Module 1 - Case Assignment

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Module 1 - Case Assignment

PROCESS MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY

Assignment Overview

Case: Massachusetts General Hospital’s Pre-admission Testing Area (PATA)

McCarty, Kelsey, Gallien, et al. (2012, January 3). Massachusetts General Hospital's Pre-admission Testing Area (PATA). MIT Sloan School of Management. Case: 11–116. Retrieved from https://mitsloan.mit.edu/LearningEdge/operations-management/PATA/Pages/default.aspx

If the hyperlink above does not work directly (you do not need to register to MIT site), please copy the link below to your browser to open the case page directly: https://mitsloan.mit.edu/LearningEdge/operations-management/PATA/Pages/default.aspx

The Pre-Admission Testing Area (PATA) is an outpatient clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital responsible for conducting preoperative assessments of surgical patients prior to their procedures. Set in June 2009, this case study describes the conditions of this busy outpatient clinic prior to a process improvement effort by a collaborative team of MIT Sloan students and faculty and MGH clinicians and administrative staff. It also examines the complete PATA experience from both the patient and provider perspective. The importance of improving PATA is emphasized through a description of how this relatively small clinic has a very large downstream effect on the MGH operating rooms and the entire perioperative care system.

You are required to review the entire case study information available at the reference above and write a paper based on the suggested case questions below.

Case Assignment

  1. Construct a process flow diagram of the PATA visit from a patient's perspective. Calculate the capacity and utilization rate at each step in the process.
  2. Use capacity analysis tools (build-up diagrams or/and queuing) to decide if and where there is a bottleneck in the clinic. If a bottleneck does indeed exist, how long do patients wait as a result of the bottleneck? (As an approximation, assume that all appointment slots were filled and patients arrived on time.)
  3. Evaluate the three Task Force diagnoses - not enough time between appointments, not enough rooms, not enough physicians. Are these diagnoses valid? If so, are they primary contributors to long patient wait times? Why or why not?
  4. What factors contribute to variability in PATA process flow and what control, if any, does the clinic have to eliminate it?
  5. What changes would you recommend to improve PATA?

Assignment Expectations

  • Use the information provided in the Background readings. Please do any additional research as necessary.
  • Review the information in PATA case study and become familiar with the products and processes.
  • There is no set response to the case questions, so do not hesitate to think outside the box.
  • It is essential to provide a well-written paper with detailed analysis.

Read and Understand Assignment instruction and follow it .

READ the information provided by the resources and references on the Module 1 Reading Material Background page ( see attached). Understand the theory and concept of process management and productivity improvement.

NOTE: Cite the references in the Module 1 Reading Material Background, as well as additional references you use in your Case paper.

The report should be at least 5–6 pages, Double Space, APA Citation

Reference needs to be credible sources (Not Wikipedia)

Do not Submit Previously submitted Work

No Plagiarism (Will use Turnitni.com to check Plagiarism)

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Module 1 - Case PROCESS MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY Assignment Overview Case: Massachusetts General Hospital’s Pre-admission Testing Area (PATA) McCarty, Kelsey, Gallien, et al. (2012, January 3). Massachusetts General Hospital's Pre-admission Testing Area (PATA). MIT Sloan School of Management. Case: 11–116. Retrieved from https://mitsloan.mit.edu/LearningEdge/operationsmanagement/PATA/Pages/default.aspx If the hyperlink above does not work directly (you do not need to register to MIT site), please copy the link below to your browser to open the case page directly: https://mitsloan.mit.edu/LearningEdge/operationsmanagement/PATA/Pages/default.aspx The Pre-Admission Testing Area (PATA) is an outpatient clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital responsible for conducting preoperative assessments of surgical patients prior to their procedures. Set in June 2009, this case study describes the conditions of this busy outpatient clinic prior to a process improvement effort by a collaborative team of MIT Sloan students and faculty and MGH clinicians and administrative staff. It also examines the complete PATA experience from both the patient and provider perspective. The importance of improving PATA is emphasized through a description of how this relatively small clinic has a very large downstream effect on the MGH operating rooms and the entire perioperative care system. You are required to review the entire case study information available at the reference above and write a paper based on the suggested case questions below. Case Assignment 1. Construct a process flow diagram of the PATA visit from a patient's perspective. Calculate the capacity and utilization rate at each step in the process. 2. Use capacity analysis tools (build-up diagrams or/and queuing) to decide if and where there is a bottleneck in the clinic. If a bottleneck does indeed exist, how long do patients wait as a result of the bottleneck? (As an approximation, assume that all appointment slots were filled and patients arrived on time.) 3. Evaluate the three Task Force diagnoses - not enough time between appointments, not enough rooms, not enough physicians. Are these diagnoses valid? If so, are they primary contributors to long patient wait times? Why or why not? 4. What factors contribute to variability in PATA process flow and what control, if any, does the clinic have to eliminate it? 5. What changes would you recommend to improve PATA? Assignment Expectations • • • • Use the information provided in the Background readings. Please do any additional research as necessary. Review the information in PATA case study and become familiar with the products and processes. There is no set response to the case questions, so do not hesitate to think outside the box. It is essential to provide a well-written paper with detailed analysis. Read and Understand Assignment instruction and follow it . READ the information provided by the resources and references on the Module 1 Reading Material Background page ( see attached). Understand the theory and concept of process management and productivity improvement. NOTE: Cite the references in the Module 1 Reading Material Background, as well as additional references you use in your Case paper. The report should be at least 5–6 pages, Double Space, APA Citation Reference needs to be credible sources (Not Wikipedia) Do not Submit Previously submitted Work No Plagiarism (Will use Turnitni.com to check Plagiarism) Module 1 Overview Processes are fundamental to all the activities that produce goods and activities. For example, operations managers make process decisions about the type of work to be done in-house, the extent of automation to use, the technologies to pursue, etc. Operations management transforms inputs (labor, capital, equipment, land, buildings, materials, and information) into outputs (goods and services) that provide added value to customers. The figure below summarizes the transformation process. The arrow labeled “Transformation System” is the critical element in the model that will determine how well the organization produces goods and services that meet customer needs. It does not matter whether the organization is a for-profit company, a non-profit organization (religious organizations, hospitals, etc.), or a government agency; all organizations must strive to maximize the quality of their transformation processes to meet customer needs. Example of typical transformation process The 3M Company is a good example of the strategic importance of transforming inputs into outputs that provide competitive advantage in the marketplace. 3M manufactures a top-quality adhesive tape called “Magic Tape”. Magic Tape is used for everyday taping applications, but it offers attractive features that most other tapes do not, including smooth removal from the tape roll, an adhesive that is sticky enough to hold items in place (but not too sticky that it cannot be removed and readjusted if necessary), and a non-reflective surface. For several decades, 3M has enjoyed a substantial profit margin on its Magic Tape product because 3M engineers make the manufacturing equipment and design the manufacturing processes that produce Magic Tape. In other words, 3M enjoys a commanding competitive advantage by controlling the transformation processes that turn raw material inputs into the high value-added Magic Tape product. Controlling the transformation process makes it extremely difficult for competitors to produce tape of the same quality as Magic Tape, allowing 3M to reap significant profits from this superior product. An opposite example of the strategic implications of the input/output transformation process is 3M’s decision in the 1980s to stop manufacturing VHS tape for video players and recorders. In the VHS tape market, 3M had no proprietary manufacturing advantage, as there were many Asian competitors that could produce high-quality VHS tape at lower cost. Since 3M had no proprietary control over the transformation process for VHS tape that would allow the company to protect its profit margins for this product, it dropped VHS tape from its offerings. The two 3M examples of Magic Tape and VHS tape show how important the transformation process and operations management can be to providing and protecting an organization’s competitive advantage. A service example of the strategic importance of the transformation process is ING Bank, a banking company that conducts all banking transactions through the Internet, phone, and mail. ING maintains no traditional bank facilities, except for the buildings that house the employees that execute remote transactions with ING’s customers. This strategy results in tremendous cost savings and competitive advantage to ING by not having to spend capital resources on land and buildings that traditional banks must spend. Consequently, ING can offer its customers' higher interest rates on savings accounts and lower interest rates on loans. A major responsibility of Operations Management is to measure performance and determine ways to improve it. Productivity measurement and process improvement are the focus of this first module. Productivity is a major concern of most businesses. It is a fundamental basis of competition, to reduce costs and do more with less. Productivity in the U.S. is measured and has been for over 125 years by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Labor productivity is a key index that is used to determine how the overall economy is doing year to year. The basic measurement is the ratio of Output/Input. Or, Productivity = O/I. But industries and individual businesses also measure productivity. And it is this measurement that is key to productivity and process improvement. Without quantitative measurement, you cannot know if you are improving. At the business level, there are many ways to count output and input. For example, you could have the output measured as the number of parts produced and the input is the number of hours. Prod = widgets/hour. A key criterion for counting each of these is to make sure you are using the same time period, that you are matching the actual input effort to the outputs generated. You must also use the same process for each. For example, counting widgets, you would look at a specific process and/or group of people for a specific time period, say last week, Monday thru Friday. If this group of people produced 3500 widgets collectively, and spent 200 hours collectively, then you would get, P = 3500 widgets/200 hours. Or, P = 17.5 widgets / hr. Productivity is measured using simple or complex ratios of outputs/inputs. At the business level, there are many financial ratios that are measures of productivity (e.g., ROS, or Return on Sales). If you consider the amount of Sales as input to generating profit, and profit is the results or the output, then you get ROS = Profit/Sales. Businesses measure their productivity in different ways based on what makes sense to them and what is important. But for Operations Management, the key productivity measures have to do with the inputs and outputs within Operations. So once a measurement system is in place, an improvement program can be implemented. Improvements come by focusing on PROCESSES. Processes are the repetitive actions in a specific sequence that are intended to produce a specific output. Outputs can be parts and components that make up a finished product, or part of a service or the finished service. Businesses are always trying to improve productivity and processes in order to be competitive. Indeed, some companies attempt to be the "low-cost leader", which then makes productivity a driving force for the business. Other businesses consider productivity a necessity to keep ahead of inflation, to keep costs down, and to maintain margins. Process improvement can take several different forms within a business. This can be viewed by the amount of change being made in the process. There is the incremental process improvement, which utilizes small changes. The next amount of change usually considers a wholesale change to the process, called Process Re-engineering. This approach attempts to redo a whole process by looking at it from the view of how this process should be designed from scratch. The third approach is fostered by Lean Thinking, which is to look at the chain of processes, both inside the company and outside, including those of its up-strain supply chain and down-stream supply chain. This kind of change is radical. Actually, in lean thinking, all three kinds of process change are used. Kaikaku is radical change, which can also include some aspects of process re-engineering. Kaizen is the incremental continuous improvement efforts. And the focus of this change is to eliminate waste, or muda. By eliminating muda, processes become efficient and productivity is improved throughout. Steps to Improving Productivity 1. Identify the process – what are the activities involved in the flow of work – what is the starting point and what is the ending point? 2. Identify the outputs – What is the output of the process? What is the end result and how do you count or measure this? What is the basic time frame you are using? 3. Identify the inputs – What are the inputs of the process? Labor hours, quantity of materials, energy, etc.? How can you count or measure these inputs? 4. Determine the Productivity Measure – What is the Productivity Measure you want to use to calculate, Outputs/Inputs? Which inputs are you concerned about? 5. Determine a data collection process – How do you collect the data during the time period? Is there a system or method for counting the outputs and inputs during the same time period? 6. Analyze the steps in the process and determine how to modify it to obtain more output with the same inputs, or the same outputs with less inputs, or more outputs with less inputs. What Are Ways to Generate Labor Productivity? • Increase the rate of at least one process step. • Eliminate or combine process steps. o Time and motion study o Lean engineering o Automate – replace the manual process with a machine process. ▪ ▪ • Partial Automation - add the use of tools, jigs, and fixtures to aid the work and speed up the process. Full Automation - completely replace the worker with a machine. Reduce non-productive time that is included in the labor input. o Setup or changeover time o Interruptions o Machine or tool breakdowns or problems o Stop for quality issues o Waiting for material to arrive References: Global Text Project (2017), Operations management: The input/output transformation model. OpenStax CNX. Retrieved from https://cnx.org/contents/_yBkSAt4@4/Operations-management-Theinpu Chew, W. (1988, Jan.-Feb. 1988). No-nonsense guide to measuring productivity. Harvard Business Review, 3-9. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/1988/01/no-nonsense-guide-to-measuring-productivity Module 1 - Background PROCESS MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY Required Reading Global Text Project (2017), Operations management: Special topic: supply chain management. OpenStax CNX. Retrieved from: https://cnx.org/contents/EEichvM_@5/Operations-management-Whatis- Global Text Project (2017), Operations management: The input/output transformation model. OpenStax CNX. Retrieved from https://cnx.org/contents/_yBkSAt4@4/Operations-management-Theinpu McCarty, Kelsey, Gallien, et al. (2012, January 3). Massachusetts General Hospital's Pre-admission Testing Area (PATA). MIT Sloan School of Management. Case: 11–116. Retrieved from https://mitsloan.mit.edu/LearningEdge/operationsmanagement/PATA/Pages/default.aspx Note - Copy link in your browser for going directly to the reading. Pink, Daniel H.(2001, August 31) Who Has the Next Big Idea? Fast Company Magazine, Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/43595/who-has-next-big-idea How the U.S. Dept. of Labor measure productivity. (2017). U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/bls/productivity.htm Optional Reading Arnst, C. (2010). A Team Effort to Re-Engineer Care at Hospitals, U.S. News & World Report. Washington: Jul 2010. p. 1, retrieved from: http://health.usnews.com/health-news/besthospitals/articles/2010/07/26/a-team-effort-to-re-engineer-care-at-hospitals Purdue's Online Writing Library. (2017). Retrieved from (OWL) https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/ Torres, C. and Feld, A. (2010). Campbell's Quest for Productivity, Business Week. New York: Nov 29, 2010. p. 1, retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/10_49/b420601527545 4.htm?chan=magazine+channel_news+-+global+economics Watson, R. (2010). Freight capacity will tighten, carrier executives predict, Transport Topics. Alexandria: Nov 22, 2010. pp. 3-4, AN(815411742) Student Guide to Writing a High-Quality Academic Paper Follow these guidelines when writing academic papers, including your Case and SLP assignments.  An effective academic writing style is an essential part of a university education.  Poorly written papers detract from your ability to effectively share your knowledge and ideas with others, including your professors.  This guide will help you prepare high-quality papers that are: ▪ Logically argued ▪ Clearly structured and formatted ▪ Written in a professional, academic style The basic structure of an academic paper includes: 2 1. Cover page 2. Introduction 3. Body of the paper (which may have subsections) 4. Conclusion 5. Reference page The cover page of an academic paper should include the: ▪ University name ▪ Student’s name ▪ Assignment title ▪ Course number and name ▪ Professor’s name ▪ Date Note: Some professors recommend adding the assignment instructions (tasks and/or questions) to the bottom of the cover page to help students make sure they have addressed each part of the assignment. 3 University Name Student’s Name Module 1 Case Assignment Course Number: Course Name Professor’s Name Date In the introduction, provide a brief, clear overview of: 1. Each problem or issue that you will discuss 2. The solution to the problem(s) or your response to the issue(s) 4 3. How you will prove or demonstrate that your solution or response is correct Tip: Try writing the body of your paper first. Then come back and write the introduction once you know what your paper is about. 5  The body of the paper is where you discuss the solution to the problem(s) or your response to the issue(s) raised in the assignment.  After you have read the materials related to the assignment, begin by creating a quick outline: ▪ What are the main points of your argument? Jot them down. ▪ Depending on the length of the paper, 3–6 main points should be plenty. ▪ If a point is complex, it may have 2 or 3 sub-points. Jot those down as well. ▪ Now arrange those points in a logical sequence. ▪ Which point needs to be made first because it provides a basis for the points that follow? 6 ▪ For example, “Point A leads to point B, which leads to point C, and when A, B, and C are considered together they mean that the solution is point D.” Example of the structure of a Case Assignment that requires 4 pages of text (not including the cover page, and not including a reference page for assignments that require one): Main Sections Points Sub-points Page # # of Paragraphs 1 1 Point A 1 1 Point B 2 1 Cover Page Introduction Body of Paper " " Sub-point 1 2 1 " Sub-point 2 3 1 7 " Point C 3 1 " Point D 4 2 4 1 Conclusion Reference Page In the body of your paper:  Use headings and subheadings to help your reader follow the points and subpoints in your discussion and to better organize sections and subsections.  Give each point and sub-point a short name that tells your reader what that section is about. Use those names for your headings.  Here is a quick “how-to” guide to headings with links to examples and instructions: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2011/04/how-to-use-fivelevels-of-heading-in-anapa-style-paper.html  Now you are ready to begin writing the body of your paper. 8 ▪ Discuss one point at a time and explain each point clearly. ▪ Discuss one point or sub-point in each paragraph. ▪ As you advance to writing more complex papers (e.g., upper-division undergraduate or master’s-level assignments), it may take 2 or 3 paragraphs to fully develop and support a point. 9 In the body of your paper:  Each paragraph should be made up of approximately 3–5 sentences. (Note: A single sentence is not a paragraph. Break long sentences into 2 or 3 shorter ones.) Each paragraph should include: ▪ The point or focus of that paragraph in the first sentence ▪ Additional sentences in which you explain, elaborate, and support your point (see section on Supporting Your Points that begins on the next slide) ▪ A conclusion/transition to the next point and paragraph  Each point should be supported by citing and referencing the sources that provide the foundation for your solutions and/or responses. How to do this will be discussed on the next slide. Supporting Your Points  What makes an academic paper “academic”? How does an academic 10 paper differ from other types of writing—for example, a short story, a blog, a newspaper article, a business letter, or an e-mail message?  In an academic paper: ▪ You must provide support for each idea, statement, or point that you make that is based on someone else’s ideas. ▪ Support is provided through citations and references. (References are discussed beginning on Slide 17.) Citations appear within the paper itself wherever you draw upon another person’s ideas or another source of information. References are listed on a separate page at the end of your paper. ▪ Each citation refers to a specific reference so that your reader can look up the sources of your support and read them for himself or herself. ▪ Citations are short and usually only include the author’s last name and the date of publication of the author’s work, for example, “In a study of K–12 education, Jones (2013) found that…” 11 Citation Examples   You can cite at the beginning or ending of a sentence: ▪ According to Jones (2007), a reason for poor student performance is large classroom size. ▪ Student performance decreases as classroom size increases (Jones, 2007). When multiple sources support your point, cite them together in alphabetical order at the end of the sentence: ▪ Educators agree that large classroom size decreases student performance (Adams, 2005; Jones, 2007; Smith, 2008).  When a source is written by more than one person, give their last names in the citation at the end of the sentence, like this: (Smith, Adams, & Jones, 2006).  When there is no author and/or no date (e.g., a Web page), see this example: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/web-page-no-author.aspx 12 Do not spell out the titles and publication details of your sources in the body of your paper. Instead, provide a short citation, and add a full reference with the publication details in your reference list. Interested readers can then find the details about the article in your reference list at the end of your paper. Wrong: The first article that will be discussed is called “The Very Separate Worlds of Academic and Practitioner Periodicals in Human Resource Management” written by Sara Rynes, Tamara Giluk, and Kenneth Brown, which was published in the Academy of Management Journal (2007) Vol 50, No.5, 987-1008. They studied the gap between academic and practitioner knowledge. ▪ Note: Do not spell out the title and publication details of your sources in the text. Right  (two different ways): 1. Rynes, Giluk, and Brown (2007) found a gap between academic and practitioner knowledge. ▪ Note: The authors are the subject of the sentence. This is referred to as an “in-text citation” and includes just the authors’ last names and year of publication. 13 A gap was found between academic and practitioner knowledge (Rynes, Giluk, & Brown, 2007). 2. ▪ Note: The citation is placed at the end of a sentence in parentheses. This is called a “parenthetical citation.” In this type of citation, use an ampersand (&) instead of “and.” When should you cite a source?  When you use your own words in referring to the ideas or concepts of others  When you use the exact words that are written in one of the sources that you read ▪ Using someone else’s exact words is called a “quotation.” ▪ For quotes of less than 40 words, use quotation marks and follow the quote with a parenthetical citation that includes: ▪ The name(s) of the author(s) ▪ The year of publication ▪ The page number the quote was taken from in the original source— for example: 14 “Academic and practitioner periodicals in human resource management are worlds apart” (Rynes, Giluk, & Brown, 2010, p. 992). ▪ Any phrase or quote of 40 or more words should be separated from the text of your report by single spacing and by indenting from the both right and left margin. This is called an “offset quote.” Provide Support for Each of Your Points  Scholarly academic work builds on previous knowledge and recognizes the contributions that others have made to knowledge.  Providing a citation for each source of information that you use is necessary for at least four reasons: ▪ To help your reader understand the foundational information that you used to support your points. ▪ To give credit to sources of knowledge and the work of others. ▪ To protect the source. If you make a good point but don’t cite your sources or indicate direct quotes with quotation marks, the reader will attribute it to you by default. 15 ▪  To avoid plagiarism. Incorporating material from outside sources (whether direct quotes or paraphrasing) without proper identification or citation is a form of plagiarism. Never represent the work of another as your own. Here is an excellent guide to help you understand plagiarism and how to avoid it (students are strongly encouraged to study it carefully): University Libraries, University of Missouri (n.d.). Plagiarism Tutorial. Retrieved March 1, 2013, at http://lib.usm.edu/legacy/plag/plagiarismtutorial.php  In your conclusion: ▪ Summarize your argument regarding the solutions/responses that you discussed in the body of your paper, including the most important points you made and how they relate to your overall conclusion. 16 ▪ Do not discuss or raise new issues in the conclusion. ▪ Limit the conclusion to 1 or 2 paragraphs.  The reference section, found at the end of the paper, is an alphabetical list of the sources that you used to write your paper.  Center the word “References” at the top of a new page.  Starting on the same page, enter a full reference for each citation in your paper. Provide only one reference for each source no matter how many times you cite it in your paper. ▪ Each reference should include the following information (so readers can find the source): ▪ Author’s last name, first initial, middle initial ▪ Year of publication ▪ Title of the article, book, or Web page 17 ▪ Title of the publication where the article was found (If the article is from a journal or newspaper, include the volume and issue number, and the pages where the article is located.) Reference section formats for different types of sources:  Article on a Web page with no date: ▪ Author last name, first initial, middle initial (publication date). Title of the article. Retrieved X date from http:// ▪ Example (note that the second line of the reference is indented five spaces): Dvoretsky, D. P. (n.d.). History: Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from http://www.infran.ru/history_eng.htm  Online newspaper article: ▪ Author name (year, month, day of publication). Article title. Newspaper Title. Retrieved X date from http:// ▪ Example (note that the second line of the reference is indented five spaces): Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. The New York Times. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com  Academic Journal Article: ▪ Author name, first initial, middle initial (publication year). Article title. Journal Title, vol. 18 #(issue #), page numbers where the article was found. ▪ Example (note that the second and third lines of the reference are indented five spaces): Shapiro, D., Kirkman, B., & Courtney, H. (2007). Perceived causes and solutions of the translation problem in management research. Academy of Management Journal, 50(2), 249266.  Book: Author name (publication year). Book Title. Location: Publisher. ▪ Example: Fitzgerald, S. P. (2002). Decision Making. London: Capstone Publishing, Ltd. Reference Page Example References Allen, G. (1998). Motivating Supervision. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from: http://www.businessballs.com/mcgregoryxytheorydiagrm.pdf Chapman, A. (n.d.). Adam’s Equity Theory. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from: http://www.businessballs.com/adamsequitytheory.htm Chapman, A. (n.d.). Herzberg’s Motivation Theory. Retrieved June 1, 2009, from: http://www.businessballs.com/herzberg.htm Dreyfack, R. (2004, May). Personalizing productivity. Supervision, 65(5), 20-22. 19 Shapiro, D., Kirkman, B., & Courtney, H. (2007). Perceived causes and solutions of the translation problem in management research. Academy of Management Journal, 50(2), 249-266. Notes: ▪ “n.d.” = no date. Use this for the date when there is no publication date available. ▪ First line of each reference is at the left margin, and each subsequent line in that same reference is indented 5 spaces (one tab stop). ▪ Arrange references alphabetically based on last name of the first author of each work. 20  Add an appendix after the reference page when you have supplemental material (e.g., a chart, table, diagram, or picture) that you refer to in your paper.  Appendices are optional and depend upon the nature of the assignment.  Appendices (if any) should be placed at the end of the paper and identified with capital letters (e.g., Appendix A).  The title of the appendix should be placed immediately below the appendix label.  The appendix label and title should be centered at the top of the page, as in the example below: Appendix A Workflow Diagram 21  When professors ask you to “follow APA style” or “use APA format,” they are referring to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition.  APA is one of several styles that is used for writing academic papers (MLA is another) and includes extensive details about how to format citations and references.  APA format is required for doctoral students and recommended for University master’s and undergraduate students.  APA helps to provide a common, standard format for academic scholars to follow.  For additional information and guidance on APA style, here are two excellent resources: ▪ The APA Style website at http://www.apastyle.org (see the links and tutorials at the bottom of the Web page) ▪ The Purdue Online Writing Lab (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/) contains extensive, detailed guidance not only on APA format, but also on general 22 writing, job search writing, and research writing (see the tabs at the top of the Web page). Set up your paper as follows:  Set 1-inch margins on all four sides.  Use 12-point type throughout; don’t use different type sizes.  Double-space the text throughout the paper, including the reference page.  Do not put extra spaces between paragraphs or between headings and paragraphs.  Use italics or bold for emphasis, but use them sparingly or it becomes too distracting for your reader. 23 Before you submit your assignment:  Re-read the assignment instructions and make sure you addressed each one in your paper.  Always run spelling and grammar check in MS Word before submitting your assignment.  If you struggle with grammar, or have trouble with sentence and paragraph structure, invite a classmate or colleague with strong English writing skills to proofread your work prior to submission. This process will improve your writing skills.  Also, consult the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) for writing guidance and examples.  Don’t expect overnight miracles. Writing and editing are iterative processes that take ongoing practice, feedback, refinement, and attention to detail— 24 even for the best writers. Your writing will improve as you advance through the program! 25 26 Rubric Assessment Rubric Name: MBA/MSHRM/MSL Case Grading Rubric -Timeliness v1 Criteria Level 4 - Excellent 23 points AssignmentDriven Criteria Demonstrates mastery covering all key elements of the assignment in a substantive way. 9 points Critical Thinking Demonstrates mastery conceptualizing the problem. Multiple information sources, expert opinion, and assumptions are analyzed, synthesized, and critically evaluated. Logically consistent conclusions are Level 3 - Proficient 20 points Demonstrates considerable proficiency covering all key elements of the assignment in a substantive way. 8 points Demonstrates considerable proficiency conceptualizing the problem. Information sources and viewpoints of experts are proficiently analyzed and evaluated. Assumptions are clearly stated and supported, but may not be questioned. Conclusions are logical, but may be Level 2 - Developing Level 1 - Emerging 14 points 18 points 7 points Demonstrates limited or poor proficiency covering all key elements of the assignment in a substantive way. 6 points Demonstrates partial proficiency conceptualizing the problem. Information sources and viewpoints of experts are stated, but not necessarily synthesized, or critically evaluated. Assumptions are stated but not supported. Conclusions may be Demonstrates limited or poor proficiency conceptualizing the problem. Information sources and viewpoints of experts are either absent or poorly analyzed, synthesized, and evaluated. Assumptions are implied, but not Demonstrates partial proficiency covering all key elements of the assignment in a substantive way. presented with appropriate rationale. somewhat disconnected logical, but are not from the analysis. connected to or supported by the preceding analysis. clearly stated. Conclusions are either absent or poorly conceived and unsupported. 3 points 2 points 1 point Demonstrates considerable proficiency in written communication with a well-organized presentation to an appropriately specialized audience. Demonstrate partial proficiency in written communication with few grammatical or syntax errors, but may lack headings or be pitched at the wrong audience. Demonstrates limited or poor ability to write clearly, and uses poor grammar and syntax. 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Explanation & Answer

Attached.

Running head: PROCESS MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY

Process Management and Productivity
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Date

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PROCESS MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY

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Construct a process flow diagram of the PATA visit from a Patient's Perspective

In case a representation of what the hospital looks like to a patient visiting was to be
made, then the flow diagram above is the best illustration. The importance of a flow diagram is
that it helps to reveal the points where services are slow or where there is a lot of wait time.
Based on this assertion, the flow diagram above shows that there are instances where there is
wait time that is consuming a lot of patient’s time (Armistead & Machin, 1998). One of the
lighted areas is the examination room where the nurse comes several minutes later and asks
questions that have already been addressed in the questionnaire at the front desk. Such repetition
is consuming a lot of time unnecessarily. More time is also wasted when a physician comes into
the same room thirty minutes later and asks the same questions. If this process is reduced to one
single method, then a lot of time can be reduced. Further examination of the flow diagram shows
that the patients are not given the requirements before being attended to, and so they may end up

PROCESS MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY

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being sent back for the conditions before beginning the long and time-consuming process once
again.
Calculate the capacity and utilization rate at each step in the process
It is essential to calculate capacity and utilization rate since it is what reveals how much
time about the personnel are being utilized. Further, the management can be able to examine if
the staff are underutilized or overworked. Based on the flow diagram presented, the process of
calculating capacity and utilization will involve the identifying of the personnel because there is
evidence that not all the hospital’s staff are part of the PATA procedure. In the process of
determining the team involved in this process, Massachusetts' PATA process requires nurses,
physicians, and clerks. Starting with the most significant staff in this process is the physician
whose role is to give the patients i...


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