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Develop a short paper critically analyzing key points from the assigned chapters. “Critical Thinking involves analysis, evaluation, and a synthesizing of facts, ideas, opinions, and theories” (Jones, 2013, para. 1).

Papers will be 3-4 pages in length, and must follow APA guidelines (The cover/title/reference pages do NOT count as content pages; no extra spacing between paragraphs; and plagiarized content earns a zero grade-you must cite all sources). Students will utilize content from the textbook, and can also use articles, journals, or other resources covered in the course to support your papers. (Note: Wikipedia is not a scholarly source). Topics covered: Week 1) Emotional Intelligence; Diversity & Intercultural Communication, week 2) What is Leadership Communication; The Language of Leaders, week 3) Leadership Communication Purpose, Strategy & Structure; Using Social Media.

  • Title/cover page
  • Introduction
  • Content/Critical Thinking Analysis: Identify 3-4 key elements from textbook chapters assigned for weeks 1, 2, 3 and summarize in this paper. Provide examples of how these concepts/models/theories apply to you and your organization-justify your opinions with supporting facts and documentation.
  • Summary/Conclusion

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474990 rnal of Business CommunicationKeyton et al. 2013 JOB50210.1177/0021943612474990Jou Investigating Verbal Workplace Communication Behaviors Journal of Business Communication 50(2) 152­–169 © 2013 by the Association for Business Communication Reprints and permission: DOI: 10.1177/0021943612474990 Joann Keyton1, Jennifer Marie Caputo2, Emily Anne Ford2, Rong Fu2, Samantha A. Leibowitz2, Tingting Liu2, Sarah S. Polasik2, Paromita Ghosh2, and Chaofan Wu3 Abstract This two-part study with working adults examines which communication behaviors occur at work and how these communication behaviors are evaluated. Through an analysis of organizational communication publications (articles, organizational case studies, textbooks), the authors identified 343 communication behaviors; sorting analysis reduced this list to 163 verbal communication behaviors used in the workplace. In Study 1, using an online survey, 126 working adults identified which of these communication behaviors had been heard or observed the previous day in the workplace. Forty-four communication behaviors were identified by 50% or more of the participants, indicating their frequent use in the workplace. In Study 2, 331 working adults evaluated their effectiveness on the 44 verbal communication behaviors. Factor analysis reduced that list to 36 verbal workplace communication behaviors composed of four factors: information sharing, relational maintenance, expressing negative emotion, and organizing communication behaviors. The Workplace Communication Behavior Inventory is presented. Keywords workplace communication, communication effectiveness, communication competence, verbal communication behaviors 1 The Ohio State University, USA North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA 3 Senior Account Director at Ogilvy & Mather (Beijing) 2 Corresponding Author: Joann Keyton, North Carolina State University, Box 8104, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA Email: Keyton et al. 153 The shift in blue-collar to white-collar employment, increases in temporary and contingent employment, globalization, and use of technology have put greater emphasis on employees’ “interpersonal skills and the ability to collaborate” in teams (Barley & Kunda, 2001, p. 77). As a result, communication appears on lists of skills employers seek. Employers expect employees to be effective communicators and rate employees for their communicative performances. It is not surprising, then, that employers rank oral communication skills among the top three most valued applied skills; yet employers rate new graduates at all levels as largely deficient (The Conference Board, 2009). Buried within these rankings and evaluations is an overgeneralized view of communication, as large-scale surveys tend to lump all types of communication tasks into one category of oral communication (see, e.g., Maes, Weldy, & Icenogle, 1997). This two-part project was developed to identify what communication behaviors are routinely used at work and how employees evaluate these communication behaviors. Knowing which verbal communication behaviors are routinely used at work would allow training (see, e.g., Brown et al., 2010) and job performance evaluations to be more specifically focused and for communication planning to improve organizational effectiveness (see, e.g., Riedlinger, Gallois, McKay, & Pittam, 2004). Furthermore, knowing which communication behaviors employees use routinely and effectively could be of benefit when supervisors promote employees to take on additional communication tasks, as communication requirements of new job roles may be different (see Kramer & Noland, 1999). To determine which verbal communication behaviors are commonly used, we first need to establish the relationship between communication skills and work tasks. Communication skills are sought and valued. Skills are what people perform as behaviors (or not); tasks are what people are paid to do. When a communication skill is enacted at work, it then becomes a work task or activity. Such activities may include creating and facilitating relationships, accomplishing work goals, and influencing organizational or unit processes. Examining communication behaviors at work is further complicated because a work activity (e.g., selling a customer a car) may comprise several communication behaviors (e.g., establishing rapport, describing the product, persuading, following up). Defining Communication Behavior Communication behaviors are composed of acts, interacts, and double interacts, or sets of them (Fisher, 1980). Behaviors initiate a sequence of actions (or interactions) that work together to make progress (or regress) in reaching conversational goals. Thus, we assert that communication behaviors (a) are inherently social, (b) are used to engage in relationships with other members of the organization, and (c) link micro actions of individuals to macro communication patterns and collective structures. Indeed, communication scholars (e.g., Bisel, 2010) argue that communication is necessary for the organizing of any organization to take place and that we should not assume that more communication is equated with better communication. That is, 154 Journal of Business Communication 50(2) communicating at work is an intersubjective sensemaking process (Weick, 1979) as it occurs in a context bound by formal and informal workplace relationships and societal and organizational cultures. As such, employee communication behaviors are work, or contribute to the accomplishment of work. For example, Gronn (1983) illustrates that managers’ talk with subordinates is the administrative work with which they are charged. Likewise, King (2003) explains, “Talk in organizations drives action within organizations” (p. 1206). To understand these processes of communication as work, we argue that the focus should be on behaviors or tasks, the smallest unit of communication to complete work. We believe that by focusing on communication behavior rather than attitudes about communication behavior, we can move closer to a descriptive, and potentially predictive, model of workplace communication work behavior, which can be used to develop meaningful skill-oriented training and performance evaluation. Whether implicitly or explicitly, communication behaviors at work are evaluated formally or informally by others and often self-evaluated. Employees are expected to communicate effectively by those they communicate with or on behalf of. After all, individuals are active agents and their behaviors are driven by motivations that are inherently efficacious (Bandura, 2008). Furthermore, social cognitive theory would posit that people acquire new behavior patterns by observing behaviors in others, using these models as guides, and self-correcting their own behavior once enacted on the basis of social feedback and outcome achievement. An important premise of Bandura’s conceptualization is that behaviors can be taught, learned, and improved. Like all communication behaviors, communication in organizations is socially learned (e.g., mentoring, shadowing, vicarious learning) and often taught in organizational training programs. Communication Competence at Work Communication competence is communication effectiveness. The construct is often modified as relational competence and communicator competence and has attracted considerable attention within the interpersonal communication literature. Three major models of studying competence exist. The first is the trait model, which views competence as relatively enduring personality dispositions. This model presumes that socially competent behavior is largely a function of personal dispositions (e.g., Steffen, Greenwald, & Langmeyer, 1979), often expressed as communication traits, such as empathy and attentiveness (Wiemann, 1977). The second grounds competence as functional communication (see Burleson, 2007). From this perspective, communication competence is composed of message production (e.g., generating verbal messages), message processing (e.g., interpreting communication from others), interaction coordination (e.g., synchronizing communication in interaction with others), and social perception (e.g., using communication to make sense of social reality). An example of this view of competence is evidenced in Downing’s (2011) study of call center agents. In this instance, communication competency focuses on how agents Keyton et al. 155 speak (e.g., with confidence, at an appropriate volume, with emphasis) rather than what communication behaviors (e.g., listening, asking questions) are required to be competent at work. Similarly, Sharbrough, Simmons, and Cantrill (2006) operationalized communication competency “as a supplemental, related measure of a supervisor’s ability to communicate” (p. 326; e.g., “My immediate supervisor has a good command of the language). The third, and most central to this study, is the interpersonal skill model, which assumes that any communication behavior a person manifests can be carried out repeatedly as underlying motor sequences or interpersonal skills (e.g., McFall, 1982; Spitzberg, 2003). Researchers of this line investigate the development of behavioral repertoire, awareness of social norms, and ability to choose effective behaviors from alternatives (Eisler & Fredericksen, 1980). From this perspective, listening, cueing, and negotiation skills have been considered essential to effective communication (Cushman & Craig, 1976), whereas problem-solving, role-taking, and efficient information processing skills facilitate social competence (Meichehaum et al., 1981). Arguing that “competence can be viewed as an evaluative judgment of the quality of a skill,” Spitzberg (2003, p. 97) successfully shifts the focus of communication behaviors from cognitive intentions and motivation and psychological traits to a more behavioral perspective—the ability to perform as well as knowledge of how to perform (Spitzberg & Cupach, 1984; Spitzberg & Hurt, 1987). Two frequently cited competence measurements reflect this shift. Communicator Competence Questionnaire (CCQ; Monge, Bachman, Dillard, & Eisenberg, 1982) was one of the first to adapt communication competence to an organizational context. Monge et al. (1982) noted that communication competence involves a “performance-based perspective” and “that the fundamental proposition underlying virtually all communicator competence research is that competent communicators are those who are effective at achieving their goals” (p. 506). The second instrument, Relational Competence Scale (RCS; Cupach & Spitzberg, 1981), is developed as a situated measure of communicative competence in interpersonal conversation. It incorporates items that measure constructs including empathy, listening, interaction management, and communication anxiety. The RCS stresses the role of contextual factors on communication behaviors, which are overlooked by Monge et al. (1982). However, RCS has other methodological pitfalls. First, the stress on the subjective and evaluative judgment of the communication effectiveness overshadows the observability and measurability of the instrument items, which we believe are two of the main features of communication behaviors. For example, the items “I was a likable person” and “My facial expressions were abnormally blank and restrained” can hardly be self-observed by the communicator in a conversation. Second, the scale only measures if certain skills/abilities exist rather than how certain communication behaviors are performed and to what degree. In short, an oversimplification exists in the operationalization of encoding the competence construct, which decreases the measurability of the items. For example, the item “I was socially skilled” seems to be overly general and could be potentially confusing to the respondents (i.e., socially skilled at what?). 156 Journal of Business Communication 50(2) In short, intention and efficacy are pivotal in communication at work where conversation among employees and with stakeholders is meant to achieve outcomes with some degree of success. As Spitzberg and Cupach (1984) point out, “It is a contradiction to speak of communication competence without reference to communicative behaviors” (p. 96). Workplace Communication Behaviors: Foundational Assumptions This study explores which verbal communication behaviors are used in the workplace and extends the research path of communication competency from an interpersonally focused cognitive approach to a behavioral approach and situates the construct in the work environment. Our approach is guided by five foundational assumptions. First, verbal workplace communication behaviors should be conceptualized and operationalized as functional. To view communication as functional is to view the communication process as related to and productive of outcomes. Clark and Delia (1979) construct a tripartite schema of objectives that are served by communication. Communication affects individual goals (instrumental objective), relational status or goals (interpersonal objectives), and one’s sense of self (identity objective). These objectives, in turn, especially at work, suggest functional outcomes. Second, verbal workplace communication behaviors should be goal-directed, and regarded as intentional, rather than chance or unintentional. As Whiting (1975, p. 4) pointed out, “Whatever processes may be involved in human skill learning and performance, the concern is with intentional attempts to carry out motor acts, which will bring about predetermined results” (Hargie, 2006, p. 8). Third, verbal workplace communication behaviors should represent communication as being interactive, involving other people. Not only do we pursue our own goals but we also try to interpret the goals of the other person. Fourth, verbal workplace communication behaviors should be learnable; these behaviors are socially created and collectively agreed upon. Fifth, verbal workplace communication behaviors should be directly observable. This criterion is in contrast to a trait model of social skills (McFall, 1982), which treats social skills as a general, underlying personality characteristic, or response predisposition that cannot be directly observed. This criterion is important if verbal workplace communication behaviors are to be evaluated. Moreover, evaluation of effectiveness should be arrayed along a continuum, as there is no “minimal condition” threshold whereupon a person or conversation “becomes” competent (Shatz, 1977, p. 33). Thus, the objective of Study 1 is to identify which verbal workplace communication behaviors are routinely performed at work; the objective of Study 2 is to evaluate how effectively routinely used verbal workplace communication behaviors are performed. Studies of the latter often assume the former without investigating if the behaviors being evaluated are those frequently performed at work. We believe that multiple studies are required so as not to confound these two characteristics of communication at Keyton et al. 157 work. Study 1 describes the methods by which we developed the candidate items and the method by which employees selected them; Study 2 describes the methods by which we examined effectiveness of routinely used verbal workplace communication behaviors. Study 1 Methods Procedure. A review of recently published organizational communication undergraduate textbooks and references (e.g., Handbook of Organizational Communication) did not result in a list of communication tasks at work for use in a survey design. To create a list of communication behaviors at work, two authors identified 343 communication activities described in the cases of four published case books developed for use in organizational communication courses (Keyton & Shockley-Zalabak, 2006; May, 2006; Peterson, 1994; Sypher, 1997). Cases were read in their entirety; each communication behavior explicitly or implicitly described was noted on a card. These communication behaviors were augmented by what was identified in the textbook and reference literature (including organizational behavior and human resource references). This set was sorted into three stacks: (a) needs further investigation (N = 27), (b) not communication-oriented or were obvious repeats (N = 163), or (c) retained as communication-oriented (N = 156). The stacks were reviewed and six duplicates were removed, resulting in 150 communication behaviors used at work. Next, two authors examined the 150 behaviors to identify if an opposite or reciprocal behavior needed to be added (e.g., asking for instructions was included as a reciprocal for giving instructions). This process resulted in adding 15 new behaviors and deleting 2 duplicates, resulting in a total of 163 communication tasks. Three authors discussed each item in the following ways: (a) Is the item a communication activity (rather than cognitive activity)? (b) Does the item have a logical opposite (e.g., giving opinion, asking for opinion)? (c) Can it be stated more simply (e.g., objecting for making objections)? (d) Is the item a communication activity used at work? Of particular note was the first criterion. For example, the task of conforming was determined not to be necessarily communication oriented (e.g., one can conform outside the presence of others; one can conform to others without direct interaction; i.e., assume the same attitude of another without verbally acknowledging it). We found that when we asked “Is the item a communication activity” out loud, it created a conversation along the lines of “how would you communicate that?” We were also mindful to distinguish communication behaviors that required interdependence with another person and communication behaviors that were activities and not a trait. As a check to the development and phrasing of the items, all issues of Academy of Management Journal and Management Communication Quarterly (1990 to 2009) were reviewed. In creating the communication behavior list, an effort was made to have the terms in single word form when possible; more important was to include them in the form 158 Journal of Business Communication 50(2) that they were likely to be used (e.g., “being combative” was preferred over “combating,” “creating small talk” was preferred over “talking informally”). The team also decided not to include communication behaviors described as value judgments. For example, “misrepresenting” is a negative evaluation of how well one represents something and is essentially a value judgment. Differences between verb pairs, such as encouraging/ motivating and persuading/influencing, were also discussed. Consulting Levin’s (1993) classification of verbs, the team concurred that the first term in each pair is the verb of communication action; the second term is the effect of the verb in the other person. Thus, the first term in these and similar pairs was retained. After four separate meetings devoted to discussion and analysis of the tasks, the final list contained 166 items. Due to difficulty in describing nonverbal in textual presentations to research participants in an online survey, nonverbal actions were discarded. Theoretically, the choice was made to focus on communication at the verbal message unit; thus, tasks such as gesturing and making eye contact were not included in the final list. Measurement and participants. Snowball sampling and an online survey were used to reach participants who were currently employed full-time or part-time. One hundred and twenty-six respondents (female = 68.9%, N = 87; male = 31.1%, N = 39; M age = 35.74, SD = 11.80) completed the survey checking off the verbal workplace communication behaviors they heard or observed in the previous day of work. More than 90% of participants had college degrees, most (81.9%) worked full time; more than half (61.9%) did not supervise other employees. Respondents were nearly equally distributed among being in their current position 1 year or less (30.1%), 1 or 2 years (25.7%), 3 to 5 years (25.7%), or 6 years or more (18.6%). Respondents reported being in their current profession 1 year or less (11.5%), 1 or 2 years (20.4%), 3 to 5 years (20.4%), and 6 or more years (47.8%). The online survey comprised the following: (a) a required institutional review board consent form, (b) 6 screen displays to present the communication behaviors, and (c) requests for personal and occupational demographic items. The stimulus statement presented on each screen of communication behaviors read: “Thinking of your previous day at work and how others communicated, use the checklist and check off all of the behaviors you heard or observed.” Data were dichotomous (present or absent): a check indicated that the verbal workplace communication behavior was present. Results The number of verbal workplace communication behaviors participants reported as being heard or observed ranged from 5 to 158 (M = 63.90, SD = 34.97). In order of frequency, the top 10 communication behaviors reported were listening (84.13%), asking questions (81.75%), discussing (76.98%), sharing information (76.19%), agreeing (74.60%), suggesting (74.60%), getting feedback (73.81%), seeking feedback (73.81%), answering questions (71.43%), and explaining (69.84%). Table 1 displays 159 Keyton et al. Table 1. Study 1: 20 Most Frequently Identified Communication Behaviors Communication behaviors at work 1. Listening 2. Asking questions 3. Discussing 4. Sharing information 5. Agreeing 6. Suggesting 7. Getting feedback 8. Seeking feedback 9. Answering questions 10. Explaining 11. Cooperating 12. Creating small talk 13. Offering help 14. Revealing information 15. Making decisions 16. Seeking information 17. Showing respect 18. Giving feedback 19. Briefing others 20. Planning f % 106 103 97 96 94 94 93 93 90 88 85 84 84 84 82 81 81 80 79 79 84.13 81.75 76.98 76.19 74.60 74.60 73.81 73.81 71.43 69.84 67.46 66.67 66.67 66.67 65.08 64.29 64.29 63.49 62.70 62.70 the top 20 most frequently reported communication behaviors heard or observed by participants during the previous workday. Discussion The focus of Study 1 was identifying communication behaviors that occur at work and then narrowing that list to routinely occurring verbal communication workplace behaviors. A wide review of the organizational literature across different types of resources resulted in more than 300 tasks to consider as verbal communication workplace behaviors; through analytical refinement the list was reduced to 166. The 10 most frequently identified verbal communication workplace behaviors were (in order): listening, asking questions, discussing, sharing information, agreeing, suggesting, getting feedback, seeking feedback, answering questions, and explaining. At least two thirds of the respondents indicated that these communication behaviors were heard or observed the previous day at their workplace. Examining frequency of occurrence by demographic characteristics of respondents, very few significant differences were found1; thus, these communication behaviors are not only routinely used but appear 160 Journal of Business Communication 50(2) to be commonplace across work environments. By making these identifications, we believe there will be a stronger basis for making claims about what constitutes communication as work and help avoid the summative category of oral communication. Study 2 After developing the list of communication at work behaviors in Study 1, we sought to discover if routinely used verbal communication workplace behaviors had an internal structure, which could be used in an initial measure of communication competency at work. Our research questions were the following: Research Question 1: Are there structural properties to the list of verbal communication workplace behaviors identified in Study 1? Research Question 2: If so, to what degree are Monge’s communicator competence and Spitzberg and Cupach’s relational competence correlated with the internal structure of verbal communication workplace behaviors identified in Study 1? Methods Participants and procedures. The sample for Study 2 consisted of 331 participants (60.1% female, 33.2% males, 6.6% not identified); two thirds of participants (general subsample) were recruited by e-mail broadcast announcements and posted announcements on social networking sites and in public places. Participants recruited in this way were entered into a prize drawing in which they had a one in four chance of winning a $10 gift card to a national retailer (99 participants entered the drawing; 25 were randomly selected using a random numbers table). The remaining one third of the participants (organizational sample) received the survey link distributed by their organization. Both sets of participants read and agreed to a consent statement before completing an online survey composed of three scales and demographic questions. Participants reported a mean age of 37.34 years (SD = 11.34, range = 18-64). Participants reported an average of 5.73 years in work experience (SD = 6.97, range = 0.08 to 35.58) and reported working on average 42.84 hours per week (SD = 10.18, range = 4-90). Participants worked full-time (87.6%), and the jobs for which they evaluated their communication were related (76.1%) to their chosen careers. In comparing the subsamples, there were no significant differences in age or tenure; there were no statistical differences in sample proportions with regard to sex or working in their chosen profession. However, participants in the organizational sample worked significantly more hours (M = 45.12, SD = 8.04) than participants from the general sample (M = 41.75, SD = 10.91), and a significantly greater percentage (18%) of the general sample worked part-time as compared to the organizational sample, 4%; χ2(1) = 9.31, p = .002. Keyton et al. 161 Measures. For each of three sets of self-report items, participants were given the prompt: “Thinking of your most recent day at work, use the following statements to evaluate your communication at work.” Missing data were replaced with imputed mean scores. The Communication at Work Efficacy (CWE) measure was developed based on the results of Study 1. We included the 44 communication behaviors that 50% or more Study 1 respondents identified as having observed at their workplace. We further reduced the list to 43, as the communication task revealing information was judged as redundant with sharing information. Respondents were asked to rate themselves on how well they believed they performed these 43 communication behaviors on a 5 point Likert-type scale (excellent = 5, very good = 4, good = 3, fair = 2, poor = 1). Communication Work Efficacy was reliable (alpha = .96; M = 162.68; SD = 22.45; range 86.00 to 215.00). Monge et al.’s (1982) CCQ is a self-report measure of communicator competence at the workplace. The following adaptations were made to the original scale for the purpose of this study. The original response scale (YES! YES yes ? no NO NO!) was replaced with a 7-point semantic differential scale (strongly agree = 7, strongly disagree = 1). Example items include “typically gets right to the point” and “is a good listener.” Two nonverbal items (#7 and #12) were dropped as the present study focuses on verbal communication. The focus of the questions was changed from my subordinate to I as the present study focuses on self-evaluation. CCQ is composed of two subscales: encoding (6 items, α = .85; M = 34.54, SD = 5.22, range = 6-42) and decoding (4 items, α = .84; M = 23.63, SD = 3.64, range = 4-28). The two subscales were positively and highly correlated (r = .81, p < .01). Cupach and Spitzberg’s (1981) RCS is a self-report measure of communicative competence in a given conversation. We made the following changes to the original measure for the purpose of this study: Two items (#2 and #22) were dropped because the communicative behaviors they describe are not self-observable. Two items (#5 and #27) were rephrased to capture the behavioral aspect of communication, for example, the item “I was trustworthy” was reworded into “I was able to gain others’ trust,” as trustworthiness itself is not observable, but the result from acting in a trustworthy way could be observed. The item “I was socially skilled” (#12) was rephrased into “I was an appropriate communicator.” The term “socially skilled” seemed to be overly ambiguous and could be potentially confusing to the respondents, as changing it to “appropriate” would make it clearer that the item is referring to whether the communicator is communicating according to norms within this context. Only the selffocused portion of the measure was used in this study. The scale was reliable (α = .87; M = 90.72, SD = 11.69, range = 61-125). Results To answer Research Question 1, the 43 items of the Workplace Communication Behavior Inventory (WCBI; see Table 2) were subjected to an exploratory principal components analysis (PCA), as the intended factor structure was unclear (see Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure verified the 162 Journal of Business Communication 50(2) sampling adequacy for the analysis, KMO = .951; Bartlet’s test of sphericity, χ2(903) = 8927.49, indicated that correlations between items were sufficiently large for PCA. Scree plots suggested a minimal two-factor solution, but allowed for a four-factor analysis. Using PCA with oblique rotation, two-, three-, and four-factor solutions were computed and analyzed for interpretation. The four-factor solution was interpretable (i.e., eigenvalues were above 1.0; items loaded above .5; if items were cross loaded primary factor loadings exceeded secondary ones by at least .20. The four-factor solution, comprising 34 items, provided the most coherent interpretation, accounting for 40.98% (eigenvalue = 17.62), 5.50% (eigenvalue = 2.36), 4.64% (eigenvalue = 1.99), and 3.59% (eigenvalue = 1.54) of the variance, respectively. The first factor, information sharing, was composed of 20 items (α = .95); marker items for this factor include seeking information and answering questions. The second factor, relational maintenance, was composed of 5 items (α = .78); marker items included creating small talk and joking. The third factor, expressing negative emotion, was composed of 2 items (α = .55); marker items were expressing frustration and complaining. The fourth factor, organizing, was composed of 6 items (α = .83); marker items included scheduling and managing others. Nine items were deleted from further analysis due to low or double loading. The factor structure is shown in Table 2. Working adults in this sample evaluated four information sharing items as their most effective: showing respect (M = 4.25), cooperating (M = 4.07), offering help (M = 4.08), and sharing information (M = 4.07). Participants rated themselves as being least effective on the expressing negative emotion behaviors of complaining (M = 2.48) and expressing frustration (M = 2.82) and the relational maintenance behaviors of creating small talk (M = 3.37), telling stories (M = 3.38), and seeking approval (M = 3.49). To answer Research Question 2, the four factors were examined for their relationship to Monge et al.’s (1982) CCQ and Cupach and Spitzberg’s (1981) RCS (see Table 3). The information sharing subscale was moderately and positively related to Monge et al.’s encoding (r = .358, p ≤ .01) and decoding (r = .415, p ≤ .01) subscales, and slightly and positively to Cupach and Spitzberg’s RCS (r = .281, p ≤ .01). The relational maintenance subscale was slightly and positively correlated to Monge et al.’s encoding (r = .223, p ≤ .01) and decoding (r = .256, p ≤ .01) subscales, and only slightly to Cupach and Spitzberg’s RCS (r = .164, p = .01). The expressing negative emotion subscale was not correlated to Monge et al.’s encoding or decoding or Cupach and Spitzberg’s RCS. The organizing factor was slightly and positively correlated to Monge et al.’s encoding (r = .350, p ≤ .01) and decoding (r = .313, p ≤ .01) and Cupach and Spitzberg’s RCS (r = .255, p ≤ .05). Discussion The objectives of Study 2 built on the routinely used verbal communication behaviors identified in Study 1. The extracted factors, information sharing, relational maintenance, expressing negative emotion, and organizing, were distinct and structurally sound and provide the basis for evaluating how employees communicate at work. 163 Keyton et al. Table 2. Study 2 Factor Structure of Workplace Communication Behavior Inventory Items Factor 1: Information Sharing 1. Creating relationships 2. Scheduling 3. Seeking approval 4. Managing others 5. Creating small talk 6. Questioninga 7. Expressing frustration 8. Joking 9. Accommodating othersa 10. Supporting othersa 11. Briefing othersa 12. Complaining 13. Making decisions 14. Resolving problems 15. Greeting othersa 16. Giving opinionsa 17. Explaining 18. Planning 19. Listening 20. Addressing others 21. Giving feedback 22. Problem solving 23. Asking questions 24. Getting feedback 25. Cooperating 26. Thankinga 27. Giving examples 28. Creating claritya 29. Asking for opinions 30. Using humor 31. Agreeinga 32. Seeking information 33. Suggesting 34. Discussing 35. Giving advicea 36. Offering help 37. Answering questions 38. Telling stories 39. Following directions 40. Showing respect 41. Sharing information 42. Seeking feedback 43. Evaluating information 44. Revealing informationb Factor 2: Relational Maintenance Factor 3: Expressing Negative Emotion Factor 4: Organizing .471 .767 .585 .672 .698 .650 .754 .594 .666 .628 .561 .610 .512 .568 .575 .504 .680 .521 .584 .506 .697 .676 .699 .661 .680 .768 .779 .510 .608 .747 .791 .636 .646 a. Dropped from further analysis. b. Not included in Study 2; judged as redundant with Item 41 (sharing information). 164 Journal of Business Communication 50(2) Table 3. Study 2 Descriptive Statistics and Correlations With Workplace Communication Behavior Inventory (WCBI) WCBI Express WCBI WCBI Negative WCBI Monge Monge Relational Relational Info Emotion Organizing Encoding Decoding Competence Sharing Maintenance Info Sharing Relational Maintenance Express Negative Emotion Organizing (.95) .563** (.73) .583** .482** (.75) .730** .451** .362** .224** .430** .270** .421** .155** .236** .349** .327** (.84) .162** .058 -.020 .130* Note. Alphas on diagonal in parentheses. **p ≤ .01. *p ≤ .05. Scale items were purposely left as short descriptive phrases rather than embedding the behaviors in attitudinal expressions (i.e., At work, I believe I am effective at giving feedback). By specifying the work context, we expected that some type of task-related communication would emerge (i.e., information sharing communication behaviors). Likewise, we had a general expectation that a relational factor would emerge, as organizational communication scholars have long recognized the role of expressive ties. As Mumby and Stohl (1996) argue, these “develop quite naturally in organization and . . . strongly influence production standards, performance norms, goals, interpretations of managerial and employee communication, and definitions and standards of effectiveness” (p. 60). However, the communicative expression of relational maintenance is a departure from existing competence measures. The appearance of this factor in this study confirms other recent studies (Barkse, 2009; Pullin, 2010) that have demonstrated the importance of positive social-emotional communication in overcoming communication problems (especially in creating work relationships). Too frequently, relationally oriented communication at work is eschewed over task-related communication. Our findings continue to document their importance. Emergence of the expressing negative emotion subscale and the organizing subscale suggests that the construct of workplace communication behaviors is broader in scope than existing measures. Competent communicators should be able to express displeasure and frustration in an effective manner. Admittedly, a two-item factor is not strong, but high loadings of these items and the relative inattention to expressing negativity at work in other competence measures suggest that these types of communication behaviors deserve another look. As these results suggest, competent communicators should also be able to use communication behaviors to organize their work processes. Ultimately, the subscales of the Inventory suggest greater dimensionality to competence measures. Correlations among the extracted WCBI factors were generally moderately and positively correlated. The only relationship approaching a stronger connection was that between information sharing and organizing, suggesting the centrality of Keyton et al. 165 task-oriented communication behaviors (e.g., asking questions and opinions) to other types of communication behaviors that direct work activities (e.g., planning, managing others). Correlations among the WCBI factors and Monge et al.’s encoding and decoding were positive and weak to moderate. Correlations with decoding were slightly higher than those of encoding. This is not surprising given that Monge et al.’s (1982) original conceptualization of decoding included the more directive actions of, for example, listening and responding, whereas the conceptualization of encoding was conceptualized as performance quality (e.g., expressing clearly). Correlations among the WCBI factors and relational competence were positive and weak or null. These results likely occurred as the RCS was developed for the interpersonal context; Spitzberg (1983) argues that what is competence in one context may not be in another. Interestingly, across person (sex, age) and workplace (employment status, job relatedness to preferred career, hours worked per week, job tenure) demographics, only a few statistically significant differences were found, suggesting that features of the interaction context may bear responsibility for variability for the performance and evaluation of frequently used verbal communication workplace behaviors. This finding deserves further exploration with studies comparing samples in professions as well as organizations. The WCBI is beneficial because the focus is on communication behavior at work (e.g., asking for opinions, asking for questions) rather than attitudes about communication at work; furthermore, the items were developed and refined with two samples of working adults. The WCBI was developed specifically for the work context, which is an improvement over Cupach and Spitzberg’s (1981) RCS (intended for interpersonal interactions). Furthermore, the Inventory specifies which communication behaviors are to be evaluated. Knowing that an employee is skilled at using small talk and creating relationships with other employees is more precise than knowing an employee “is easy to talk to” (Monge et al., 1982). The items comprising the Inventory are observable communication behaviors. Thus, the use of the Inventory could heighten the effectiveness of employee coaching or training as well as performance evaluation. Limitations and Future Research Three avenues of future research stem from the limitations of these studies. First, to make the compelling argument about the importance of communication in work environments, our efforts would be strengthened by examining the relationship between the Inventory and work performance measures. These types of employee evaluations are difficult to obtain but possible (see Payne, 2005). Second, we recommend that the Inventory be tested in employee-employee and employee-client communication contexts. Ideally, communication competence at work should not differ in these two contexts but may based on an organization’s cultural values and norms. Third, frequency and effectiveness data should be captured from the same sample. As demonstrated by results from our two studies, frequently used communication behaviors may not be employees’ most effective (see Table 4). We hope that the WCBI, which is not restricted by level (i.e., supervisor, subordinate) or job type, will 166 Journal of Business Communication 50(2) Table 4. Comparisons of Most Important to Most Effective Communication Behaviors at Work Communication Behavior Listening Asking questions Discussing Sharing information Agreeing Suggesting Getting feedback Seeking feedback Answering questions Explaining Communication Behavior Thanking Showing respect Cooperating Greeting others Offering help Answering questions Following directions Sharing information Supporting others Evaluating information Importance Ranking Study 1 Effectiveness Ranking Study 2 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 19th 15th 16th 8th 34th 20th 33rd 37th 6th 13th Effectiveness Ranking Study 2 Importance Ranking Study 1 1st tie 1st tie 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 23rd 17th 11th 33rd 13th 9th 26th 4th 32nd 45th be viewed as a grounded and efficient way for operationalizing communication competency at work. Retaining a focus on verbal communication behaviors routinely used at work situates the WCBI apart from other operationalizations of workplace communication competence. Declaration of Conflicting Interests The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Funding The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The study was partially funded through a scholarship and research award made to the first author by the College of Humanities and Social Sciences, NC State University. Note 1. Few demographic differences were found. Differences due to respondents’ self-reported sex were observed on 4 of the 166 communication behaviors. Differences between full-time and Keyton et al. 167 part-time employment were observed on 5, and differences due to respondent education level were observed on 8 of the 166 communication behaviors. No differences were found on any of the 166 between those participants who had supervisory responsibilities and those who did not. References Bandura, A. (2008). Social cognitive theory. In W. Donsbach (Ed.), The international encyclopedia of communication [electronic version]. London, England: Blackwell. doi:10.1111/ b.9781405131995.2008.x Barley, S. R., & Kunda, G. (2001). Bringing work back in. Organization Science, 12, 76-95. doi:10.1287/orsc. Barske, T. (2009). Same token, different actions: A conversation analytic study of social roles, embodied actions, and ok in German business meetings. Journal of Business Communication, 46, 120-149. doi: 10.1177/0021943608325748 Bisel, R. S. (2010). A communicative ontology of organization? A description, history, and critique of CCO theories for organization science. Management Communication Quarterly, 24, 124-131. doi:10.1177/0893318909351582 Brown, R. F., Bylund, C. L., Gueguen, J. A., Diamond, C., Eddington, J., & Kissane, D. (2010). Developing patient-centered communication skills training for oncologist: Describing the content and efficacy of training. Communication Education, 59, 235-248. doi:10.1080/03534521003606210 Burleson, B. R. (2007). Constructivism: A general theory of communication skill. In B. B. Whaley & W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 105-128). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Clark, R. A., & Delia, J. G. (1979). Topoi and rhetorical competence. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 65, 187-206. The Conference Board. (2009). The ill-prepared U.S. workforce: Exploring the challenges of employer-provided workforce readiness training. Retrieved from Research/SurveyFindings/Articles/Pages/Ill-Prepared%20U.S.%20Workforce.aspx Cupach, W. R., & Spitzberg, B. H. (1981). Relational competence: Measurement and validation. Paper presented at the Western States Communication Association conference, San Jose, CA. Cushman, D. P., & Craig, R. T. (1976). Communication systems: Interpersonal implications. In G. R. Miller (Ed.), Explorations in interpersonal communication (pp. 37-58). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Downing, J. R. (2011). Linking communication competence with all center agents’ sales effectiveness. Journal of Business Communication, 48, 409-425. doi:10.1177/0021943611414539 Eisler, R. M., & Fredericksen, L. W. (1980). Perfecting social skills. New York, NY: Plenum. Fisher, B. A. (1980). Small group decision making: Communication and the group process (2nd Edition ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Gronn, P. C. (1983). Talk as the work: The accomplishment of school administration. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 1-21. Hargie, O. D. W. (2006). Communication as skilled performance. In O. D. W. Hargie (Ed.), The handbook of communication skills (3rd ed., pp. 7-28). New York, NY: Routledge. 168 Journal of Business Communication 50(2) Keyton, J., & Shockley-Zalabak, P. (Eds.). (2006). Case studies for organizational communication: Understanding communication processes (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury. King, I. W. (2003). Making space: Valuing our talk in organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 40, 1205-1223. Kramer, M. W., & Noland, T. L. (1999). Communication during job promotions: A case of ongoing assimilation. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 27, 335-355. doi:10.1080/00909889909365544 Levin, B. (1993). English verb classes and alternations: A preliminary investigation. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Maes, J. D., Weldy, T. G., & Icenogle, M. L. (1997). A managerial perspective: Oral communication competency is most important for business students in the workplace. Journal of Business Communication, 34, 67-80. doi:10.1177/002194369703400104 May, S. K. (Ed.). (2006). Cases in organizational communication: Ethical perspective and practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Meichenbaum, D., Butler, L., & Gruson, L. (1981). Toward a conceptual model of social competence. In J. D. Wine, & M. D. Smye (Eds.), Social competence (pp. 36-60). New York, NY: Guilford Press. McFall, R. M. (1982). A review and reformulation of the concept of social skills. Behavioral Assessment, 4, 1-33. Monge, P. R., Bachman, S. G., Dillard, J. P., & Eisenberg, E. M. (1982). Communicator competence in the workplace: Model testing and scale development. In M. Burgoon (Ed.), Communication yearbook 5 (pp. 505-527). New Brunswick, NJ: International Communication Association. Mumby, D. K., & Stohl, C. (1996). Disciplining organizational communication studies. Management Communication Quarterly, 10, 50-72. doi:10.1177/0893318996010001004 Payne, H. J. (2005). Reconceptualizing social skills in organizations: Exploring the relationship between communication competence, job performance, and supervisory roles. Journal of Leadership & Organization Studies, 11, 63-77. Peterson, G. L. (Ed.). (1994). Communicating in organizations: A casebook. Scottsdale, AZ: Gorsuch Scarisbrick. Pullin, P. (2010). Small talk, rapport, and international communicative competence: Lessons to learn from BELF. Journal of Business Communication, 47, 455-476. doi:10.1177/0021943610377307 Riedlinger, M. E., Gallois, C., McKay, S., & Pittam, J. (2004). Impact of social group processes and functional diversity on communication in networked organizations. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 32, 55-79. doi:10.1080/0090988042000178130 Sharbrough, W. C., Simmons, S. A., & Cantrill, D. A. (2006). Motivating language in industry: Its impact on job satisfaction and perceived supervisor effectiveness. Journal of Business Communication, 43, 322-343. doi:10.1177/0021943606291712 Shatz, M. (1977). The relationship between cognitive processes and the development of communication skills. In J. H. Howe (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 25, pp. 1-42). Lincoln: University of Nebraska. Spitzberg, B. H. (1993). Communication competence as knowledge, skill, and impression. Communication Education, 32, 323-329. Keyton et al. 169 Spitzberg, B. H. (2003). Methods of interpersonal skill assessment. In J. O. Greene & B. R. Burleson (Eds.), Handbook of communication and social interaction skills (pp. 93-134). London, England: Psychology Press. Spitzberg, B. H., & Cupach, W. R. (1984). Interpersonal communication competence. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Spitzberg, B. H., & Hurt, H. T. (1987). The measurement of interpersonal skills in instructional contexts. Communication Education, 36, 28-45. Steffen, J. J., Greenwald, D. P., & Langmeyer, D. (1979). A factor analytic study of social competence in women. Social Behavior and Personality, 7, 17-27. doi:10.2224/sbp.1979.7.1.17 Sypher, B. D. (Ed.). (1997). Case studies in organizational communication 2. New York, NY: Guilford. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Weick, K. E. (1979). The social psychology of organizing (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Whiting, H. (1975). Concepts in skill learning. London, England. Lepus Books. Wiemann, J. M. (1977). Explication and test of a model of communicative competence. Human Communication Research, 3, 195-213. Bios Joann Keyton (PhD, The Ohio State University) is Professor Communication at North Carolina State University and co-editor of Small Group Research. She is a founder of the Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research. Jennifer Marie Caputo (MS, Communication, North Carolina State University) is a training professional at Bank of America, Charlotte, North Carolina. Emily Anne Ford is an undergraduate student in the Department of Communication at North Carolina State University. Rong Fu (MS, Communication, North Carolina State University) does recruiting and marketing for New Mind Education, Raleigh, North Carolina. Samantha A. Leibowitz (BA, Communication, North Carolina State University) is employed as a hotel operations supervisor at Marriott International in Charleston, South Carolina. Tingting Liu (MS, Communication, North Carolina State University) works in Human Resources at ABB, Inc. in Raleigh, North Carolina. Sarah S. Polasik (MS, Communication, North Carolina State University) is Training Manager at Genworth Financial, Raleigh, North Carolina. Paromita Ghosh (MS, Communication, North Carolina State University) is a Communications & PR Specialist at L.A. Care Health Plan in Los Angeles, California. Chaofan Wu (MS, Communication, North Carolina State University) is Senior Account Director at McCann Erickson Guangming Ltd, Beijing, China. Copyright of Journal of Business Communication is the property of Association for Business Communication and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Emotional Intelligence and Interpersonal Skills for Leaders Lectures Based on Leadership Communication, 4th edition By Deborah J. Barrett, Ph.D. Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Discussion Topics ❑ Understanding emotional intelligence (EI) ❑ Appreciating personality differences ❑ Improving non-verbal communication skills ❑ Increasing listening ability 8-2 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Defining Interpersonal Skills and Emotional Intelligence ❑ Interpersonal skills are displayed and judged by how well we interact with others both verbally and non-verbally ❑ The ability to interact effectively depends on emotional intelligence (EI), which is our ability to identify and manage emotions in ourselves and in others ❑ The relationship of EI to interpersonal skills resembles that of IQ to the ability to demonstrate problem solving acumen 8-3 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett EI Includes Understanding the Self and Others ❑ Be aware of, understand, and express yourself ❑ Be aware of, understand, and relate to others ❑ Deal with strong emotions and control impulses ❑ Adapt to change and solve problems of a personal or a social nature Emotional Intelligence is the ability to identify and manage emotions in ourselves and in others. Source: R. Bar-On and J.D.A. Parker, eds. 2000. Handbook of Emotional Intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 8-4 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Discussion Topics ❑ Understanding emotional intelligence (EI) ◼ Appreciating personality differences ❑ Improving non-verbal communication skills ❑ Increasing listening ability 8-5 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Appreciating Personality Differences Assists in Establishing EI ❑ Knowing your personality type and that of others contributes to the EI needed to lead others and contributes to better team dynamics, personal development, and conflict management ❑ The most frequently used personality profile in business is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI ®): ❖ Psychological profile based on Jungian psychology and the analysis of preferences ❖ 8 dichotomies in 16 combinations 8-6 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett The MBTI® Dichotomies How we are energized How we interpret the world How we make decisions How we approach life and work 8-7 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Extraverts vs. Introverts (How we are energized) ❑ ❑ ❑ Breadth ❑ ❑ Interaction ❑ External Events ❑ ❑ External ❑ Expressive ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ Gregarious ❑ Blurt it out ❑ People, things ❑ Speak to Think ❑ Do-think-do ❑ Internal Depth Concentration Internal Reactions Contained Reflective Keep it in Thoughts, ideas Think to Speak Think-to-do 8-8 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Sensing vs. iNtuiting (How we interpret the world) ❑ The Five ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ senses What is real Present Tangible Using established skills Utility Step by step Actual Facts Practical ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ The 6th sense What could be Novelty Future Conceptual Insights Theoretical Fantasy Ingenuity General Leaps about 8-9 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Thinking vs. Feeling (How we make decisions) ❑ Head ❑ Heart ❑ Logical ❑ Subjective ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ system Objective Reason Laws Firm but fair Just Clarity Critique Detached ❑ Mercy ❑ Empathy ❑ Compassionate ❑ Circumstances ❑ Humane ❑ Harmony ❑ Appreciate ❑ Involved 8-10 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Judging vs. Perceiving (How we approach life and work) ❑ Control ❑ Flow ❑ Run one’s life ❑ Adapts ❑ Set goals ❑ Let life happen ❑ Decisive ❑ Wait & See ❑ Resolved ❑ Flexible ❑ Organized ❑ Scattered ❑ Structured ❑ Open ❑ Definite ❑ Tentative ❑ Scheduled ❑ Spontaneous ❑ Product focus ❑ Process focus 8-11 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Discussion Topics ❑ Understanding emotional intelligence (EI) ❑ Appreciating personality differences ◼ Improving non-verbal communication skills ❑ Increasing listening ability 8-12 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Types of Non-Verbal Communication Non-verbal communication includes the following: 1. Appearance – looks, dress, grooming 2. Paralanguage – vocal cues that accompany speech, such as volume, pitch, and rate 3. Kinesics – body movements, such as gestures, posture, head movement 4. Occulesics – eye movement, such as eye contact or looking away 5. Proxemics – where you stand in relationship to others 6. Facial expressions – smiles, frowns, sneers 7. Olfactics – smells 8. Chronomics – the way time is used 8-13 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Body Language Affects Trust ❑ Communication is 60 to 80% body language, including 35% voice ❑ Words and body language need to be consistent to build trust and relationships ❑ For some cultures, body language is more important than in others, but in all, it can help or hurt communication 8-14 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Be Aware of Non-Verbals that Hurt Ethos 1. Smiling too often or when not appropriate or not smiling at all 2. Using gestures not consistent with message 3. Standing or sitting small or crouching 4. Sitting back from the table 5. Tilting your head, raising your eyebrows 6. Not maintaining eye contact or maintaining it too aggressively 7. Placing your computer or bag on the table 8. Not touching web to web in a handshake 8-15 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Discussion Topics ❑ Understanding emotional intelligence (EI) ❑ Appreciating personality differences ❑ Improving non-verbal communication skills ◼ Increasing listening ability 8-16 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Levels of Listening Level 2 – “Hearing words, but not really listening” Level 3 – “Listening in spurts” Level 1 – “Emphatic listening” Source: Madelyn Burley-Allen. Listening: The Forgotten Skill. 17 8-17 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Five Tips for Empathic Listening 1. Provide undivided attention. Avoid “multi-tasking” or “rapid refocus.” 2. Be non-judgmental. Don’t minimize or trivialize the speakers’ issues. 3. Read the speaker. Observe emotions behind words. Is the speaker angry, afraid, frustrated, or resentful. Respond to emotions as well as words. 4. Be Quiet. Don’t feel you must have an immediate reply. Often if you allow for some quiet after the speaker has vented, he or she will break the silence and offer a solution. 5. Test your understanding. Ask clarifying questions and restate what you perceive the speaker to be saying. Source: listening.html Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Approaches to Indicating Listening Approach Non-verbal attending Verbal attending Action ➢ Eye contact ➢ Body language ➢ Use of silence ➢ Minimal encouragers Asking questions ➢ Open questions: how? what? could? would? ➢ Closed questions: is? are? do? did? ➢ Why questions: open and closed Source: Adapted from Interactive Skills Program, Dalva Hedlund and L. Bryn Freedman, Cornell University Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved from 2006. 8-19 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Approaches to Indicating Listening (continued) Approach Focusing Action ➢ Determine if it is speaker, topic, other person, listener ➢ ➢ ➢ Summarizing ➢ Reflecting Reinforce and support the speaker Clarify meaning of communications Reflect factual or feeling content Recapitulate for easier remembering Show relationship of main points ➢ Go to beginning of discussion ➢ Summarize in mid-discussion ➢ Draw together main points at end 8-20 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Discussion Summary ❑ Transformational leaders understand and demonstrate emotional intelligence ❑ Understanding personality differences enhances a leader’s ability to lead and work with others ❑ Effective leadership communication requires non-verbal skills listening ability strong and 8-21 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Diversity and Intercultural Communication Lectures Based on Leadership Communication, 4th edition By Deborah J. Barrett, Ph.D. Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett A Few Caveats about Discussing Culture ❑ Generalizing can be helpful but can also be misleading and lead to stereotyping, which leaders should avoid ❑ In some ways groups of people from the same country or culture will resemble each other, but in many ways they will differ ❑ Regions can differ as much in culture as one country would differ from another ❑ Any individualistic culture, in particular, will resist generalizations about culture, and overall, most people are uncomfortable with limited, stereotypical labeling of them 9-2 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Discussion Topics ❑ Defining culture ❑ Using cultural frameworks wisely ❑ Recognizing the major cultural variables ❑ Connecting and communicating across cultures 9-3 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Culture – A Definition ❑ Attitudes, behavior, basic assumptions, beliefs, and values shared by a group of people and influencing their interpretation of other people’s behavior ❑ Culture includes – ❖Geographical, national, social characteristics, race, but it also includes ❖Gender, age, physical characteristics, profession, organizational function, and company structure and style 9-4 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Much about Culture is Below the Surface The Cross-Cultural Iceberg Source: Popular cultural concept. This graphic depiction is courtesy of Royal Dutch Shell. 9-5 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Hofstede’s Layers of Culture Levels National Description ➢ Country of birth, development Regional/and or ethnic ➢ Area of growth; religious and/or Gender ➢ Born as a girl or boy Generation ➢ Grandparents; parents; children Social ➢ Occupation, profession, education Organizational/ corporate ➢ Way employee socialized by work linguistic affiliation environment Source: G. Hofstede (1997). Cultures and Organizations: Software of 6 the Mind. New York: McGraw Hill. 9-6 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Another Approach to Culture is Values Secular-Rational Values Traditional Values Survival Values Self Expression Values Source: Ronald Inglehart’s values map from the World Values Survey 7 9-7 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett The Seven Major Cultural Variables 5. Power/EqualityHierarchical or Democratic 2. Information flow – open or closed; up/down or across Japanese 6. Individualistic or Collective 3. Time – mono- or polychronic 1. Context high or low 7. Spirituality German 4. Language Source: Variables included in this framework were inspired by the work of Hall, Hofstede, Inglehart , O’Hara-Devereau, & Johansen. Variations of this model appear in Barrett, D.J. (2009). Put your finger on the differences: Achieving cross-cultural literacy. Communication Director. 9-8 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett The Major Cultural Variables Defined Variable Description 1. High/low context ❖ Meaning primarily in the words or in the context and relationships 2. Information flow ❖ Emphasis on how information is shared, whether open or protected 3. Time ❖ Focused on the past, the present, or the future; time is measured and valued or fluid and flexible 4. Language ❖ First language and any secondary languages in which is fluent 9-9 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Major Cultural Variables (continued) Description Variable 5. Individual/collective ❖ Emphasis on “I” or “we,” on individual or on the group or the community 6. Power & equality 7. Spirituality & belief systems ❖ Respectful of authority and rituals, belief in hierarchies and titles or little respect for authority; all are equal ❖ Control and value in individual or outside self; nature serves humans or in symbiotic relationship 9-10 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Countries Placed on the High-/ Low-Context Spectrum Canada UK Australia New Zealand North America Scandinavian Countries Switzerland Germany India Greece Central & South America Spain Italy France Russia High Context Japan China Korea Vietnam Arab Countries Africa Low Context 9-11 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Generational Differences Label Traditionalists Baby Boomers Gen Xers Generalized Traits DOBs 1925 – 1945 ❖ Patriotic, dependable, conformist, respects authority, rigid, socially and financially conservative, solid work ethic 1946 – 1964 ❖ Workaholic, idealistic, loyal, competitive, materialistic, seeks personal fulfillment, values titles and the corner office 1965 – 1979 ❖ Self-reliant, adaptable, cynical, distrusts authority, resourceful, entrepreneurial, tech savvy 1980 – 2001 ❖ Entitled, optimistic, civic Millennials minded, close parental (also called Gen Y) involvement, values work-life balance, impatient, multitasking Source: Ron Alsop, The Trophy Kids Grow Up: How the Millennial Generation 9-12 is Shaking Up the Workplace. Jossey-Bass, 2008. Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Connecting Across Cultures 1. Be open and respectful 2. Know the local customs 3. Learn as much about the culture, history, people, and even languages as reasonable 4. Obtain pointers and feedback from members of the culture 5. Be patient, be flexible, and value the time needed to develop relationships 6. Keep a sense of humor 7. Keep language simple and avoid jargon 9-13 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Be Sensitive to Direct Vs. Direct Communication Styles ❑ Direct communicators come from societies that tend to place emphasis on independence and individuality. ❑ Indirect communicators tend to be from cultures that value harmony and saving face. People tend to avoid confrontations. Spain United Kingdom Direct Middle East Mexico Indirect U.S. Germany France Russia Source: Craig Storti (1999). Figuring Foreigners Out. Africa Japan Southeast Asia China 9-14 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Examples of Direct Vs. Indirect Direct Indirect ❑ No or Yes. Perhaps or maybe. ❑ I’m not sure that’s a good idea. Are there any other ideas? ❑ I don’t agree with you, let me tell you why. May I make a small suggestion? Or What do you think? ❑ We have some concerns about your idea. Your idea might work. ❑ This isn’t going to be easy! We will try our best. Adapted from Beth O’Sullivan, “Reflections on U.S. Business Culture and Working in the U.S.” Rice15 University lecture. Used with permission. 9-15 Leadership Communication, 4th edition by Deborah J. Barrett Discussion Summary ❑ Culture is complex, made up of multiple layers and regional, functional, and generational differences ❑ Having an approach to understanding cultural differences, such as a framework, will assist leaders in recognizing the variables and facilitate getting below the surface ❑ Understanding the differences will help leaders connect and communicate more effectively across cultures 9-16
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Explanation & Answer



Analysis of Key Points from Assigned Chapters


Analysis of key points from assigned chapters
There are multiple concepts that have been covered in the past few weeks. Some of the
topics covered include diversity and intercultural communication, leadership communication
and the language of leaders, and leadership communication with a focus on strategy and
structure and use of social media. In the course of learning, it has been identified that culture
and cultural differences serve as a major determinant of diversity and that they have a
significant impact on communication. Additionally, it has been identified that the concept of
emotional intelligence serves as an important part of understanding personalities and
improving communication. Finally, it has been identified that the concept of communication
behavior is highly significant in every work environment and has a potential impact on the
performance of the business. This paper analyzes the above concepts in detail while
integrating them with theories and examples from the course materials and external resources.
The concept of culture and cultural differences features heavily throughout the weeks’
readings. In this case...

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