See the direction for edu-tech


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See the direction for edu-tech. see the article i attached too (3 days) provide quality work ......................

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Educational Technology Write a 3-page report on cutting edge educational technology (of your choice) You can choose a technology that you think has had the biggest impact, something you are interested in, or something you want to know more about from a technological perspective. Remember that through research on the topic, you will want to prove its impact. See the attached article For the report, you should: Explain the technology, How it can be used for education The benefits The drawbacks, How you think it will be used (or not) in the future. Paragraph (1, 2) Abstract + introduction Paragraph (3) Paragraph (4) Paragraph (5) Paragraph (6) (There have certainly been emerging technologies that have not worked too well as planned). If you are unsure what to choose, you could pick a topic like MOOCs , educational content management systems (CMS), clicker systems, virtual worlds in education, etc. Make sure that you cite sources using APA style and use scholarly sources. No plagiarism See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: Augmented reality in Education — Cases, places, and potentials Article in Educational Media International · March 2014 DOI: 10.1080/09523987.2014.889400 CITATIONS READS 75 3,228 5 authors, including: Matt Bower Cathie Howe Macquarie University NSW Department of Education and Commun… 77 PUBLICATIONS 915 CITATIONS 12 PUBLICATIONS 77 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE SEE PROFILE David Grover Macquarie University 1 PUBLICATION 75 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: iPads in the Classroom: Year 1 Maths View project Future Pedagogies View project All content following this page was uploaded by Matt Bower on 25 March 2016. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. Educational Media International ISSN: 0952-3987 (Print) 1469-5790 (Online) Journal homepage: Augmented Reality in education – cases, places and potentials Matt Bower, Cathie Howe, Nerida McCredie, Austin Robinson & David Grover To cite this article: Matt Bower, Cathie Howe, Nerida McCredie, Austin Robinson & David Grover (2014) Augmented Reality in education – cases, places and potentials, Educational Media International, 51:1, 1-15, DOI: 10.1080/09523987.2014.889400 To link to this article: Published online: 04 Mar 2014. Submit your article to this journal Article views: 1440 View related articles View Crossmark data Citing articles: 10 View citing articles Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at Download by: [Macquarie University] Date: 25 March 2016, At: 14:51 Educational Media International, 2014 Vol. 51, No. 1, 1–15, Augmented Reality in education – cases, places and potentials Matt Bowera*, Cathie Howeb, Nerida McCredieb, Austin Robinsona and David Grovera a School of Education, Macquarie University, North Ryde, Australia; bMacquarie ICT Innovations Centre, North Ryde, Australia Downloaded by [Macquarie University] at 14:51 25 March 2016 (Received 19 September 2013; final version received 24 November 2013) Augmented Reality is poised to profoundly transform Education as we know it. The capacity to overlay rich media onto the real world for viewing through web-enabled devices such as phones and tablet devices means that information can be made available to students at the exact time and place of need. This has the potential to reduce cognitive overload by providing students with “perfectly situated scaffolding”, as well as enable learning in a range of other ways. This paper will review uses of Augmented Reality both in mainstream society and in education, and discuss the pedagogical potentials afforded by the technology. Based on the prevalence of information delivery uses of Augmented Reality in Education, we argue the merit of having students design Augmented Reality experiences in order to develop their higher order thinking capabilities. A case study of “learning by design” using Augmented Reality in high school Visual Art is presented, with samples of student work and their feedback indicating that the approach resulted in high levels of independent thinking, creativity and critical analysis. The paper concludes by establishing a future outlook for Augmented Reality and setting a research agenda going forward. Keywords: Augmented Reality; AR; pedagogy; mobile; design-based learning; higher order thinking Introduction to Augmented Reality Augmented Reality technology is gaining popularity within society and becoming more ubiquitous in nature (Johnson, Smith, Levine, & Haywood, 2010). Augmented Reality systems can be defined as those that allow real and virtual objects to coexist in the same space and be interacted with in real time (Azuma, 1997). The process of combining virtual data with real-world data can provide users with access to rich and meaningful multimedia content that is contextually relevant and can be easily and immediately acted upon (Billinghurst, Kato, & Poupyrev, 2001). Unlike Virtual Reality, which completely immerses the user’s senses in a synthetic environment, Augmented Reality permits the user to perceive the real world through a virtual overlay. Virtual objects used in Augmented Reality systems may include text, still images, video clips, sounds, 3D models and animations. Ideally, these virtual objects will be perceived as coexisting within a real-world environment. Numerous researchers have identified Augmented Reality as having immense potential to enhance learning and teaching (for instance, Billinghurst & Duenser, 2012; Dede, *Corresponding author. Email: © 2014 International Council for Educational Media 2 M. Bower et al. Downloaded by [Macquarie University] at 14:51 25 March 2016 2009; Dunleavy, Dede, & Mitchell, 2009; Johnson, Adams, & Cummins, 2012; Kaufmann & Schmalstieg, 2003; Shelton, 2002; Squire & Jan, 2007). Augmented Reality can be considered to lie on a “Reality–Virtuality Continuum” between the real environment and virtual environment (Milgram, Takemura, Utsumi, & Kishino, 1994). Augmented Reality is the type of “mixed reality” whereby digital content is infused into the real environment, as opposed to Augmented Virtuality where real-world content is transplanted into a virtual environment (see Figure 1). Thus, Augmented Reality can be seen as a conduit for bringing together education in virtual environments and the real world. The basic hardware requirements of an Augmented Reality system include (Azuma, 1997; Billinghurst et al., 2001):  the presence of a video camera to capture live images,  significant storage space for virtual objects,  a powerful processor to either composite virtual and real objects or display a 3D-simulated environment in real time and  an interface that allows the user to interact with both real and virtual objects. Although these are the basic requirements to run an Augmented Reality system, other technologies may be utilised in order to enhance the overall experience for the user (Johnson et al., 2010). For example:  GPS Technology – allows the system to take into account the user’s real-world location, ensuring that contextually relevant virtual data are provided to the user at geographically significant locations.  Image Recognition Software – enables real-world images and objects to act as “triggers” for multimedia and model overlays, and also to anchor virtual data in the environment.  Speakers and Sound Systems – enables relevant sounds and audio recordings to be played.  Internet Access – provides a means of storing, retrieving and sharing content using social media and Web 2.0 technologies.  Intuitive Interfaces – advances in touch screen, gyroscope and haptic input technologies provide more natural means to interact with and manipulate virtual objects. The sophisticated software and numerous hardware devices used by Augmented Reality systems are also utilised by a number of other technologies, however, the distinguishing ability of Augmented Reality is the seamless compositing of virtual objects onto a real environment in a contextually relevant manner (Billinghurst et al., 2001; Chang, Morreale, & Medicherla, 2010). As a result of this distinctive Figure 1. Milgram et al.’s (1994) Reality–Virtuality Continuum. Educational Media International 3 Downloaded by [Macquarie University] at 14:51 25 March 2016 function, Augmented Reality is predicted by some academics to be the fundamental user interface of the twenty-first century (Kroeker, 2010). Uses of Augmented Reality The use of Augmented Reality systems has been investigated in a range of industries since the early 1990s, including medicine, manufacturing, aeronautics, robotics, entertainment, tourism and, more recently, social networking and education (Azuma, 1997; Billinghurst, 2002; Hincapie, Caponio, Rios, & Mendivil, 2011; Shelton, 2002; Shin et al., 2010; Shuhaiber, 2004). By overlaying media elements into the users’ real-world context, Augmented Reality can provide cognitive support for difficult tasks. Examples from industry include driver training (Regenbrecht, Baratoff, & Wilke, 2005), practising aspects of complex surgery (Cristancho, Moussa, & Dubrowski, 2011) and learning how to change a filter on a space station (Regenbrecht et al., 2005). Recent improvements in mobile computing power and functionality have led to larger resources being directed to the development of mobile Augmented Reality systems (Johnson et al., 2010), and thus Augmented Reality is now widely available to regular consumers rather than solely residing in the domain of high-end laboratory research and industry. Some more popular uses are emerging that illustrate the possibilities of Augmented Reality. For instance, there are several location-based content aggregators emerging, which can siphon information about the surrounding environment. For example, Wikitude ( allows information about sights, restaurants and events to display in a text layer on top of the camera viewport. Plane Finder AR ( superimposes an information layer over planes in the region, providing their flight number and distance in real time. Worksnug ( finds free wifi in the locality, superimposing the direction and distance of the wifi service over the camera view. Other locationbased augmented applications enable users to exchange location-based information in the real environment. For example, SekaiCamera ( enables users to leave “airnotes” using text or audio in locations around the globe, and provides the functionality for others to leave replies. Alternately, StreetTag (http:// enables people to superimpose a graffiti layer over the world, meaning that users do not need to disturb streetscape in order to create street art. Several vendors have released showcases of how Augmented Reality can use images to trigger engaging and interactive models. For example, the Paper4D showcase ( has various image markers that manifest steaming hamburgers, a moving sportscar that enables users to change its colour, a box of popping popcorn with an embedded movie and a rattlesnake that strikes at users who venture too close. String ( uses markers to create effects such as dragons popping out of walls, writing with 3D ink and a pet alien that can be walked around the room. Some applications such as those by AR Media ( and BrainGapps ( enable the user to select and manipulate multiple models via the application interface using only one marker. AdSugar Media (http:// demonstrates how models triggered by separate markers can interact using a physics engine, cannon balls fired from one trigger image gradually knocking down a wall of boxes triggered by another image. Downloaded by [Macquarie University] at 14:51 25 March 2016 4 M. Bower et al. There is also a range of Augmented Reality games that demonstrate potentials of the technology. Games like Live Butterflies ( and Alien Attack ( superimpose beings on the screen in camera mode for users to catch or shoot. Note that these do not use any information from the real-world environment other than to consistently situate the multimedia overlays. AR Basketball ( extends upon this by using a marker to enable multiplayer basketball practice. ARSoccer (http:// allows the user to control a virtual soccer ball through kicking motions. There are also extended role-play games such as Ingress ( and Shadow Cities ( that use location-based Augmented Reality to superimpose information throughout cities and turn the world into a real-time playing field. Educational applications of Augmented Reality are also emerging. The LearnAR resource centre provides a package of 10 marker-based Augmented Reality learning experiences for biology, physics, languages, English, mathematics and religious education ( Fetch lunch rush ( helps students develop elementary mathematics skills by asking them questions and requiring them to find an Augmented Reality marker with the correct answer. Zooburst ( supports students to develop 3D digital stories by enabling their uploaded photos, text and audio to appear in Augmented Reality form on top of an image marker. By superimposing language translations on top of signs and documents, Wordlens ( can be used to scaffold language learning. Voice translator ( smartloft) performs audio translations between over 30 languages meaning that students can practise word translation and pronunciation. Disciplines where more Augmented Reality apps have been developed enable teachers to create an integrated sequence of Augmented Reality experiences around themes. The topic of Space is one example. In search of an alternative sustainable place for humans to live, students could use the SkyView (http://www.terminalel Augmented Reality star viewing application to plot a path to the Moon and Mars. Transparent Earth ( could be used to peer through the globe and pick an appropriate launch site for the journey. Students could use ISS Live ( to find the International Space Station and deduce how and where to dock. MoonGlobe and MarsGlobe (see could enable students to explore the moon and mars for best places to inhabit. Spacecraft 3D ( connect/apps.html) could then be used to simulate Martian data collection. Ventures to further planets could be facilitated through the Augmented Reality Planets3D book ( In this way, combinations of Augmented Reality applications can provide students with a more immersive and situated experience. Potentially even more exciting for educators is the emergence of Augmented Reality systems, which allow users to define their own triggers and overlays. Examples include Aurasma ( Layar ( and Junaio ( BuildAR extends upon this to provide the first Augmented Reality Content Management System ( These mean that educators and students can start to design, build and manage their own Augmented Reality experiences. Downloaded by [Macquarie University] at 14:51 25 March 2016 Educational Media International 5 Augmented Reality in education literature Several educational uses of this Augmented Reality have already been documented in the literature. Augmented Reality has been used to develop students’ understanding of science, including environmental science (Hsiao, Chen, & Huang, 2011; Squire & Klopfer, 2007), microbiology (Chen, 2006) and biomedical science (Rasimah, Ahmad, & Zaman, 2011). The scenario-based “Alien Contact!” simulation has been used to develop mathematical thinking skills (Dunleavy et al., 2009; Mitchell, 2011). Gamification and role-play-based Augmented Reality has been applied to enhance motivation and a sense of authenticity in medical science (Rosenbaum, Klopfer, & Perry, 2007). There have been illustrations of how Augmented Reality could be used in the humanities, for instance through provision of a more engaging literary experience (Billinghurst et al., 2001) and through the development of visual poetry (Lin, 2012). Augmented Reality has been used to enable students to study the virtual life cycle of a variety of butterflies (Tarng & Ou, 2012). There are also examples of students learning through the authorship of Augmented Reality systems, for instance as creators of science games (Klopfer & Sheldon, 2010), and students building Google Earth models using ARSights (Thornton, Ernst, & Clark, 2012). For a more detailed review of Augmented Reality usage in school and tertiary education, see Lee (2012). In an integrated sense, the Augmented Reality technology allows educators to create a scenario, provide location-specific information based upon GPS position, inject scripted or Non-Player Characters into the learning experience and embed data (via image or object triggers) seamlessly within the real-world context. Squire and Jan (2007) use all of these capabilities in their murder mystery game that requires students to deduce how a person died by gather evidence and interview virtual Non-Player Characters. However, the role of the educator as designer and facilitator appears to be a critical factor. In their use of Augmented Reality to track objects and graph vertical and horizontal velocity and displacement, Jerry and Aaron (2010) found that the teacher’s use of thought provoking questions and their facilitation skills were critical in order to stimulate students’ sense of challenge and enable the class to learn from the activities. The use of Augmented Reality in the classroom has repeatedly been shown to increase student motivation (Billinghurst & Duenser, 2012; Johnson et al., 2010; Tarng & Ou, 2012). Importantly, it has also been shown to contribute to student learning outcomes (Jerry & Aaron, 2010; Lee, 2012; Rasimah et al., 2011; Tarng & Ou, 2012). Furthermore, the use of an Augmented Reality system had a small, yet positive effect on some students’ learning attitudes and contributed to their perception of the relevance of their learning to their everyday lives (Jerry & Aaron, 2010). A key pedagogical affordance of Augmented Reality is the ability to rescale virtual objects, from molecules to planetary bodies, allowing students to better understand through manipulation the properties and relationships of objects that would be either too small or too large to examine effectively in their normal day-to-day lives (Johnson et al., 2010). Though other technologies may perform the same function, rescaling in Augmented Reality systems provides the user a clear representation of spatial and temporal concepts as well as the extra advantage of contextualising the relationship between the virtual object and the real-world environment (Sin & Zaman, 2010). Downloaded by [Macquarie University] at 14:51 25 March 2016 6 M. Bower et al. Another key pedagogical affordance is the ability to overlay contextually relevant information ( ...
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Augmented Reality Technology in Education



Augmented Reality Technology in Education
Augmented Reality is a technology that facilitates a computer generation of perceptual
information of objects that reside in the real world. The objects are generated through use of
multiple sensory modalities which include visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory, as well as
olfactory to provide an interactive experience of the real world environment. The information
that is gained using Augmented Reality can be used as an additive to the natural environment
hence being constructive or can be used to mask the natural environment thus proving to be
destructive. The overlaid sensory information is mixed with the physical world in a smooth and
continuous manner to the extent that it is considered as being deeply engaged with the real world
(Yilmaz, 2018). As a result, the real world environment perception according to an individual is
altered through Augmented Reality. His or her real-world environment is completely replaced
with a simulated perception. The components of augmented reality ar...

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