Columbia Southern Commercialization of Sports and Issues Reflection Paper

Columbia Southern University

Question Description

For this assignment, you are asked to prepare a reflection paper. The purpose is to allow you the opportunity to share your thoughts and opinions and to reflect on various topics discussed so far in this course.

First, think about the globalization impact and commercialization of sports and how the various issues (gender, race, ethnicity, money, power, social class, age, ability, youth, violence, and deviance) have impacted sports and aided in the expansion of globalization and commercialization in the sporting industry. Reflect on three topics (issues) from the course that were meaningful to you. Additionally, consider this question in your paper: How will this newfound knowledge and information apply to your career and personal life?

For your reflection paper, ensure it is typed, double-spaced, Times New Roman, in 12-point font, and include page headers. Include the following elements in your paper:

 Title page: Include the assignment title, the name of the school, and your name.  Introduction: Provide a brief Introduction of your paper.  Body: o Reflect on the three topics (issues) you want to discuss from the course. o Discuss how this will this affect and impact your career and personal life.  Conclusion: Provide a brief conclusion wrapping up the elements of the paper.  Reference page: Include a reference page for sources within your reflection, such as the textbook, and make sure to follow proper APA guidelines including referencing in-text citations.

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Running head: RACE, ETHNICITY, AND GENDER IN SPORTS Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Sports Alvin Hayes Columbia Southern University Richard Bell 1 RACE, ETHNICITY AND GENDER IN SPORTS 2 Article reviewed Rense Peeters and Jacco van Sterkenberg "Making sense of race/ethnicity and gender in televised football: reception research among British students." The article, “making sense of race/ethnicity and gender in televised football: reception research among British students” by Jacco Sterkenberg and Rense Peeters is addressing the various discourses through which British viewers attribute race/ethnicity, and gender in women's and men's football they watch on television. The research is geared towards addressing the problem of stereotyping and trivializing women, instead of focusing on their athletic performance; people choose to pay much attention to their femininity and heterosexuality. Also, the author goes on to look into the issue of football commentators using racial/ethnic stereotypic language. It is clear from the abstract of this article that people do so little to resist ethnicity/racisms and gender homogeny. Most people are compliant with the hegemony displayed on media. The authors say that this acceptance can be attributed mainly to other social practices outside football. However, McCarthy conducted a study and found that British viewers don’t condone stereotypical comments directed towards black players. Similarly, a report by Vein knoppers and Eling shows that immigrants in Netherlands oppose ethnic and racial representation in social media. This section analyses the most prevalent discourses used by television viewers to attach meaning to gender and ethnicity/race in televised women’s and men’s football. RACE, ETHNICITY AND GENDER IN SPORTS 3 Ethnicity Natural physicality discourse Most viewers use this discourse to differentiate black players from the others. Majority of the viewers think that the winger and attacking position is flooded with black players (Van Sterkenburg, 2016). They associated black players to being naturally fast and having huge physiques. Of all respondents, I tend to present a conflicting opinion; "I think it is just a stereotype that has been ingrained in people's mind to the extent that black players are strategically positioned on the pitch, black players have no genetic advantage and given a closer inspection they wouldn't conform to this stereotype," Mental discourses The authors say that the second most prevalent discourse among viewers is evaluating the players based on their mental capabilities. They identify positioning of players by their ethnic backgrounds with white players, preferred in controlling positions such as central-backs and central midfield. White players were attributed mainly to having a good perception of the pitch; thus, being able to control the ball as compared to black players. Such players were deemed to have excellent tactical knowledge. On the contrary, most respondents said that black players are in attacking position because they like attention, which can only be earned by scoring goals. However, there was a white female student with a contrary opinion; she thought black players are very hard working, who are as well equipped with leadership qualities. Gender RACE, ETHNICITY AND GENDER IN SPORTS 4 The authors had problems with identifying a single implement that is dominant with regards to gender. Many people perceive football as a masculine sport; “women are inherently weaker than men, and perhaps it's the reason there are no mixed gender teams." A lady said. Many respondents thought that the consequences of any contact between men and women would not be desirable, as many women would end up with severe injuries. However, some people thought that it would be interesting to watch a match with teams comprising mixed genders (Healey, 2018). The article covers the various aspects through which race/ethnicity and gender manifests itself in televised British football matches. The authors point out natural physique and mental capability as significant factors through which viewers use to evaluate players. Black players are thought to be physically bigger and faster compared to other players and thus assigned winger positions. White players, on the other hand, are said to have better mental capability and are put on midfield position. Regarding gender, men are thought to be more masculine and athletic compared to women. The authors have conducted in-depth research with regards to the problem- race/ethnicity and gender in televised football. There is enough information about the problem; however, the article does not clearly show how to fight the problem. About black players being generally more prominent and faster, there is no genetic proof; the author has no clear stand on the way forward. They also do not say anything to whether white players have better mental capacity. Lastly, the authors conclude by suggesting more representation of women in the sport. Generally, it is a well-written article capturing critical areas that the public ought to look into to ensure a level playing ground for all sportsmen and women regardless of their RACE, ETHNICITY AND GENDER IN SPORTS 5 ethnicity/race and gender. The authors have researched the impact of race/ethnicity and gender on televised football. They use several approaches that are most prevalent through which viewers attach meaning to ethnicity and gender. Most viewers associate black athletes with being bigger and faster. White athletes are thought to have a better mental capacity. Women are treated as weaker and mostly trivialized. RACE, ETHNICITY AND GENDER IN SPORTS 6 Reference Healey, J. F., Stepnick, A., & O'Brien, E. (2018). Race, ethnicity, gender, and class: The sociology of group conflict and change. Sage Publications. Van Sterkenburg, J., & Knoppers, A. (2016). Dominant discourses about race/ethnicity and gender in sport practice and performance. International review for the sociology of sport, 39(3), 301-321. 1 Running head: WHEN SPORTS AND POLITICS MIX When Sports and Politics Mix Alvin Hayes Columbia Southern University Richard Bell WHEN SPORTS AND POLITICS MIX 2 Introduction Sports is a pure form of physical competition that promotes fitness. On the other hand, politics is an aspect of the society that dictates how individuals relate and governed. Although the two are distinctly different, the transformation that the two aspects have experienced over the years make them interact, more often than they should. Case 1: Anthem Uproar: How NFL Players Protested Trump’s Administration In September 2016, a protest wave flooded the NFL. Players and officials refused to stand in reverence to the national anthem in protest of police brutality and racial injustices in America. Colin Kaepernick, of the San Francisco 49ers, is credited for making famous the protest on September 16. The following days saw a spread of this wave that transcended the racial divide. President Donald Trump was particularly enraged by these actions, citing disloyalty among the players. In a spur of anger, he called for the immediate termination of the player’s contracts, thus causing outrage in America. He argued that the players’ refusal to show respect for their country was an act of political disrespect to him and the state (ANTHEM UPROAR: How a small protest movement in the NFL turned into a national debate over patriotism, 2018). Case 2: East Germany’s Over Obsession with Communist Ideology and International Image Another Case worth considering, in as far as the concept of politics and sporting events in East Germany’s great endeavors to promote the performance of its athletes in the Olympics. The country invested heavily in the success of their athletes in the Olympics, more so the 1976 event. It is reported that the massive investment, regarding finances, time and research (which WHEN SPORTS AND POLITICS MIX 3 translated to the use of anabolic) was carried out as an attempt to grasp the world’s attention. They saw any form of success; political, economic and sport as a significant sign of superiority of their communist agenda. They hoped that in the success of such events, their ideologies would be respected and they would be considered superior. However, their desperate attempts at gaining political and ideological leverage proved detrimental to the player’s health and their overall reputation, as seen in the recalling of most of the medals won during the 2000 Sydney games (Spyropoulos, 2018). The Political Differences Between the Two Cases The NFL case is an example of political discontent in sports people, in response to what they believe to be injustices and governmental misconduct of the administration. They value respect for human life and human dignity over any responsibility for their country. Their acts are in total disregard to the regime (ANTHEM UPROAR: How a small protest movement in the NFL turned into a national debate over patriotism, 2018). In contrast, the athletes in East Germany allowed themselves to be subject of research in conformity to the will of the regime. They shared the same views and opinions as the regime and were glad to abide by the same (Spyropoulos, 2018). The Similarities Indeed, the two factions display strong actions towards a political cause, a cause they believe in. The NFL players are enraged by Trump’s sentiments and the police’s abuse of power against racial minorities in the United States. Their anger and discontent boil over, and they see risking their careers at a fair price to pay if it means expressing their opinions. The East Germany athletes also risked an essential aspect of their lives; they risk their health. They saw endangering WHEN SPORTS AND POLITICS MIX 4 their health worthy of the political agenda of their country, the regime. Theirs was a cause firmly grounded in beliefs and perceptions of communism and patriotism to their country. References Website ANTHEM UPROAR: How a small protest movement in the NFL turned into a national debate over patriotism, a. (2018). ANTHEM UPROAR: How a small protest movement in the NFL turned into a national debate over patriotism, free speech, and race relations. Retrieved from https://law-journals-books.vlex.com/vid/anthemuproar-how-small-697123745 Website Spyropoulos, E. (2018). Sports and Politics: Goodbye Sydney 2000-Hallo Athens 2004. Retrieved from https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-114983546/sportsand-politics-goodbye-sydney-2000-hallo-athens Running head: DEVIANCE AND VIOLENCE IN SPORTS Deviance and Violence in Sports Alvin Hayes Columbia Southern University 1 DEVIANCE AND VIOLENCE IN SPORTS 2 Discussion Modern sports contain traditions and regulations that may either be codified or not, but make sure the conventional aspects of sports are recognized. Deviance is basically a behavior that does not adhere to the widely-accepted traditions, values, rules and regulations, norms, societal laws, ideologies, and norms (Dunning, 2013). These types of behaviors mostly attract mild to severe punishments. In sports, deviance has prevailed in the world across times and spaces. The occurrence of deviant acts is dependent on the location and period, and most specifically the individual doing the judgment. In other words, an act of deviance is determined by not only the behavior itself but also the reaction to the action. Discussion The sociology journal article used in this assignment describes deviance in sports as consisting of all sorts of behaviors. The act can involve athletes, fans, owners of professional teams, professional gamblers, and coaches, companies promoting sports, sports agents, as well as the city, state, or global companies governing sports. Deviance in sports entails activities such as: o Violence (specifically among the athletes or even between athletes and their fans). o Cheating, o Gambling and drug abuse, According to the article, activities that hugely alter or destroy the physical obstacles of sports or equal competition among the athletes threatens the key sport's premises and hence poses a huge threat to sports continuation. Cheating in sports is a deviant act since it involves one intentionally violating the rules and traditions to their own advantage. The article does a great job in giving examples that happened in the past and makes one understand clearly what cheating in DEVIANCE AND VIOLENCE IN SPORTS 3 sport is all about. The seriousness of cheating in sports takes many forms and is considered more when coaches and other individuals responsible for sports integrity is involved. Violence, as exhibited in the article, involves the use of excessive force with the intention of causing harm physically or mentally to another individual. It is specifically very shocking when an excess act of violence is utilized as an approach to competition. Football, in particular, is a game that is deemed more violent than any other sport. With the intensity associated with the sport, many players overlook the regulations to harm or impair others (Coakley, 2014). Coaches on the other hand, often ignore borderline violence and commend brutal physical contacts. I agree with the article because violence in sports can lead to permanent injuries and shortened career for players. This article discusses some examples, which is very important to make people understand the effects of violence in the sports arena. Additionally, I agree with the argument that violence in sports should be treated as a serious matter by the players, coach, and everyone involved. This is because brutality in the field may endanger lives, or result in irreparable damages. Gambling and drug abuse also represent deviance in sports. Gambling involving players or individuals with the power of altering the sport’s outcomes is a very serious practice in sports. This practice is very wrong because it results in discrimination and hence unfair treatment among athletes. Drug abuse associated with sports mostly involve drugs for stimulating the physical body above its normal capabilities. The article mentions that drugs such as steroids have serious side effects. I agree with the article, and I would like to add that athletes should be monitored and regularly tested to avoid usage, hence protecting the lives and integrity of the sport. DEVIANCE AND VIOLENCE IN SPORTS 4 Conclusion Deviance and violence are very common in sports, and even the most successful teams and coaches have engaged in such acts in one way or another. Violence is very detrimental since it has given serious injuries to those involved and others have ended up dead or permanently impaired. Cheating is very common and results in unfairness in sports. Perpetrators should be severely punished to avoid future happenings. Similarly, gambling and drug abuse should be banned completely from the sports industry. Eventually, we will have ethical athletes and systems that respect each other and the sports themselves. DEVIANCE AND VIOLENCE IN SPORTS 5 References Coakley, J. (2014). Sports in society: Issues and controversies. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Dunning, E. (2013). Sports matters: Sociological studies of sport, violence, and civilization. Routledge. http://sociology.iresearchnet.com/sociology-of-sport/deviance-in-sport/ ...
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Final Answer




Reflection Paper



Reflection Paper

Globalization impact, commercialization of sports, and various factors such as gender,
race, ethnicity, money, power, social class, age, ability, youth, violence, and deviance have
significantly impacted sports and assisted in the expansion of globalization and commercialization
in the sporting industry. Personally, throughout my career, I have discovered that politics as an
aspect of the society has significantly transformed the sports sector. Moreover, moderns sports
incorporate traditions that could either be codified or not but also ensures general elements of
sports are recognized. Primarily, from the course, I have discovered that in sports, deviance is
prevalent in the world across spaces and times. Hence, the presence of deviance is dependent on
location and period, and mostly the person conducting the judgment. In the same fashion, race and
ethnicity are extensively televi...


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