5-3-1 Activity: Historical Context Chart

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  • Choose three secondary sources from the Research Kit pertaining to your research topic (Science), and complete the Historical Context Chart to explore the similarities and differences among the sources.
  • Choose three articles from your selected topic in the Research Kit to read through and compare.
  • As you read through each article, consider the three main questions for analyzing secondary sources from Theme 2:
    1. What argument is your source's author making? (This is the thesis statement.)
    2. Why is your source's author making this argument? What is at stake for him or her?
    3. Where are there weak points in your source's arguments? Do you see any potential bias or flaws in your source's argument
  • Copy and paste the full citation of each article in the Article Citation field. Next, explain in the chart how you think the historical context in which these articles were written may have impacted the authors' interpretations of the articles. You are encouraged to check out this site (http://www.ushistory.org/us/index.asp) to help you formulate your thoughts on the historical context of your three articles. Use information from the articles to complete the Historical Context Chart.
  • Download and complete the Historical Context Chart. Save this chart as a file on your computer. Submit this saved file for instructor grading and feedback.

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HIS 100 Theme 3: Learning Block 5-3 Historical Context Chart Rubric Prompt: For this assignment, you will choose three secondary sources from your selected topic in the Research Kit to read through and compare. As you read through each secondary source from the Research Kit, recall the three main questions for analyzing secondary sources from Theme 2: 1. What argument is your source’s author making? (This is the thesis statement.) 2. Why is your source’s author making this argument? What is at stake for the author? 3. Where are there weak points in your source’s arguments? Do you see any potential biases or flaws in your source’s argument? For this assignment, download and complete the Historical Context Chart, using information from the articles to help you complete the chart. Copy and paste the full citation of each chosen article from the Research Kit into the Article Citation field. Next, explain in the chart how you think the historical context of the time when these articles were written may have impacted the authors’ interpretations of the events. You are encouraged to check out this website to help you formulate your thoughts on the historical context of your secondary sources. Guidelines for Submission: Fill out the Historical Context Chart and submit the completed chart to Brightspace for instructor grading and feedback. Critical Elements Secondary Sources Proficient (100%) Needs Improvement (85%) Not Evident (0%) Includes the full citation of all chosen articles in the chart Includes the citation of all chosen articles in the chart, but citation is incomplete or contains errors Explains how the historical context of the publication date of the articles may have impacted the author’s interpretation of the events, but explanation clacks detail or contains inaccuracies Explains how the author’s thesis may have been impacted by the historical context, but explanation lacks detail or contains inaccuracies Does not include the citation of all chosen articles in the chart Historical Context: Publication Date Explains how the historical context of the publication date of the articles may have impacted the author’s interpretation of the events Historical Context: Author’s Thesis Explains how the author’s thesis may have been impacted by the historical context Value 20 Does not explain how the historical context of the publication date of the articles may have impacted the author’s interpretation of the events 30 Does not explain how the author’s thesis may have been impacted by the historical context 30 Communicates Clearly Clearly communicates key ideas and thoughts in a short answer response Analysis needs clarification in order to support understanding of key ideas and thoughts Analysis is not legible and key ideas or thoughts are not understandable. Total 20 100% HIS 100 Theme 3: Historical Context Chart Prompt: Historiography is the practice of analyzing how the historical context of a time influences how historians write about and interpret historical events. First, choose three secondary sources from your selected topic in the Research Kit and copy and paste the full citation of each article into the Article Citation field. Next, explain in the chart below how you think the historical context of the time when these articles were written may have impacted the authors’ interpretations of the events. You are encouraged to check out this website to help you formulate your thoughts on the historical context of your articles. Historical Context Article Citation Historical Context of Publication Date Impact of Historical Context on Author’s Thesis HIS 100 Research Kit Science How did the field of science play a role in the dropping of the atomic bomb? What were the effects of the atomic bomb on the scientific community in the United States? What were the effects of the atomic bomb on technological innovation? What were the effects of the atomic bomb on the environment? What were the effects of the atomic bomb on health, medicine, and physiology? Primary The Associated Press. (1945, Aug. 6–14). AP was there: US drops atomic bombs on Japan in 1945. Retrieved from https://www.apnews.com/3fd267ba7b3c40479382189c99172d61 Atomic Archive. (2015). Historical documents and reports. Retrieved from http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/index.shtml Atomic Heritage Foundation & Los Alamos Historical Society. (n.d.). Voices of the Manhattan Project [Tape recordings]. Retrieved from http://manhattanprojectvoices.org/ Groves, L. R. (1945, July 18). Memorandum for the secretary of war: Subject: The test. American Experience. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/truman-bomb- test/ Hart, H. (1946). Technological acceleration and the atomic bomb. American Sociological Review, 11(3), 277–293. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/2087112 Manhattan Engineer District. (1946, June 29). The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/685/pg685.html The National Security Archive. (2015, Aug. 4). The atomic bomb and the end of World War II: A collection of primary sources. Retrieved from http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/index.htm Szilard, L. (1945, July 17). Leo Szilard's petition to the president of the United States. Retrieved from http://teachinghistory.org/historycontent/beyond-the-textbook/25484 (Note: The petition is located on the left-hand side of the webpage once you click on this initial link. Click on the link titled “Leo Szilard's Petition to the President (1945).”) Truman, H. (1945, Aug. 6). Press release by the White House, August 6, 1945. Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. Retrieved from http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/bomb/large/documents/index.php?documentdate=1945-0806&documentid=59&pagenumber=1 Secondary Frisch, D. H. (1970). Scientists and the decision to bomb Japan. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 26(6), 107–115. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,cpid&custid=shapiro&d b=ahl&AN=21569493&site=ehost-live&scope=site Harper, J. (2007). Secrets revealed, revelations concealed: A secret city confronts its environmental legacy. The George Washington University Institute for Ethnographic Research, 80(1), 39–64. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/4150943 Malloy, S. L. (2012). ‘A very pleasant way to die’: Radiation effects and the decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. Diplomatic History, 36(3), 515–545. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,cpid&custid=shapiro&d b=a9h&AN=74547716&site=ehost-live&scope=site Reynolds, M. L., & Lynch, F. X. (1955). Atomic bomb injuries among survivors in Hiroshima. Public Health Reports, 70(3), 261–270. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/4589041 Voynick, Steve (2009) "From Radium to the A-Bomb." History Magazine. 10(4), 25-29. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=khh&AN=37791674&site=edslive&scope=site Government and Domestic Policy How did the dropping of the atomic bomb affect domestic policies and decisions made by the American government? How did the dropping of the atomic bomb relate to the start of the Cold War and the United States’ policy to contain communism? How did it relate to the United States’ rise as a global superpower? How did it relate to policies surrounding the limits of executive power? Primary The Associated Press. (1945, Aug. 6–14). AP was there: US drops atomic bombs on Japan in 1945. Retrieved from http://bigstory.ap.org/urn%3Apublicid%3Aap.org%3A3fd267ba7b3c40479382189c99172d61 Atomic Archive. (2015). Historical documents and reports. Retrieved from http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/index.shtml Atomic Heritage Foundation & Los Alamos Historical Society. (n.d.). Voices of the Manhattan Project [Tape recordings]. Retrieved from http://manhattanprojectvoices.org/ Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. (n.d.). The decision to drop the atomic bomb. Retrieved from http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/bomb/large/index.php Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. (1946, July 1). United States strategic bombing survey: Japan's struggle to end the war, July 1, 1946. Retrieved from http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/bomb/large/documents/index.php?documentdate=19460701&documenti d=68&studycollectionid=abomb&pagenumber=1 The National Security Archive. (2015, Aug. 4). The atomic bomb and the end of World War II: A collection of primary sources. Retrieved from http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/index.htm Stimson, H. L. (1947). The decision to use the atomic bomb. Harper’s Magazine, 194(1161), 97–107. Retrieved from http://www.columbia.edu/itc/eacp/japanworks/ps/japan/stim- son_harpers.pdf Truman, H. (1953, Jan. 12). Truman's reflections on the atomic bombings. Atomic Archive. Retrieved from http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Hiroshima/Truman.shtml Truman, H. (1945, Aug. 6). Press release by the White House, August 6, 1945. Retrieved from http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/bomb/large/documents/index.php?documentdate=1945-0806&documentid=59&pagenumber=1 Secondary Alperovitz, G., Messer, R. L., & Bernstein, B. J. (1991). Marshall, Truman, and the decision to drop the bomb. International Security, 16(3), 204– 221. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://muse.jhu.edu/article/447285 Bernstein, B. (1975). Roosevelt, Truman, and the atomic bomb, 1941–1941: A reinterpretation. Political Science Quarterly, 90(1), 23–69. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/2148698 Morton, L. (1957). The decision to use the atomic bomb. Foreign Affairs, 35(2), 334–353. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/20031230 Miles, R. E., Jr. (1985). Hiroshima: The strange myth of half a million American lives saved. International Security, 10(2), 121–140. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://muse.jhu.edu/article/446163 Walker, J. S. (2005). Recent literature on Truman’s atomic bomb decision: A search for middle ground. Diplomatic History, 29(2), 311–334. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=16401198&site=ehostlive&scope=site Military How did the American military play a role in the dropping of the atomic bomb? How did the dropping of the atomic bomb affect the military? What later military events can be linked to the dropping of the atomic bomb? How did the dropping of the atomic bomb influence the military to take action to contain communism? How did the dropping of the atomic bomb relate to the Marshall Plan? How did it relate to the Berlin Airlift? How did it influence Winston Churchill’s famous “Iron Curtain” speech? Primary Atomic Archive. (2015). Historical documents and reports. Retrieved from http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/index.shtml Atomic Heritage Foundation & Los Alamos Historical Society. (n.d.). Voices of the Manhattan Project [Tape recordings]. Retrieved from http://manhattanprojectvoices.org/ Groves, L. R. (1945, July 18). Memorandum for the secretary of war: Subject: The test. American Experience. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/truman-bomb- test/ Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. (n.d.). The decision to drop the atomic bomb. Retrieved from http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/bomb/large/index.php Manhattan Engineer District. (1946, June 29). The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/685/pg685.html The National Security Archive. (2015, Aug. 4). The atomic bomb and the end of World War II: A collection of primary sources. Retrieved from http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/index.htm Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. (1946, July 1). United States strategic bombing survey: Japan's struggle to end the war, July 1, 1946. Retrieved from http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/bomb/large/documents/index.php?documentdate=19460701&documenti d=68&studycollectionid=abomb&pagenumber=1 Laurence, W. L. (1945, Sept. 9). Eyewitness account of atomic bomb over Nagasaki. Atomic Archive. Retrieved from http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Hiroshima/Nagasaki.shtml Secondary Alperovitz, G., Messer, R. L., & Bernstein, B. J. (1991). Marshall, Truman, and the decision to drop the bomb. International Security, 16(3), 204– 221. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://muse.jhu.edu/article/447285 Morton, L. (1957). The decision to use the atomic bomb. Foreign Affairs, 35(2), 334–353. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/20031230 Pape, R. A. (1993). Why Japan surrendered. International Security, 18(2), 154–201. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://muse.jhu.edu/article/447083/pdf Miles, R. E., Jr. (1985). Hiroshima: The strange myth of half a million American lives saved. International Security, 10(2), 121–140. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://muse.jhu.edu/article/446163 Walker, J. S. (2005). Recent literature on Truman’s atomic bomb decision: A search for middle ground. Diplomatic History, 29(2), 311–334. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=16401198&site=ehostlive&scope=site International Relations and Japanese and American Civilians How did the dropping of the atomic bomb affect international relations and civilians both in the United States and Japan? How did it influence Eleanor Roosevelt and the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights? How did it influence the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact? Primary Truman, H. S. (1945). [Draft of the Potsdam Declaration dated July 23, 1945]. "Draft of the Potsdam Declaration from President Harry S. Truman to Ambassador Patrick J. Hurley for Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek". Truman Papers- Naval Aide Files, Harry S. Truman Presidential Library & Museum., Independence, MO. http://www.trumanlibrary.org https://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/naval/berlin/index.php?documentVersion=original&documentid=hstnaval_naid1701729-04&pagenumber=1 Borchard, E. (1946). The atomic bomb. The American Society of International Law, 40(1), 161–165. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/2193900 Coblentz, S. A. (1945). The challenge of the atomic bomb. World Affairs, 108(3), 164–167. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/20664180 Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. (1946, July 1). United States strategic bombing survey: Japan's struggle to end the war, July 1, 1946. Retrieved from http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/bomb/large/documents/index.php?documentdate=19460701&documenti d=68&studycollectionid=abomb&pagenumber=1 Hart, H. (1946). Technological acceleration and the atomic bomb. American Sociological Review, 11(3), 277–293. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/2087112 Hersey, J. (1946, Aug. 31). Hiroshima. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1946/08/31/hiroshima Johnson A. (1946). Twaddle on the atomic bomb. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 5(2), 201–202. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/3483583 Manhattan Engineer District. (1946, June 29). The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/685/pg685.html Siemes, J. A. (1945, Aug. 6). Eyewitness account of Hiroshima. Atomic Archive. Retrieved from http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Hiroshima/Hiroshima_Siemes.shtml Stimson, H. L. (1947). The decision to use the atomic bomb. Harper’s Magazine, 194(1161), 97–107. Retrieved from http://www.columbia.edu/itc/eacp/japanworks/ps/japan/stim- son_harpers.pdf Truman, H. (1953, Jan. 12). Truman's reflections on the atomic bombings. Atomic Archive. Retrieved from http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Hiroshima/Truman.shtml Turlington, E. (1946). International control of the atomic bomb. The American Journal of International Law, 40(1), 165–167. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/2193901 Viner, J. (1946). The implications of the atomic bomb for international relations. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 90(1), 53–58. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/3301039 Secondary Alperovitz, G., Messer, R. L., & Bernstein, B. J. (1991). Marshall, Truman, and the decision to drop the bomb. International Security, 16(3), 204– 221. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://muse.jhu.edu/article/447285 Bernstein, B. J. (1976). The uneasy alliance: Roosevelt, Churchill, and the atomic bomb, 1940–1945. The Western Political Quarterly, 29(2), 202– 230. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/448105 Harper, J. (2007). Secrets revealed, revelations concealed: A secret city confronts its environmental legacy. The George Washington University Institute for Ethnographic Research, 80(1), 39–64. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/4150943 Malloy, S. L. (2012). ‘A very pleasant way to die’: Radiation effects and the decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. Diplomatic History, 36(3), 515–545. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,cpid&custid=shapiro&d b=a9h&AN=74547716&site=ehost-live&scope=site Morton, L. (1957). The decision to use the atomic bomb. Foreign Affairs, 35(2), 334–353. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/20031230 Miles, R. E., Jr. (1985). Hiroshima: The strange myth of half a million American lives saved. International Security, 10(2), 121–140. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://muse.jhu.edu/article/446163 Pape, R. A. (1993). Why Japan surrendered. International Security, 18(2), 154–201. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://muse.jhu.edu/article/447083/pdf Reynolds, M. L., & Lynch, F. X. (1955). Atomic bomb injuries among survivors in Hiroshima. Public Health Reports, 70(3), 261–270. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/4589041 Walker, J. S. (2005). Recent literature on Truman’s atomic bomb decision: A search for middle ground. Diplomatic History, 29(2), 311–334. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=16401198&site=ehostlive&scope=site Primary Source Archive (Additional Primary Sources Can Be Located Here) The Associated Press. (1945, Aug. 6–14). AP was there: US drops atomic bombs on Japan in 1945. Retrieved from http://bigstory.ap.org/urn%3Apublicid%3Aap.org%3A3fd267ba7b3c40479382189c99172d61 Atomic Archive. (2015). Historical documents and reports. Retrieved from http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/index.shtml Atomic Archive. (n.d.). The voice of Hibakusha [Tape recordings]. Retrieved from http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Hibakusha/index.shtml Atomic Heritage Foundation & Los Alamos Historical Society. (n.d.). Voices of the Manhattan Project [Tape recordings]. Retrieved from http://manhattanprojectvoices.org/ Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. (n.d.). The decision to drop the atomic bomb. Retrieved from http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/bomb/large/index.php The National Security Archive. (2015, Aug. 4). The atomic bomb and the end of World War II: A collection of primary sources. Retrieved from http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/index.htm
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