT Part Claim Reasons Evidence Acknowledgement of Counterargument & Refutation Warrants Description Debatable statement that forms the main point of an argument. (Sometimes called a thesis statement.) What does the author think? Arguments that help support the main claim. (These allow the author to break a broad claim into smaller, more precise sections.) Why does the author think so? Personal experience, outside authorities, facts, and statistics that support subclaims. (Stands by itself; the evidence is not debatable, though its interpretation may be.) How does the author know he/she is right? Admission of possible counterarguments, reassertion of argument. (Strengthens argument by adding subtleties.) It may be argued that ____. However, that argument is not sound because ____. Assumptions that underlie the argument. (Usually left unstated, if the author assumes his/herr reader shares them). What is the author assuming? Examples Mr. X was an incredibly lazy anthropology teacher. Most every class, while Mr. X sat at his desk, we watched movies that had very little educational value. Mr. X used old tests that seemed to be designed to save him time rather than to gauge our knowledge of material. Some of the movies we watched included Little Big Man and Last of the Mohicans. During two tests, I had to show him as many as eight questions that covered material he had never assigned. Both times, he told the class to skip those questions. Acknowledge Counterargument: It’s true that half the class named him as their favorite teacher. Refutation: The same half of the class slept through class every day. Teachers ought to be engaged, attentive, and hardworking. Teachers should only test students on material covered in class. II. CHOOSING ACCURATE VERBS TO DESCRIBE PURPOSE I know what it says…but what does it do? *The following verbs will be helpful when analyzing what an author is doing (the rhetorical moves he/she is making), rather than what he/she is saying. Acknowledges Amplifies Analyzes Argues Articulates Asserts Blends Challenges Clarifies Compares Compiles Concludes Constructs Contrasts Debates Deconstructs Defends Defines III. Differentiates Discusses Dissects Distinguishes Establishes Evaluates Exemplifies Explains Forecasts Gathers Generalizes Identifies Illustrates Incorporates Inspects Integrates Interprets Introduces Justifies Models Navigates Organizes Outlines Persuades Predicts Presents Proposes Proves Qualifies Questions Substantiates Suggests Summarizes Theorizes Traces Uses I DEN TI F YI N G T A RG E T A UDI EN CE *It is important to look at the kinds of information and the word choices of the author (s) when trying to identify what specific group of people were the target audience. Consider: ➢ Is it meant for the general public or a specific group of people? o Are there terms only a doctor or a scuba diver is familiar with? ➢ Is the audience expected to have a certain level of education? o Look at the level of vocabulary being used. ➢ Is there a specific age group being targeted? o The kinds of examples and stories included in the source can help determine this. IV. D E TE R MI NI NG T O N E *Here are some examples of the kinds of tone an author can take. Again, pay close attention to the language (word choice) of an author when trying to establish the tone being used. Tone Angry Biased Casual Challenging Humorous Intellectual Neutral Personable Sad Sarcastic V. Synonyms Irritated, vexed, indignant, offended One-sided, partial Informal, easy-going Provocative, defiant, questioning Amusing, funny, jovial, joking Intelligent, knowledgeable Impartial, unbiased, open-minded, objective Friendly, good-natured, affable Dispirited, discouraged, unhappy Satirical, disparaging, scornful, contemptuous A NA LY ZI N G R H E TO RI CA L S TRA TEGI ES Rhetorical strategy – a particular way in which writers craft language so as to have an effect on readers. Strategies are means of persuasion, ways of using language to get readers’ attention and agreement. Some Common Rhetorical Strategies – • Appeals: Ethos, pathos, and logos • Organizational patterns • Rebuttals (counter-arguments/acknowledging opposition) When analyzing Rhetorical Strategies, remember to: 1. Identify rhetorical strategies. 2. Describe how they work. 3. Describe why they are used – what purpose do they accomplish? Note: When describing why a strategy is used, you may want to consider alternative strategies, and think about how they would work differently. You may also want to consider what would happen if the strategy were left out – what difference would it make to the argument? This may help you figure out why the particular strategy was chosen. Logos, Ethos, and Pathos To Appeal to LOGOS (logic, reasoning) The argument itself; the reasoning the author uses. Types of LOGOS Appeals • Theories / scientific facts • Indicated meanings or reasons (because…) • Analogies • Definitions • Factual data & statistics • Quotations • Citations from experts & authorities • Informed opinions • Examples (real life examples) • Personal anecdotes Effect on Audience Evokes a cognitive, rational response. Readers get a sense of, “Oh, that makes sense,” or “Hmm, that really doesn’t prove anything.” How to Talk About It The author appeals to logos by defining relevant terms and then supports his claim with numerous citations from authorities. The author’s logos appeals of statistics and expert testimony are very convincing. To Develop or Appeal to ETHOS (character, ethics) How an author builds credibility & trustworthiness. Ways to Develop ETHOS • Author’s profession / background • Author’s publication • Appears sincere, fair minded, knowledgeable • Concedes to the opposition • Morally / ethically likeable • Appropriate language for audience and subject • Appropriate vocabulary • Correct grammar • Professional format Effect on Audience Helps reader to see the author as reliable, trustworthy, competent, and credible. The reader might respect the author or his/her views. How to Talk About It Through his use of scientific terminology, the author builds his ethos by appearing knowledgeable. The author’s ethos is effectively developed as readers see that he is sympathetic to the struggles minorities face. To Appeal to PATHOS (emotion) Words or passages an author uses to activate emotions. Types of Pathos Appeals • Emotionally loaded language • Vivid descriptions • Emotional examples • Anecdotes, testimonies, or Narratives about emotional experiences or events • Figurative language • Emotional tone (humor, sarcasm, disappointment, excitement, etc.) Effect on Audience Evokes an emotional response. Persuasion by emotion. (usually evoking fear, sympathy, empathy, anger) How to Talk About It When referencing 9/11, the author is appealing to pathos. Here, he is eliciting both sadness and anger from his readers. The author’s description of the child with cancer was a very persuasive pathos appeal. How Structure Can Further an Author’s Argument To understand structure, consider the overall organization of the essay and how it furthers the author’s persuasive strategies. Examine the various parts of the argument. How do the separate sections of the essay develop the claim? Try not to summarize or simply list the main point of each paragraph. Focus on one or two aspects of the essay’s organization and how it furthers the author’s argument. Authors use various organizational strategies to structure their arguments. For instance, one way that authors might organize their essay is in terms of a problem-solution-justification structure. The opening section typically persuades the audience that a problem exists, the second section offers potential solutions, and the final section attempts to justify the solutions by showing how they help to alleviate the problem. When investigating historical or social arguments, writers typically examine the cause and effect of issues and events to further their claims. Thus, writers will detail the way specific events lead to certain outcomes. These are a just few of the typical ways that writers organize their arguments. Below is a list of common organizational strategies: • • • • • • • • • • • Comparison-Contrast Cause-Effect Definition (defining key terms) Problem-Solution Classification/Division Emphatic (order of importance) Chronological (time order) General to Specific Abstract to Concrete OR Simple to Complex Point-by-Point Exemplification (organizing by examples) Counterargument and Refutation It is important that you can both recognize and utilize the following process for counterargument and refutation. 3-Step Process of Refutation Step 1: Acknowledge (“They say…”) Step 2: Refute Using Support (“But…because…”) Step 3: Conclude (“Therefore….”) Sample Paragraph Using the 3-Step Process Some of the moves have been underlined for you. Advances in medical robot technology have led to improvements in the quality of surgeries, which benefit patients. For example, the daVinci Robotic Surgical System (DRSS) is a technologically advanced surgical system that is used for delicate procedures such as prostate and kidney surgeries. Some patients are skeptical of the device initially because they think the robot performs the surgery on its own. However, the robot is only a tool for a human surgeon. Furthermore, in his article, “Robotic Surgery Benefits Springfield Hospital,” Kevin Stirling emphasizes the fact that “for patients requiring surgery, the advantages and benefits of minimally invasive surgery with the daVinci Robotic Surgical System are plentiful including but not limited to: less pain, shorter recovery times, shorter hospital stays, less blood loss, fewer transfusions, less scarring,…and overall improved clinical outcomes generally” (Stirling). In other words, Stirling believes that the DRSS is an invaluable advancement in medical technology that aids both patients and doctors immensely. I see eye to eye with Stirling in his belief that the daVinci robot is a benefit to society. Therefore, patients should try to overcome their apprehensions about this technology since there are fewer risks and less recovery time.

Tutor Answer

ProfessorMyron
School: Boston College

hope this is okay

Discussion response
➢ Argument. This essay has a claim that advances in medical robot technology have led to
improved qualities of surgeries which benefits patients. He gives an example as an
evidence for example the daVinci Robotic Surgical System (DRSS) which he defines as a
technologically a...

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Anonymous
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