Case Study

User Generated

Tcsyberf13

Humanities

Description

Ramirez, O. (2013). Survivors of School Bullying: A Collective Case Study. Children & Schools, 35(2), 93-99.

After reading the above article, write a case study analysis that describes the micro and mesosystems of each child discussed. For each of the 5 individuals highlighted, discuss their individual dimensions, variables from their microsystems and mesosystems, and how their systems' connecting relationships affect how they cope with bullying.

Use the case study analyses and what you know about an adolescent's physical, cognitive, and emotional/social development to provide suggestions to human services professionals when working with bullying among children.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Survivors of School Bullying: A Collective Case Study Octavio Ramirez This article explores the coping strategies of five junior-high school students with a history of peer victimization and how those strategies help them manage the effects of buUying. The data were collected using observations, interviews, and a review of school records. The data were analyzed using categorical aggregation, direct interpretation, constant comparison, and identification of patterns. On analysis, the following categories emerged from the data: identification of supportive systems, in-class strategies, premonition and environmental analysis, thought cessation and redirection, and masking. These categories were amalgamated into two general patterns: preventive and reactive strategies. The results of the study show that although the strategies helped participants to cope with the immediate effects ofbullying, they did not exempt participants firom the psychological and emotional implications of peer victimization. KEY WORDS; bullying; coping skills; school; survivors; victims T o examine the growing problem ofbullying in schools, it may be helpful to view the issue from the penpective of the victim and observe how children use various coping strategies to overcome the painful effects of bullying (Hunter & Boyle, 2004). It can also help us understand the implications behind the various strategies (Hunter, Boyle, &c Warden, 2002). This collective case study explored the coping strategies of five junior high school students and how effective those strategies were in dealing with the pejorative effects of school bullying. The findings of this study are of great importance to school social workers because most schoolwide antibuUying programs have yielded limited success, and some have failed altogether (Newman-Carlson & Home, 2004). Moreover, studies have shown that not all coping strategies generate positive outcomes (Kanetsuna, Smith, & Morita, 2006; MahadyWüton, Craig, & Pepler, 2000). Therefore, the aim of this study was to idendfy the various coping mechanisms used by the participants of the study, describe how those strategies were iniplemented, and discuss the immediate implications of using those strategies. Although it cannot be easuy defined, for the purposes of this study, bullying is physical, psychological, or verbal intimidation or attack that is meant to cause distress or harm to an intended victim (Mizell-Christie, 2003). Bullying is a problem doi: 10.1093/cs/cdtOOl « 2 0 1 3 National Association of Social Workers that nearly everyone can relate to, whether as a bully, a victim, or a bystander (Orpinas, Home, & Staniszewski, 2003). In 2010, approximately 2.7 million children were bullied. The problem ofbullying in schools has been notoriously linked to school shootings and suicide attempts (Bullying Statistics, 2010). Coupled with the recent proliferation of cyberbullying, which is the "use of information and communication technologies with the intent to harm others" (Li, 2007, p. 1779), and the tepid success of schoolwide antibuUying programs, children must rely on coping strategies to overcome depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, feelings of vengeance, nightmares, and so forth (Bond, Carlin, Thomas, Rubin, & Patton 2001; Bosworth, Espelage, & Simon, 1999; Storch, Brassard, & Masia-Wamer, • 2003; Van der Wal, de Wit, & Hirasing, 2003). There are numerous coping strategies used by children to regulate the Stressors ofbullying. These strategies can be grouped into two distinct clusters: problem-solving strategies that de-escalate and resolve conflicts, and aggressive strategies that perpetuate and escalate them (Mahady-Wüton et al., 2000). Examples of problem-solving strategies include acquiescence, avoidance, and instrumental coping skills. Children who use instrumental coping sküls attempt to befriend btdlies in hopes of decreasing the attacks. They also seek support from family members, friends, teachers, or caregivers (Mahady-Wilton et al., 2000). 93 When asked about using problem-solving strategies, children responded; "I ignore it, put up with it, forget it, cope on my own, hope it would stop, bottle it up, tell them it hurts, ask them to stop" (Cowie, 2000). Although it has been found that children who use the avoidance method tend to have more problems adjusting (Causey & Dubow, 1993), avoidance has also been found to de-escalate and reduce bullying. The outcome is dependent on the bully, the setting, and the type of bullying experienced (Hunter et al., 2002; Kanetsuna et al., 2006; Kristensen & Smith, 2003). Conversely, agressive coping strategies involve verbal and physical retaliation by the victim. Boys have a tendency to use this strategy when they themselves have experienced ph)^ical abuse (Andreou, 2001). Girls prefer to use avoidance and intemalization when they have experienced physical and verbal abuse (Roecker, Dubow, & Donaldson, 1996). When asked about the use of aggressive strategies, children responded, "I hit them back, beat them, threatened to get my big brother, shout back, and threaten to tell the teacher" (Cowie, 2000). There are differences in the use of coping strategies at different academic levels. For example, elementary school children are inclined to share their experiences with caregivers and teachers, whereas secondary school children depend on self-reliance (Borg, 1998), with the exception of girls, who have been found to share their experiences with friends (Griffith & Dubow, 1993; Hunter & Boyle, 2004;Laursen, 1993). As children grow older, it becomes more challenging for them to share their experiences with adults. This is because they either lose confidence in themselves or believe the bullying will become worse (Kanetsuna et al., 2006). However, this has not been the case with children who care for a parent with a disability. It was found that these children shared their experiences with ease. It is believed that the bond established between them contributes to this phenomenon (Polkki, Ervast, & Huupponen, 2004). Another problem-solving strategy that has shown promise in alleviating the effects of bullying is forgiveness. Forgiveness has been known to placate vengeful feelings (Egan & Todorov, 2009). Children who have been victimized have a natural tendency to feel angry or depressed and often develop vengeful thoughts. Forgiveness is a strategy that has been known to help manage feelings of 94 shame, humiliation, embarrassment, vengeance, and low self-esteem. The biggest advantage of forgiveness is that it has been found to help children manage their shame by acknowledging their feelings rather than displacing them (Ahmed & Braithwaite, 2004). Foi^veness, as proposed in this context, does not mean denying, ignoring, minimizing, tolerating, condoning, or forgetting the offense (Witvliet, Ludwig, & VanderLaan, 2001). Rather, it is viewed as a source of strength. Although research has indicated that children who are victimized use problem-solving and agressive coping strategies to overcome the effects of school bullying (Hunter & Boyle, 2004; Naylor, Cowie, & del Rey, 2001; Salmivalli, Karhunen, & Lagerspetz, 1996), this study adds to the existing body of knowledge by depicting how participants use their coping strategies to successfully get through the school day. METHOD The collective case study design was selected because it allowed for detailed, extensive data collection through multiple sources of information. In this study, the researcher observed the participants in their natural setting, conducted interviews, and analyzed their progress through a review of their academic records. Five cases were selected, and the researcher became immersed in the lives of the participants. The participants of the study were selected on the basis of a history of peer victimization. The school principal made the initial referral. The participants' caregivers corroborated the referral and their academic records supported it. According to Drake and Jonson-Reid (2007), the number of participants selected for this study is appropriate for this qualitative tradirion. The intent of this study was not to generalize the findings or to theorize them or to reach saturarion; the intent was to explore the intrinsic value that each of these participants could contribute through their experiences. The focus on reliability was not on acquiring similar results but on assuring consistency in the process. The use of triangulation served to strengthen the reliability of the data, by using interviews, observations, and a review of school records, for example. Validity was attained by the measures taken to assure the participants were students who had a history of peer victimization. The participants consisted of two female AfricanAmerican, one male Hispanic, one female Hispanic, Children &Schools VOLUME 35, NUMBER X APRIL 2013 and one female African American. AH of the participants attended an inner-city charter school in the northeastern part of the United States. Anonymity was used to protect their idendty. Ricardo is an 11-year-old male Hispanic in the seventh grade. He is a timid, aloof child who suffers from dyspraxia, an inability to perform coordinated movements (Miyahara & Baxter, 2011). Although Ricardo made continuous efforts to be accepted by bullies, they continue to attack him both verbally and physically. Ricardo lives with his mother and two sisters, and he has regular contact with his father. He enjoys watching movies, playing video games, and playing sports with his friends. Aaron is a 13-year-old male African American in the seventh grade. He is gregarious and has an outgoing personality. Aaron was diagnosed with a specific learning disability several years ago. Bullies attack him verbally and physically and often focus on his conspicuous overbite. Aaron resides with his mother in a three-bedroom house. He has no contact with his father and enjoys playing football and basketball and riding his bicycle. Tammie is a 12-year-old female African American in the sixth grade. She is shy, quiet, and sensitive. Bullies focus their attacks on her weight. They laugh and call her names. According to school records, Tammie has a history of transferring schools because of the bullying. She has no siblings and lives v^ath her mother. Tammie has no contact with her father. She enjoys spending time on Facebook, watching cartoons, and playing board games. Sandra is a 12-year-old female African American in the sixth grade. She was diagnosed with a specific leaming disability. Sandra resides with her older brother and grandmother. Although her mother lives in the same town, Sandra has no contact with her. Sandra experiences verbal and physical abuse at school. Bullies call her names like "dirty, stinky, homeless, and nappy." Sandra enjoys watching comedy programs on television and playing with her dog. Iris is a 13-year-old female Hispanic in the seventh grade. As with Tammie, bullies often focus on her weight. They call her names like "big mama, bus, and house." Iris is quiet and aloof. She resides with her mother and younger sister in a threebedroom house. Iris has daily contact with her father and feels supported by him. She enjoys watching comedy programs on television and listening to R6iB music on the radio. RAMIREZ / Survivors of School Bullying: A Collective Case Study Prior to the study, each of the participants' caregivers provided informed consent. In addition, permission to conduct the study was granted by the board of trustees of the charter school where the children were enrolled. The first method used to coUect the data was field observations. Bach participant was observed in structured settings, like classrooms or the lunchroom, and in nonstructured settings like hallways, bathrooms, and the schoolyard. According to Cowie (2000), bullying attacks are more prevalent in nonstructured settings. Therefore, additional observation time was spent in those areas. The researcher used the role of the complete observer because it limited the possibility of the Hawthome effect (Babbie, 2010). Although the participants were cognizant of the study, they were unaware they were being observed for the purpose of the study. The participants viewed the researcher as a staff member at the school and, therefore, maintained their normal behavior. Observations occurred for six months, four hours a day. The researcher recorded the time spent observing each participant to ensure an equal amount of time. A standard protocol was used to record the observations (CresweU, 2006). The protocol was used to record the names of the participants, the setting, the time, the date, and the duration of the observation. It also aUowed the researcher the opportunity to record the emic and etic perspective (Tripp-Reimer, 2007). In addition to conducting observations, the researcher interviewed each of the participants for approximately 60 to 90 minutes in an office at the school. The researcher explained the purpose and significance of the study to the participants, and a standard protocol was used to guide the interviews. Each protocol contained six structured and 14 nonstructured questions. The following are examples of the questions asked: "When you are in class and you are being attacked, what do you think about?" "How do you respond to buUies who are verbally attacking you?" "How do you respond to buUies who are physically attacking you?" Each interview was recorded, transcribed verbatim, and uploaded to the software NVivo for analysis. The NTVivo program helped the researcher analyze the text and identify categories, themes, and supportive quotes. The program also provided an organized storage filing system whereby cases could be easily retrieved (CresweU, 2006). 95 A thorough review of the participants' academic records was another useful method of data analysis. Each record contained the foUowing information: performance evaluations, attendance history, assessment reports, and copies of disciplinary actions. None of the files were removed from the school, and the researcher limited the analysis to the information pertinent to the study. Once all of the data were collected, the researcher used the process of "coding up" (Drake & Jonson-Reid, 2007). The researcher read the transcripts from the interviews, reviewed the information from the observational protocols, and used the academic records to identify content units. Once these units were identified, the researcher was able to develop a coding scheme and use the NVivo software to determine categories and themes. teacher permission to go to the bathroom . . . I use the opportunity to leave the area" (Iris). Sandy used another tactic, getting the teacher's attention to end the bullying: "What I do is caU the teacher and ask a question; when I do that, the buUying stops." Two other strategies were identified and were found to help the participants in the classroom. The first method consisted of talking quiedy to a classmate while the teacher provided instruction, and the other was to request permission fiï)m the teacher to leave the classroom and go see the resource teacher. Although the first strategy helped the participants ignore the attacks, it also raised the likelihood of being reprimanded by the teacher for talking without permission. Due to their disabilities, Sandra and Aaron were the only participants eligible to receive assistance from the resource teacher. Hence, they were the only ones who reported using this strategy. FINDINGS The foUowing categories emerged from the data: identification of supportive s)^tems, in-class strategies, premonition and environmental analysis, thought cessation and redirection, and masking. The fiRt category, identification of supportive systems, described how participants use instrumental coping skills to deal with the effects of buUying. Tammie found a classmate to help her cope with the bullying: "When bullies say ugly things to me, I get quiet and go to my ftiend. He always makes me laugh." Iris identified a teacher: "My social studies teacher does not allow kids to attack me. She moves them away from me." Sandra admitted that there were times when her teacher was not aware of the buUying, but because she had established a relationship with her teacher, Sandra saw her as a source of support. In addition to classmates and teachers, participants also identified family members as buffers against the negative effects of bullying. Ricardo reported, "When a bully pushes me around, I go home and tell niy mother; she meets with the principal, and the buUying stops." Sandra said, "My grandmother teUs me not to let anyone push me around. If I have to defend myself, to do it, she wiU support me." The ability to rely on instrumental coping skiUs helped the participants feel supported and protected by the people they trust. Participants who used these skills understood that the individuals who they had identified would believe them and not trivialize their feelings. Further, the participants reported using in-class strategies as weU: "When bullies attack me in class, I raise my hand and ask the Another reported problem-solving strategy was premonition. Ricardo used premonition as a way to prevent stacks. Ricardo reported expetiencing a "weird feeling" prior to being attacked. Although he was unable to fully articulate this feeling, he realized it made him aware of impending danger, saying "There are times when students wiU surprise me and attack me, but for the most part I have a weird feeling that something is going to happen." l^cardo understood that identifying this feeling and responding to it helped him avoid imminent attacks. However, when this feeling was ignored, Ricardo suffered the consequences. Another tactic, analysis of the surrounding environment, was found to be useful to the participants. Aaron used this coping strategy whenever bystanders would provoke or incite buUies, "When I see that bystanders are instigating buUies, or I think there's a good chance that I wUl be attacked, I look for a way to leave the area." Although leaving the area contributed to Aaron's feelings of shame and humiliation, he preferred to face those feeUngs rather than experience the physical abuse. Sandra and Iris reported using thought cessation and redirection. This strategy helped suppress and redirect negative thinking: "When a bully verbaUy attacks me, 1 think about other t h i n g s . . . 1 make up things in my mind like a squirrel chasing a bug—I know it sounds strange, but it helps me ignore what buUies are saying" (Sandra). Iris reported, "When bullies say ugly things to me, I think about my favorite TV show and it makes me feel better." At times redirection would take a few seconds, other 96 Children & Schools VOLUME 35, NUMBER 2 APWL 2013 times a few minutes. The success of this technique varied widely depending on the setting, the buUy, and the type of bullying. The last category to emerge from the interviews was masking, or hiding true feelings. This coping strategy helped Sandra and Aaron to regulate their emotions by reacting and behaving in a manner that was contrary to the expected behavior. Both participants reported smiling or laughing in the midst of being verbally attacked: "When bullies tease me and others laugh, I also laugh—I don't laugh because I think is funny, I laugh because it helps them stop when they see I'm not getting mad" (Aaron). Sandra said, "sometimes I smile when bullies talk about my hair. This helps them see that I'm not bothered by what they are saying." Aaron used this strategy with bullies who were physically bigger and stronger than he was. Moreover, both Aaron and Sandra reported that masking lessened the likelihood that the verbal attacks became physical ones. In addition to the information derived from the interviews, the researcher collected information from the observational protocols (Babbie, 2010). From the protocols, it was determined that participants preferred to be accompanied by their friends during nonsupervised times of the school day (Aaron, Iris, and Sandra). This highlights their ability to use relationships as a coping mechanism. Furthermore, the observation showed that none of the participants intentionally provoked or elicited the attacks. Ricardo, Aaron, Sandra, and Tammie all attempted to befriend bullies, either by wanting to be included in recreational activities, sitting at the same table for lunch, or seeking to participate in group projects. Unfortunately, the buUies showed no interest. The academic records of the participants showed that Sandra, Iris, Tammie, Ricardo, and Aaron's grades suffered as a result of high absenteeism. One of the reasons for the high absenteeism was the use of aggressive coping strategies. When Sandra, Tammie, Iris, and Ricardo responded aggressively to buUies, they received the same disciplinary consequences as the bullies. The records indicate that aU of the participants maintained average to below-average grades, including Aaron and Sandra who have learning disabilities. All of the coping strategies identified in this study feU under two general patterns: preventive and reactive. Preventive strategies are ones that help participants avoid attacks, and reactive strategies help RAMIREZ / Survivors of School Bullying: A Collective Case Study participants respond adequately to the attacks. Premonition and environmental analysis fall under the pattern of preventive strategies, whereas reactive strategies include thought cessation and redirection, identification of supportive sources within the environment, and in-class strategies. CONCLUSION In addition to having a history of peer victimization, the participants of this study typified characteristics of passive or provocative victims (Olweus, 1993). Some were shy, aloof, and introverted (Ricardo, Iris, and Tammie); others had physical limitations such as obesity or a motor imbalance (Tammie, Aaron, and Iris). Hence, buUies did not perceive them as a threat and proceeded with the attacks. Sandra, Iris, Tammie, and Ricardo aU used instrumental coping skiUs as a means for dealing with buUying at school. The implementation of these skills included seeking the support of classmates, family members, and teachers. This strategy aUowed them to express their anxiety, concems, and fears to the people they trusted. It also helped them see that they did not have to suffer through the victimization alone; they had support. Sandra and Iris used the thought cessation coping strategy to suppress negative thinking, and redirection to integrate positive thinking. This skill helped them minimize feelings of sadness and depression. In the classroom. Iris and Sandra used several problem-solving strategies to fend off buUy attacks. The girls would get the attention of the teacher in the midst of an attack and either request permission to go to the restroom or to see the resource teacher. These strategies helped limit the attacks within the classroom. Bjcardo reported that he often experienced a "weird feeling," which he could not describe. When he recognized this feeling, he immediately left the area because he viewed it as a harbinger of impending danger. Sandra and Aaron reported using reaction formation (Corey, 2009), a defense mechanism that can also be referred to as masking. Although this strategy can reduce the intensity and length of the attacks. Causey and Dubow (1993) found that children who used this method had difficulty adjusting. Although many of these strategies helped participants prevent attacks or respond to them more effectively, they did not shield the participants 97 from depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem that result from being the victim ofa bully. Moreover, these strategies did not suppress the bullying. Whether the participants showed characteristics of a passive or provocative victim (Olweus, 1993), they continued to experience bullying. The use of instrumental coping strategies by the participants supports previous fmdings (Hunter et al., 2002; Naylor et al., 2001; Smith, 2004). Although Hunter and Boyle (2004) found that girls were more inclined to seek assistance than boys, and Kristensen and Smith (2003) found that students in junior-high school preferred to use selfreliance rather than seek outside assistance, in the present study, l^cardo and Aaron used the identification and utilization of assistance as a coping strategy. In his 2001 study, Andreou found that boys who had experienced verbal and physical bullying relied on their friends as a reactive coping strategy, but in this study l^cardo reported using his peers as a means to prevent the bullying, especially, in times of minimal supervision. RECOMMENDATIONS School social workers are in an excellent position to identify and reinforce problem-solving skills. According to the findings of this study, instrumental coping strategies (Mahady-Wilton et al., 2000) such as seeking support from parents, teachers, and friends helped decrease tbe intensity of the attacks while providing an opportunity for participants to share their experiences with individuals they trusted. Moreover, school social workers can use psychoeducational approaches to teach students the benefits of thought cessation and redirection. Thought cessation and redirection are established methods of intervention used in cognitive—behavioral therapy (McKay, Davis, & Fanning, 2011), yet some of the participants already use this approach to cope with the effects ofbuUying. School social workers can teach students to use simple in-class techniques such as getting the attention of the teacher, requesting permission to use the bathroom, or seeking the assistance of a resource teacher to avoid attacks by bullies. In addition, social workers can suggest strategies to teachers, like changing student seating, speaking to students privately, reinforcing their positive qualities in front of the classroom, referring them for individual counseling, and serving as advocates during disciplinary conferences. 98 It is important to note that masking, like any other defense mechanism, has both short- and iong-temi implications. However, the participants in this study saw the immediate benefits of it. School social workers can help children understand the immediate benefits and the long-term implications of using such a strategy. Finally, it is recommended that future research focus on comprehending the long-term effects of using these problem-solving and aggressive coping strategies. S REFERENCES Ahmed, E., & Braithwaite, V. (2004). "What, me ashamed?" Shame management and school bullying. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41, 269-294. Andreou, E. (2001). Bully/victim problem and their association with coping behavior in conflictual peer interaction among school-age children. Educational Psychology, 21(1), 59-66. Babbie, E. (2010). Tlie practice of social research (12th ed.). Wadsworth: Cenage Learning, Inc. Bond, L., Carlin, J. B., Thomas, L, Rubin, K., & Patton, G. (2001). Does bullying cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers. British Medical Journal, 323, 480-485. Borg, M. G. (1998). The emotional reactions of school bullies and their victims. Educational Psychology, 18, 433-445. Bosworth, K., Espelege, D. L., & Simon, T. (1999). Factors associated with bullying behavior in middle school stuóenxs. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 341-362. Bullying Statistics. (2010). Retrieved from www. bullyingstatisti cs.org/content/bullying-statistics-2010. html. Causey, D. L., & Dubow, E. F. (1993). Negotiating the transition to junior high school: The contributions of coping strategies and perceptions of the school environment. Prevention in Human Services, 10, 59-81. Corey, G. (2009). Tlieory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Wadsworth: Cengage Learning, Inc. Covvie, H. (2000). Bystanders or standing by: Gender issues in coping with bullying in English schools. Agressive Behavior, 26, 85-97. Creswell,J. W. (2006). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing amongfiveapproaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Drake, B., & Jonson-Reid, M. (2007). Social work research methods: From conceptualization to dissemination. Boston: Allyn& Bacon. Egan, L. A., & Todorov, N. (2009). Forgiveness as a coping strategy to allow school students to deal with the effects of being bullied: Theoretical and empirical discussion. Joimifl/ ofSocial & Clinical Psychology, 28, 198-222. Griffith, M. A., & Dubow, E. F. (1993). Adolescents coping with family, school, and peer Stressors. Paper presented at the 101st meeting of the American Psychological Association. Hunter, S. C, & Boyle, J.M.E. (2004). Appraisal and coping strategy use in victims of school bullying. British Jourttal of Educational Psychology, 74, 83-107. Hunter, S. C , Boyle, J.M.E., & Warden, D. (2002). Help seeking amongst child and adolescent victims of peeraggression and bullying: Tlte infiuence of school-stage, gender, victimization, appraisal, and emotion. Paper presented Children &SchooU VOLUME 35, NUMBER 2 APRIL 2013 Implications for emotions, physiology, and health. at the British Psychological Society, Developmental Psychological Science, 12, 117-123. Section Conference, University of Sussex. Kanetsuna, T., Smith, P. K., & Morita, Y. (2006). Coping with bullying at school: Children's recommended Octavio Ramirez, PhD, is associate professor, Oakwood strategies and attitudes to school-based interventions in University, 7000 Adventist Boulevard NW, Huntsvilte, AL England and Japan. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 570—580. 35896; e-mail: oramirez@oakwood.edu. Kristensen, S. M., & Smith, P. K. (2003). The use of coping strategies by Danish children classed as bullies, victims, Original manuscript received January 15. 2012 bully/victims, and not involved, in response to differFinai revision received Aprii 5.2012 ent (hypothetical) types of bullying. Scandinavian JourAccepted Juiy 6. 2012 nal of Psychology, 44, 479-488. Advance Access Publication Aprii 12. 2013 Laursen, B. (1993). Conflict management among close peers. In B. Laursen (Ed.), Close friendships in adolescence (pp. 39—54). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Li, Q. (2007). New botde but old wine: A research of cyberbuUying in schools. Computers in Human Behavior, 23,1777-1791. Mahady-Wilton, M. M., Craig, W. M, & Pepler, D. J. (2000). Emotional regulation and display in classroom victims of bullying: Characteristics expressions of affect, coping styles and relevant contextual factors. Social Development, 9, 226-245. McKay, M., Davis, M., & Fanning, P. (2011). Thoughts and feelings: Taking control of your moods & your life (4th ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. Miyahara, M., & Baxter, G. (2011). Children with "dyspra.xia": A survey of diagnostic heterogeneity, use and perceived effectiveness of interventions. JoMma/ of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 23, 439—458. Mizell-Christie, A. (2003). Bullying: The consequences of inter-parental discord and child's self-concept. Family Process, 42, 237-252. Naylor, P., Cowie, H., & del Rey, R. (2001). Coping stratPRACTICE HIGHLIGHTS egies of secondary school children in response to being bullied. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 6, hare your practice experience provid114-120. ing exemplary services to individuals Newman-Carlson, D., & Home, A. M. (2004). Bully busters: A psychoeducational intervention for reducing and families in school settings, especially bullying behavior in middle-school students. Jowmn/ of involving interdisciplinary collaboradon. Counseling and Development, 82, 259—267. Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what Provide a brief review of the literature we can do. Maiden, MA: Blackwell. and tell how what you did builds on Orpinas, P., Home, A. M., & Staniszewski, D. (2003). it, describe your program, and indicate School bullying: Changing the problem by changing the school. School Psychology Review, 32, 431—445. what you learned from your experience. Polkki, P., Ervast, S. A., & Huupponen, M. (2004). Coping Articles should be typed double-spaced and resilience of children of a mentally ill parent. Social and no longer than six pages. Send your Work in Health Care, 39{\-2), 151-163. Roecker, C. E., Dubow, E. F., & Donaldson, D. (1996). Practice Highlights column as a Word Cross-situational patterns in children's coping with document through the online portal at observed interpersonal conflict. JoMma/ of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 288-299. http://cs.msubmit.net (initial, one-time Salmivalli, C , Karhunen, J., & Lagerspetz, K.MJ. (1996). registration is required). How do the victims respond to bullying? Aggressive Behavior, 22, 99-109. Smith, P. K. (2004). Bullying: Recent developments. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 9, 98-103. Storch, E. A., Brassard, M. R., & Masia-Wamer, C. L. (2003). The relationship of peer victimization to social anxiety and loneliness in adolescence. Child Study Journal, 33(1), 1-18. Tripp-Reimer, T. (2007). Reconceptualizing the construct of health: Integrating emic and etic perspectives. Research in Nursing & Health, 7, 101-109. Van der Wal, M. F., de Wit, C. A., & Hirasing, R. A. (2003). Psychosocial health among young victims and offenders of direct and indirect bullying. Pediatrics, JJi, 1312-1318. Witvliet, C.V.O., Ludwig, T. E., & VanderLaan, K. L. (2001). Granting forgiveness or harboring grudges: S RAMIREZ / Survivors ofSchool Bullying: A Collective Case Study 99 Copyright of Children & Schools is the property of National Association of Social Workers and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
Purchase answer to see full attachment
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Explanation & Answer

Hello! I have uploaded the ...


Anonymous
Just what I needed. Studypool is a lifesaver!

Studypool
4.7
Indeed
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4

Related Tags