UNIT II STUDY GUIDE
Organizing Security and
the Police Department
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
4. Examine the impact of policing evolution in the United States and patrol operations.
4.1 Discuss local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies within the United States.
4.2 Define the managerial concepts within a police department.
4.3 Discuss alternative organizations, models, and structures within a police department.
Organizing Security in the United States
Organizing the Police Department
The United States has a number of local, state, and federal agencies that provide services to the community
to ensure its safety. One of the major federal departments that provides these services is the Department of
Justice. The Department of Justice has a primary goal to maintain public safety and to make certain justice is
given to all Americans. An interesting article discusses the accomplishments of the United States Department
of Justice (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009). From 2001-2009, the Department of Justice has made great
strides to accomplish the goal of preventing and controlling crime (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009). One of
the main goals of the department from 2001-2009 was to combat violent crime. An emphasis was placed on
controlling gun crimes, disassembling gangs, disordering drug trafficking, and shielding children from human
There are many divisions that exist within the Department of Justice. One department that has made great
strides within the community is the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF). This
department was transferred to the Department of Justice from the Department of Treasury in 2003. ATF is
committed to decreasing crime, particularly brutal and vicious types of crime. “ATF’s criminal investigation
efforts focus on violent crime, domestic and international firearms traffickers, violent gangs, armed violent
offenders, and career criminals” (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009, pg. 71). Some of the major successes
include investigations of violent street gangs; the ATF has worked hard to eradicate violent gang members
from neighborhoods. From 2003 through 2008, approximately 11% of the department’s cases involved
defendants associated with gang related criminal behavior (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009).
The Bureau has also placed a priority on explosives and detection canine teams. Over the years, the
department has authenticated itself as the leading resource for expert explosives and canine units. “ATF is
the only federal agency that offers advanced explosive detention canine training” (U.S. Department of Justice,
2009, pg.74). Some of the successes of this department, as it relates to explosives and canine detection, are
improvements in canine training. This training was established to meet the current and future threats to the
United States. “An example of ATF’s efforts to adapt its canine program to meet emerging threats can be
found in the ongoing development of the Homicide Bomber Initiative, a program through which canine
resources will be applied to address the potential treat from suicide bombers” (U.S. Department of Justice,
Another division of the Department of Justice that has made great strides is the Drug Enforcement
Administration (DEA). The DEA is an entity that has an extensive record in controlling drug trafficking. Due to
the difficulty of controlling drug trafficking, it has become a continuous effort for the department. The DEA has
BCJ 2001, Theory and Practices of Law Enforcement
established some efficient strategies to control drug trafficking. These strategies
successes in the area of drug control. President Bush in 2002 established a mission
Title to decrease drug usage
among youth. From 2001 and 2007, a survey was conducted that showed a 24% decrease in drug use in the
youth (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009). Some of the statistics from this survey showed a 25% decrease in
marijuana use in 2007 as compared to 2001 (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009). There was also a finding that
there was a 64% decrease in the usage of methamphetamine (meth) in 2007 as compared to 2001 (U.S.
Department of Justice, 2009). Steroid use by teenagers also decreased by one-third in 2007 as compared to
2001 (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009).
The DEA has been able to establish trends of decrease due to the increase of education about the risk of
drug use and abuse. The DEA has established a website and several hotlines in order to provide valuable
information about the risk and dangers of illegal substances. These tools can be used to anonymously report
drug activity. An example of this resource is the implementation of www.justthinktwice.com. This website was
developed to educate youth and parents on the risk of drug abuse. Another example of education and
outreach established by the DEA is the launch of a toll-free hotline where the public can report illegal abuse
and sale of pharmaceutical drugs.
The DEA also continues to focus on the arrest of high-level drug traffickers. The DEA has confiscated a
record amount of illegal drugs over the years. In November 2006, the DEA arrested the sheriff and 12
deputies in Henry County, VA for drug trafficking. In September 2007, the DEA organized Operation Raw
Deal. The operation was the greatest steroid enforcement action in history at that time. In this operation, 56
labs were shut down, there were 124 arrests, and there was a seizure of 11.4 million dosage units of steroids.
In December 2008, the DEA in New Jersey seized the largest amount of meth in the history of the state. In
this seizure, the DEA confiscated 165 pounds of meth. All of these operations provide the DEA with the tools
and resources to combat illegal drug trafficking.
One last division of the U.S. Department of Justice that will be discussed is the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI). The FBI is an integral division for the U.S. Department of Justice. The goal of the FBI is to
provide protection for the United States and its entities. The FBI protects and defends against terrorist threats,
enforces criminal law, and provides guidance and leadership to local, state, federal, and international criminal
After the September 11 attacks, the FBI was responsible for the largest investigation in the history of the
United States. Due to this massive investigation, about 200 FBI agents were transferred from criminal
programs to national security matters. After 9/11, the FBI top three priorities included cyber security,
counterterrorism, and counterintelligence.
The Department of Justice has been able to make great strides and has had some great successes due to
the tools and resources that they utilize. In September 2001, the FBI realigned 7,000 of its 11,000 special
agents to the September 11 investigation. In March 2007, the FBI concluded a two-week initiative that
involved local, state and federal enforcement. The initiative was designed to disrupt neighborhood gangs and
the criminal activities of the gang members. From this initiative, 108 federal arrests and 47 state arrests were
made. “The majority of these individuals were charged with conspiracy to distribute narcotics and various
weapons violations” (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009, pg. 95). With these types of tools, resources, and
initiatives, the FBI is able to complete its mission of protecting and defending the United States against acts of
terror and in enforcement of criminal laws in the United States.
To learn about how a police department is organized, please view the following interactive tutorial:
U.S. Department of Justice. (2009). The accomplishments of the U.S. Department of Justice 2001-2009.
Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/opa/legacy/2010/03/08/dojaccomplishments.pdf
BCJ 2001, Theory and Practices of Law Enforcement
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