Response to five of my classmate ( each one 150 - 200 words)

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Please response to five of my classmate

each one write 150 - 200 words

I attached the question and I attached five answers that you need to replay to each one of them in 150 to 200 words

Jerad Shaw Temperate Rainforests: The Wet Biome of the Temperate Zone Temperate Rainforests: The Wet Biome of the Temperate Zone The Biome that I chose to write about is the temperate rainforest. The name of this biome comes from the fact that it is a forest found in temperate regions of the world as well as the fact that it experiences a lot of rain. The location that this biome is found in is temperate regions, which are regions that do not experience significant temperature extremes (Earth Eclipse 2018). Instead, these are areas that have mild conditions and lots of rain. Furthermore, this biome is also often located in coastal regions of the Pacific Northwest of North America (Earth Eclipse 2018). The location of this biome is also responsible for its climate. The climate of the temperate rainforest is generally mild with a lot of precipitation. Over the course of the year, temperate rainforests can see a range of 2000mm – 3500mm of precipitation (Shanley et al 2015). Temperatures are moderate, not averaging extremely hot or cold temperatures. Throughout the year the temperature tends to stay between 00C and 30 0C (Earth Eclipse 2018). Furthermore, temperate rainforests also have distinct seasons (Earth Eclipse 2018). That is, in the summer it is warm, and in the winter it is cold. The soils in temperate rainforests are fairly wet from the large amounts of rainfall they receive, generally consisting of fine particles (Carpenter et al 2014). In temperate rainforests the soils can be quite fertile as there is lots of organic material being decomposed so that the soil can be nutrient rich. One of the characteristics of the soil is that plants tend to dig their roots quite deep (>150cm) in the soils if this biome (Carpenter et al 2014). Another characteristic is that the soils drain well (Carpenter et al 2014). The physical structure of this biome includes things such as temperature, precipitation levels, density of trees/plant life, and terrain. As mentioned earlier, the temperatures are mild and precipitation is high. These two things can affect the height and density of trees in the forest which change the physical image of the biome. The terrain of the biome is fairly rugged. For example, many small bumps and hills form the ground (Dotson JD 2018). Furthermore, these forests are often found on mountains (Dotson JD 2018), this means that rocky sections also appear. In addition to this, the tall and thick trees caused by the extensive rain can fall to form more uneven terrain. The biological structure of this biome is fairly rich and diverse but less so than tropical rainforests. At the very bottom of the food chain are the primary producers such as mosses, lichens and various trees such as cedar, spruce, and hemlock (Earth Eclipse 2018). The species that feed on these are ones such as squirrels, deer, moose and elk (Earth Eclipse 2018). There is also different fish species such as salmon in rivers throughout the biome that also feed on primary producers. Many bird species such as eagles, ducks, and geese eat aquatic species and insects living in and around these rivers as well (Earth Eclipse 2018). Moving on up the food chain are species such as grizzly and black bears, wolves, and even cougars (Braeuner 2018). One of the adaptations that is commonly seen is thick bark on the trees (Braeuner 2018). This prevents other species from growing on the trunk of the tree. Furthermore, it also helps prevent evaporation of water from the tree during drier stretches (Braeuner 2018). Similar to this, animals develop thick coats to protect them from the high amounts of precipitation and colder temperatures in the winter (Braeuner 2018). Another plant adaptation is flowering plants growing quick and early in the spring so they can receive as much sunlight as possible throughout the spring and summer (Braeuner 2018). Another animal adaptation is animals with horns growing them shorter than ones in different biomes to help them move better in the bushes (Braeuner 2018). The nutrient cycling/energy flow in this system is a fairly efficient process because of the large quantity of organic material, and detritivores to decompose it. Plants draw up nutrients from the soils and store them for future use. Animals then eat these plants and other animals which die and detritivores decompose them into the soil so the cycle can start again. Both detrital and grazing food chains play an important role in this process because they both transfer energy from one place to another. For example, the grazing food chain allows energy/nutrients to be transferred from primary producers such as shrubs, to herbivores such as rabbits, then on to carnivores such as wolves. Likewise, the detrital food chain cycles the energy from dead plants and animals to detritivores such as earth worms and back to animals such as birds. For important processes in this system the carbon cycle is high on the list. Because of the vast amounts of organic material in this biome, the floors of temperate rainforests contain huge amounts of carbon. Furthermore, all this plant life undergoes photosynthesis which puts large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. One natural disturbance that could occur in this biome is wildfires. Wildfires caused by things such as lightning could have drastic effects on all the organisms in this biome. For example, wildfires could kill thousands of plant species and displace hundreds of animals from their original habitat. Furthermore, these plant species that have been burned can no longer be used as food for animals in the area. This could cause a huge influx of animals eating in different areas and depleting the resources for that area. Fires could also completely wipe out certain populations too. Another natural disturbance that could occur is drought. The species in this biome are conditioned to heavy precipitation but it is possible that longer stretches without rain could occur. This could drastically alter the growth of primary producers, depleting the food source for many herbivores. The first big way that humans disturb this biome is through deforestation. This can completely destroy entire ecosystems. The biggest way that this affects ecological communities is by destroying their habitat. Just like wildfires, deforestation can cause thousands of animal species to move. This could result in overcrowding of other nearby areas. Furthermore, it could also force species that are only native to certain locations to move and out­compete other species that were originally there. Literature Cited Braeuner S. Plant and Animal Adaptations in Temperate Forests. [Internet]. April 25, 2018. Sciencing; [April 25, 2018; July 30, 2018]. Available from: https://sciencing.com/plant­animal­adaptations­temperate­forests­8490643.html Carpenter DN, Bockheim JG, Reich PF. 2014. Soils in the Temperate Rainforests of the North American Pacific Coast. Geoderma. [Internet]. [2014; July 30, 2018]; 230­ 231: 250­261 Dotson JD: What Are Some Abiotic Factors in a Temperate Rain Forest?. [Internet]. April 11, 2018. Sciencing; [April 11, 2018; July 30, 2018]. Available from: https://sciencing.com/abiotic­factors­temperate­rain­forest­8111258.html Shanley CS, Pyare S, Goldstein MI, Alaback PB, Albert DM, Beier CM, Brinkman TJ, Edwards RT, Hood E, MacKinnon A et al. 2015. Climate Change Implications in the Northern Coastal Temperate Ranforest of North America. Climate Change [Internet]. [May 2015; July 30, 2018]; 130(2):155­170 Smith TM, Smith RL, Waters I. 2012. Elements of Ecology. Canadian. New Jersey: Pearson Education. 438­460 Temperate Rainforest Biome [Internet]. 2018. Earth Eclipse; [2018; July 30, 2018]. Available from: https://www.eartheclipse.com/ecosystem/temperate­rainforest­ biome.html Writing Assignment 2.docx (22.465 KB) Reply Lejla Muratspahic 1 day ago RE: Temperate Rainforests: The Wet Biome of the Temperate Zone Great job on this Jerad! I have been fortunate to visit Cathedral Grove recently and it is really so special to see how this temperate rainforest biome works in real life. When you step into it you right away notice that you are in the world of its own. The interaction among trees was interesting to see. For example, I have seen some logs which connected with roots of neighbouring tree and that is how they continue to get nutrients and live. I have also noticed lots of logging in many areas on the Vancouver Island and in the temperate rainforest areas so it is very unfortunate that so much of it is getting destroyed. Apparently, logging is still not forbidden even in some protected areas. There are some areas with signs about preservation and restoration processes. I hope that we will be able to preserve some of it for future generation. Lisa Rainville 10 hours ago RE: Temperate Rainforests: The Wet Biome of the Temperate Zone Hi Jerad, I think you did a great job of providing us with information on the the temperate rainforest. The information was informative and easy to understand. One aspect of your assignment, which I think could have been emphasized in greater detail is the human impacts on the biome. You are correct in stating that deforestation is the leading cause of human disturbances. However, explaining that deforestation falls under the definition of a combination of human activities, such as: farming, mining, logging, and urbanization would provide greater insight. ‑ Logging being the number one contributing factor to deforestation. For more information, please visit this website: https://sciencing.com/human‑influences‑temperate‑rainforest‑8480768.html
Fahad Alibrahim Arctic Tundra Biome The Biome of Arctic Tundra Description: The arctic tundra is the coldest biome and its name ‘tundra’ comes from a Finnish word “tunturia”, meaning treeless plains. The landscape is frost­covered with very little rainfall, extremely low temperatures, poor quality of nutrients, and short­ spanned growing seasons. Dead organic material maintain the nutrient pool here (UC Berkeley 1996). Location: It located in the northern hemisphere, ranging from around 55 degree N to 70 degree N latitudes, traced from North Pole to Taiga coniferous forests. Climate: Climate here is very cold with several desert­like conditions. Growing seasons are short­spanned, around 50 to 60 days. While the average winter temperature can be around ­30° F, the average summer temperature can be warmer, with even 24 hours of sunlight. Presence of sunlight and warmer temperatures can help sustain life. Wind speed can range from 30 to 60 miles per hour and annual rainfall of mostly snow can range from 6 to 10 inches. Soil: Here, soil forms slowly in the presence of a permanently frozen subsoil layer called permafrost. The soil mostly has fine materials and gravel. Reply Fahad Alibrahim 3 days ago RE: Arctic Tundra Biome Physical Structure: The physical structure consists of cold, desert­like conditions and permafrost subsoil with low shrubs. Vertical structure is not very evident because of cold conditions and strong winds. It is extremely cold here with simple vegetation structure, limited drainage, and low biodiversity, especially in the absence of long growth or reproduction seasons. There is absence of complex and distinct structures. Large population oscillations occur. Dead and organic matter normally contribute toward nutrients and energy. Biological Structure: The biological structure consists of distinct flora and fauna that can survive in long, harsh and cold conditions. Typical Plants: The tundra has about 1700 types of plants from low shrubs, reindeer mosses, sedges, foliose lichen, grasses, flowers, crustose and liverworts among several others (UC Berkeley 1996). Plant Adaptations: Some plants can grow under layers of snow but plants do not have deep root systems. The plants have adapted to poor soils, strong winds and low temperatures. Most plants are short and grow together in groups to protect from snow and cold. Plants can photosynthesize in low lights and low temperatures. Division and budding are common methods of reproduction in place of sexual methods due to short­ spanned growing seasons (UC Berkeley 1996). Typical Animals: Here, animal diversity is low. Herbivores such as voles, lemmings, arctic hares, caribous and squirrels along with carnivores such as polar bears, wolves, and arctic foxes, and migratory birds such as falcons, sandpipers, ravens, snow buntings, terns and gulls are present. Amphibians and reptiles are usually few or absent due to cold conditions. Insects such as flies, arctic bumble bees, blackflies, mosquitoes, moths and grasshoppers along with fish such as trout, cod and salmon are also present (UC Berkeley 1996). Animal Adaptations: Here, animals have adapted to survive in cold, long winters and try to reproduce quickly in short summers. Additional insulation from fat may be present. Hibernation or migration to the south during winter is a common practices among many. Population oscillation is present due to immigration and emigration of animals from the biome. Fahad Alibrahim RE: Arctic Tundra Biome 3 days ago Important Processes: Energy Flow: Here, energy mostly moves through feeding in food webs. Important Processes: Nutrient Cycles: Here, biomass takes in more carbon dioxide than what it can release. As a result, this biome is regarded as a major “carbon dioxide sink”. Even though plants here use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, cold climatic conditions and short summers prevent them decomposing or releasing carbon dioxide easily. Carbon dioxide traces have been found even in plant remains buried in permafrost (BioExpedition 2012). Other than carbon dioxide, phosphorus and nitrogen from precipitation and biological fixation respectively are two major nutrients. In general, dead organic matter is mostly responsible for the nutrient pool here. Natural Disturbances and their Impacts: Here, a fragile environment with extremely harsh and cold conditions can be witnessed. Permafrost, high snowfall, melting of glaciers, and strong winds can cause loss of habitat and food for producers and consumers. This can adversely impact the already low biodiversity of the biome. Human Disturbances and their Impacts: Here, presence of harsh and long­lasting cold conditions have prevented many humans from settling or from building homes and infrastructure. But people still work here to drill for oil and to mine. Their activities have negatively disturbed biological and physical structures of the biome. Presence of oil rigs, factories, and roads among other facilities for gas, mineral and oil workers have disturbed feeding paths and patterns. Such disruptions have caused many animals to starve and even die. Wastes from mines and rigs have led to air and water pollution. Dumping of oil and gas wastes into water bodies have led to dis­balance in aquatic ecosystems. Unfortunately, even human activities elsewhere and outside of the arctic tundra have caused negative ripple effects here. Temperatures around the world have been on a rise because of excessive burning of fossil fuels. Such rises have been causing permafrost and glaciers in many parts of the arctic tundra to melt. According to Legagneux et al. (2014), trophic interactions and food web structures in the arctic tundra may have changed due to rise in global temperatures. Such changes have been pushing toward a switch in the regulation of herbivores from bottom­up to top­ down. Fahad Alibrahim 3 days ago RE: Arctic Tundra Biome Works Cited BioExpedition: Tundra Biome [Internet]. c2012. BioExpedition [cited 2018 Jul 23]. Available from: http://www.bioexpedition.com/tundra­biome/ Legagneux P, Gauthier G, Lecomte N, Schmidt NM, Reid D, Cadieux MC, Berteaux D, Bety J, Krebs CJ, Ims RA, Yoccoz NG, Morrison RIG, Leroux SJ, Loreau M, Gravel D. 2014. Arctic ecosystem structure and functioning shaped by climate and herbivore body size. Nature Climate Change [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jul 25]; 4: 379­383. Available from: http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v4/n5/full/nclimate2168.html doi: 10.1038/nclimate2168 UC Berkeley: The Tundra Biome. The World’s Biomes [Internet]. c1994­2006. Berkeley(CA): University of California [cited 2018 Jul 22]. Available from: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/tundra.html Hide 1 reply Ben Croll 3 days ago RE: Arctic Tundra Biome Hello Fahad, Awesome summary. I actually really enjoyed the point form you provided. It delivered short sentences that were precise and effective. The information was plentiful, descriptive, and accurate. Also, the extra effort to provide pictures helped greatly. However, I'm not sure I am a fan of starting almost every sentence with "here". It makes it sound less formal.
Angeli Lumamba Tropical Rainforest: The Diverse Ecosystem Location and Climate: The tropical rainforest biome is usually found at latitudes within 10° north and south of the equator which is dominated by the intertropicalconvergence zone. This climate is found in South America, Central Africa, and Southeast Asia. However, tropical rainforest micro­climates are found in many other regions (Moss 2016). The reason for this pattern of climate is that on the equator, sunlight strikes the earth at roughly 90° angle. This results in an intense solar energy as there is consistent sunlight for 12 hours a day, 365 days a year. The average temperature of this ecosystem remains between 21 and 30° Celsius. The high temperatures of the tropical regions generate a water cycle which accelerates the preparation of water, results in high levels of rainfall. This biome is known for lots of precipitation every year, it doesn’train every day, but more still falls here than anywhere else on Earth. On average, 2000 mm of annual precipitation, with permanently high humidity(Moss 2016). For example, in the Amazon, there is the largest unbroken stretch of rainforest in the world, half of all rainwater that falls comes from clouds produced by trees themselves. Soil: With these climatic conditions, the tropical rainforest can support enormous amounts of vegetation. The soils are reddish brown because of its high aluminium and iron content. The upper horizons of the soil are thin and low in minerals due to a process called leaching. This occurs when the frequent heavy rainfall in tropical regions causes high volumes of water to wash away iron, silicate, and other minerals to the deeper layers of the soil. As a result, the top layers are lighter in colour. Although the soil is depleted of nutrients, plants rely on the nutrients from topsoil, which is a thin layer made up of animal remains and decomposed plants (Sezen2016). The more fertile soils and higher the rainfall, the more complex therainforest structure and diversity. Reply Angeli Lumamba 3 days ago RE: Tropical Rainforest: The Diverse Ecosystem Structure of the tropical rainforest: The tropical rainforest covers only less than 6% of the land, yet it is home to over half of the world’s known plant and animal species. With the combination of high moisture and consistent year­round warm weather makes ideal lush areas of plant life and home to millions of animal species. With the diversity and dense vegetation of equatorial rainforest plant life, there is a competition for sunlight. Since the tropical rainforest has a complex structure, it can be split into four vegetation layers, the vertical stratification of the tropical rainforest (Terborgh 1992): The shrub layer/understorey is found at the bottom. It is dark as sunlight is blocked by the canopy. Dead plants and animals rapidly decompose. Nutrients entering the soil are rapidly absorbed by vegetation. With only 2% of the sunlight hitting the shrub layer, very little vegetation can survive. Moss and low­lying plants such as ferns and ginger are common. Mushrooms and fungi thrive in warm, moist conditions. They can grow by living inside or next to decaying plants and trees. The under canopy is the second layer up with limited sunlight. Plant growth is limited to mostly smaller trees and tree­climbing plants (known as lianas, these vines climb to the canopy to reach sunlight). The canopy absorbs 80% of sunlight. Rainfall is intercepted by the canopy layer and very little gets to the plants at the lower levels. Vegetation including mosses, ferns and lichens grow on tree trunks and branches. This is where most of the animal species in therainforest can be found. The emergent layer is the tallest trees and can grow over 50 metrestall. The trees and plants at this height have waxy leaves to protect them from the direct hot sunlight. Each layer is home to millions of its own distinct species, all connected in symbiotic relationships and other interactions. The tropical rainforestshost an enormous diversity of wildlife. There is an abundance of reptiles, birds, mammals, insect, fish, and amphibian species. Since there are no real seasons, each tree flowers or fruits at a different time of the year, which means that food is very widely spaced. The physical structure of therainforest provides a habitat for animals and plants to shelter, hide, and provide abundant food sources (Farrior et al. 2016). The most diverse section of a tropical rainforest is the tree canopies. Tree canopies like the tropical fig trees serve as a keystone species. Important Processes: The main reason for this abundance of life is that since the location of the tropics receive plenty of sunlight. Plants convert the sunlight to energy through photosynthesis, resulting in an abundance of energy stored in therainforest plants. These plants, in turn, are eaten by animals. Although the soil is infertile, the rainforest survives because of the rapid nutrient cycle that exists in the warm, humid environment. The hot and humid conditions of a tropical rainforest are ideal for decomposers like insects, fungi, and bacteria. Fungi play an immensely important role in nutrient cycling by decomposing organic matter. They decompose dead plant and animal material quickly and convert it back to nutrients, the majority of it is carbon (Berenguer et al. 2014). Most of the nutrients produces are taken up by the rapidly growing plants and trees immediately because of its high demand. Hide 2 replies Angeli Lumamba 3 days ago RE: Tropical Rainforest: The Diverse Ecosystem Natural Disturbances: Since the tropical rainforest is known for its high precipitation, flooding in this biome occurs often in the lowland rainforest. Plants are already adapted to the flood cycle, as they are undamaged by the long period of submersion. Flooding happens mostly during the rainy season and the waters can fluctuate up to 30 feet (Brearley 2004). Treefalls are hugely influential in tropical rainforest development. A gap made by treefalls is especially apparent to create different environments and change in species. The gap provides opportunities for plants who needed the sunlight to become revitalized and grow(Brearley 2004). Treefalls are caused by either storm damage or human activity. The tallest and largest trees generally have the strongest root system, so they can resist severe storms with high winds. Usually, the forest structure will not be much altered, when smaller trees do not survive such storms, it can be quickly replaced with other plant species, sprout new trees, or go through natural succession (Brearley 2004). Human Impacts: Human activity in this biome had led to discovery and implementation of many different medicines. The diversity of this ecosystem has helped humankind, known as “nature’s medicine cabinet”, we were able to discover medicinal drugs that combat illnesses and diseases like cancer, malaria, diabetes, and many more. However, this ecosystem is threatened each day, especially by practices such as logging, agriculture, mining and ranching. Companies,landowners, and state government use this for multinational logging, making new industrial units, and new colonies (Farrior et al. 2016). Deforestation is the highest influence on the ecosystem. This human activity and development resulted in the depletion of habitat for many animal species. According to environmentalists, an estimation of 137 plant, insect, and animal species are lost each day due to deforestation. This greatly affects the diversity of this ecosystem. In result, landslides are common in the result of human logging activities. Constant precipitation in this biome creates very loose, very wet soil and sediment. Usually trees with strong root systems that help bind the ground. The probability of fires occurring in the ecosystem is greatly increased after deforestation and other human activities. A 50% reduction of the canopy results in increased temperature by 10° C and reduction of humidity by 35% or more (Berenguer et al. 2014). Hide 1 reply Angeli Lumamba 3 days ago RE: Tropical Rainforest: The Diverse Ecosystem References Berenguer E, Ferreira J, Gardner TA, Aragão LEOC, De Camargo PB, Cerri CE, Durigan M, Oliveira RCD, Vieira ICG, Barlow J. 2014. A large­scale field assessment of carbon stocks in human­modified tropical forests. Global Change Biology. 20(12):3713–3726. doi:10.1111/gcb.12627. Brearley FQ. 2004. Tropical Rainforest Disturbance and Recovery. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2(7):346. doi:10.2307/3868358. Farrior CE, Bohlman SA, Hubbell S, Pacala SW. 2016. Dominance of the suppressed: Power­law size structure in tropical forests. Science. 351(6269):155–157. doi:10.1126/science.aad0592. Moss S. 2016. Planet Earth II. [accessed 2018 Jul 26]. Sezen U. 2016. Planet Earth ­ Jungles ­ BBC (2006). [accessed 2018 Jul 28]. http://naturedocumentaries.org/6813/planet­earth­jungles­bbc/. Terborgh J. 1992. Diversity and the Tropical Rainforest. New York: Scientific American Library. [accessed 2018 Jul 27]. https://globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/kling/rainforest/rainforest.html. Danielle Neufeld 6 hours ago RE: Tropical Rainforest: The Diverse Ecosystem Hello Angeli, I quite enjoyed your paper. It was well written, presentation was an easy flow to follow, as all of your highlighted points were categorized ie) Soils in one place opposed to the natural disturbances. It is crazy seeing the numbers of individual species whom are effected each day by deforestation by human impacts. Is there a way we can lessen this number of one hundred thirty seven? I was surprised to read this. The tropical rainforest covering only six percent or less of the earth's surface, while inhabiting many different individual plant and animal species, is amazing. Although the rainforest is not the biggest biome on earth whom still has many species existing within it, a bigger biome must also possess many different species as well. Taking the aquatic biome for instance, one of the biggest biomes as it covers around seventy percent of the earth's surface, would consists of a massive amount of different interacting species all in one ecosystem. So how does this biome differ from yours, a tropical rainforest? I was wondering if some photographs would help benefit this paper. As example, with a visual image, audiences are able to further be explained to the highlighted points you are trying to get across. With a photo you are able to go into further depth of your points and show readers exactly what approach you are trying to achieve. However, I think your paper was well written and gave enough information on this biome and the many subtopics within it. I enjoyed the part where you wrote about each complex structure of the vegetation layers. Well descriptive and easy to follow. Well done I learned a well amount reading your paper.
Julien Wauthier Aquatic biome, the Gulf of Alaska Characteristics of the Gulf of Alaska: This arm is situated on the north east part of the Pacific Ocean. It lies for 2,500km from the Alaska Peninsula (Kodiak Island) in the west, to the Dixon Entrance (Prince Rupert) in the east. It has a surface of 1,533,000 square km (Encyclopedia Britannica 1998). The west part of the Gulf is home to many active volcanoes as the coasts of Alaska lie above the fault between the Pacific and the North American plates, which induces strong seismic activities (ex. the 1964, 9.2 magnitude earthquake, and the subsequent tsunami). The water average temperature in the Gulf of Alaska varies from 2.5°C in January, to 11.8°C in August (NOAA 2018). This part of the Pacific Ocean is subject to high levels of precipitation due to strong cyclonic winds from fall to spring, and to the coastal mountain range trapping weather systems (Weingartner et al. 2002). Reply Julien Wauthier 4 days ago RE: Aquatic biome, the Gulf of Alaska Physical structure: The depths of the Gulf of Alaska range from 3,000m on the eastern part of the Gulf, to 5,000m in the Aleutian Trench on the west. Seabed rises on a light slope on the east, becoming steeper towards north. The north west part of the seabed has sharper, cliff­like slopes. The Gulf is then surrounded by the continental shelf, the underwater landmass that extends from the continent, of around 370,000 square km, with widths varying from 5 to 200km, cut by several islands, banks and ridges, as well as troughs (Mueter 2004). Phytoplankton and algae found on the Gulf are the source of the food chain and oxygen production. The rough shoreline of the Gulf is bordered on the south east by coastal temperate rainforests (coniferous and/or broadleaf trees), Chugach, Kenai, Fairweather and St. Elias mountains on the east and north (Encyclopedia Britannica 1998), and is treeless and covered by subarctic tundra on the west (Dorn et al. 2018). Biological structure: The Gulf is a thriving ecosystem which is home to a mix of temperate and subarctic species. At least 383 fish species, such as salmon, Pacific halibut, herrings or walleye pollock to name a few, are present in the Gulf of Alaska (Mueter 2004). This region hosts bottom­up drivers affecting primary production, as well as top­down drivers such as predation and fishing (Bailey 2000). It is a habitat for many species like zooplankton, sea otters, seals, seabirds, bald eagles, crabs, shrimps, and porpoises (wales, orcas for example). Some species of corals found in the Gulf only grow in deeper areas (150 to 900m). Julien Wauthier 4 days ago RE: Aquatic biome, the Gulf of Alaska Nutrients cycle of Prince William Sound (north): A sound is a large sea, or ocean, inlet, usually larger than a bay. Prince William Sound experiences seasonal changes in nutrients; in winter and spring, phytoplankton called diatoms thrive in the sound. They stay on the epilimnion where waters from the lower layers rich in nutrients like phosphates, nitrates and silicon, ascend to the top. In summer these algae are overcome by zooplankton called copepods, taking over the production of oxygen (photosynthesis). This cohabitation leads to a peak in primary production, increasing the population of zooplankton which feed on phytoplankton (AOOS 2018). Iron brought by freshwaters from the glaciers to the sound limits the production of phytoplankton. Energy flow in the Gulf: The energy flows through both grazing and detrital food chains; sun light energy is absorbed by phytoplankton and zooplankton. Oxygen is released into the atmosphere after photosynthesis. These organisms are then eaten by fish that serve as food to traveling marine mammals and seabirds. Animal waste and dead matters are consumed by microorganisms who are transported by currents to other locations. Julien Wauthier 4 days ago RE: Aquatic biome, the Gulf of Alaska Human impacts: Fishing activities, introduction of invasive species, changes in chemical and physical properties due to global warming, coastal development and mineral mining have huge impacts on the ecosystem of the Gulf of Alaska. Other human events have had, and still have, big impacts on the region, like the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989, or the sea otters fur trade of 1740 which is only recovering now, as sea otters have recently come back along the Alaska and British Columbia shores. Julien Wauthier 4 days ago RE: Aquatic biome, the Gulf of Alaska Sources Cited: AOOS (Alaska Ocean Observing System), regional association of IOOS (Integrated Ocean Observing System). 2018. Modeling nutrients and phytoplankton [Internet]. [Published in 2018] Available from:https://www.aoos.org/prince­william­sound­region­ page/field­experiment/components/npz/ Bailey, K.M. 2000. Shifting control of recruitment of walleye pollock theragra chalcogramma after a major climatic and ecosystem change. In: Marine Ecology Progress Series Vol. 198 (June 5 2000), pp. 215­224. Available from:https://www.jstor.org/stable/24855844?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Dorn M., Cunningham C., Dalton M., Fadely B., Gerke B., Hollowed A., Holsman K., Moss J., Ormseth O., Palsson W., Ressler P., Rogers L., Sigler M., Stabeno P., and Szymkowiak M. 2018. A climate science, regional action plan for the Gulf of Alaska. NOAA, USDC [Internet]. [Published April 2018] Available from:https://www.afsc.noaa.gov/Publications/AFSC­TM/NOAA­TM­AFSC­376.pdf Encyclopedia Britannica. 1998. Gulf of Alaska [Internet]. [Revised March 2006] Available from:https://www.britannica.com/place/Gulf­of­Alaska Mueter, F.J. 2004. Gulf of Alaska. In: marine ecosystems of the North Pacific. PICES Special Publication 1, pp.153­175. Available from:https://meetings.pices.int/publications/special­ publications/NPESR/2004/File_9_pp_153_176.pdf NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), USDC. 2018. Water temperature table of the Alaska coast [Internet]. [Updated 28 July 2018] Available from:https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/dsdt/cwtg/alaska.html Weingartner, T. J., K. Coyle, B. Finney, R. Hopcroft, T. Whitledge, R. Brodeur, M. Dagg, E. Farley, D. Haidvogel, L. Haldorson, A. Hermann, S. Hinckley, J. Napp, P. Stabeno, T. Kline, C. Lee, E. Lessard, T. Royer, and S. Strom. 2002. The Northeast Pacific GLOBEC Program: Coastal Gulf of Alaska. Oceanography, Vol.15 [Internet]. [Published February 2002] Available from:https://tos.org/oceanography/assets/docs/15­ 2_weingartner.pdf Hide 2 replies (1 unread) Catherine Xiao 4 days ago Comment from Meiyi Xiao With seven related sources, this article briefly described the aquatic biome on the Gulf of Alaska. Since each requirement is met, the structure is completed. The location and the variety of species are clearly expressed, but the energy flow and the physical structure are difficult to image based on the pure reading. Illustrate with figures can helps readers' understanding in some cases. Hide 1 reply (1 unread) Andrea Vargas 3 days ago RE: Comment from Meiyi Xiao Really good description of the Gulf of Alaska's aquatic biome. I especially enjoyed the description of the nutrient cycles, it was very descriptive and concise. I believe you did not include a specific section for disturbances although you did mention them at some point (cyclones) and some were mentioned in the human impacts paragraph. The sources seem to be very reliable. However, I would recommend, such as Catherine Xiao did above, to add some images to give us a better idea of how the biome looks.
Taryn Pedersson The Tropical Savannah Biome Location and Climate: The tropical savannah is a widely distributed biome that covers a large portion of Africa and sections of South America, India and Australia. The savannah is known to have a two main seasons, a short­wet season (summer) and a long dry season (winter). The regions normally only get 70­100 centimeters of rain annually3, this is a small amount compared to an example like Vancouver, which resides in the temperate coniferous forest biome, that receives an average of 130 centimetres annually2. The warm continental climate has a temperature range with little variation between seasons that gradually fluctuates between 20­ 30 in the wet season and 20­25 in the dry season4. The patterns of thunderstorms and strong winds indicate the start of the dry season. The long period of drought in the biome causes annual fires that help maintain the biome’s primarily grassy landscape. Reply Taryn Pedersson 4 days ago RE: The Tropical Savannah Biome Biological and Physical Structure: The savannah is described predominantly as a grassland with scattered shrubs and trees. This is due to the lack of rainfall which would not support a forest­like structure in the region. The two plant species co­ dominate in their environment. The two main components to the simple vertical structure of the savannah, grass groundcover and low­density trees and shrubs, have adapted to fit their environment well. Some trees have adapted to have fire resistant bark and also have the ability to retain moisture so they can live through the dry season. The grasses have deep roots so they can survive the common fires in the region by re­growing once the wet season is introduced. The grasses also have nutrient reserves so the animals feeding on the plant species benefits from the rich nutrients available. Herbivores are very abundant in the area, as grass is their primary food source. They then attract predators that want to capture them. Animal species in the ecosystem include giraffes, zebras, buffaloes, kangaroos, mice, moles, gophers, ground squirrels, snakes, worms, termites, beetles, lions, leopards, hyenas, and elephants depending on the savannah region5. All of the species in the area interact together and form many relationships. For example, the effects of the fires leave many small organisms such as insects to die because they are unable to escape, the carcasses of the animals benefit other animals such as birds as a food source. Soil, fungi and insects also have a beneficial relationship as termites excavate the soil which promotes the mixture of minerals and organic matter, that in addition create fungal gardens that houses decomposing plant tissue. Note that tropical savannahs in high rainfall areas are likely to be the most species­rich1. The abiotic aspects of the savannah play a key role in the behaviour and biodiversity in the regions. Factors such as soil, rain, temperature and fire occurrences determine the success of the biome. For example, microclimates created by the shaded tree canopies increase the species diversity and productivity due to the increase in moisture and temperature reduction. It is important to understand that the rainy and dry seasons of the savannah are the key to the biodiversity in the region because it dictates the success of the species throughout the season variability. Taryn Pedersson 4 days ago RE: The Tropical Savannah Biome Processes of the Biome: Many processes help the tropical savannah regions thrive including seasonal variation, littler accumulation5 and decomposition which all increase the productivity and nutrients available in the environment. The nutrient availability allows for variation of microenvironments within the ecosystem depending on abiotic factors present. The abundance of nutrients also allows for other functions such as food webs and species competition to thrive. The carbon cycle plays a large role in the function of the biome due to the large amount of CO2 released in the air by the annual fires, this process is then reversed when the plants absorb the CO2 during the wet season for growth. Taryn Pedersson 4 days ago RE: The Tropical Savannah Biome Human Impacts: Human impacts greatly change the success of an environment. The tropical savannah is very prone to disturbances in its regions. Land­cover conversion is the primary threat to the biodiversity of the biome. The main reason for land use changes is the demand in agriculture practices1 in areas with more rainfall. For example, Costa Rica exports large amounts of tropical fruit and coffee which causes a decline in the richness in biodiversity1. Other areas such as Australia are being put at risk due to the active push by the national government to develop northern Australia for large­scale agriculture1. Other treats to the tropical savannah biome include tourism, unnatural fires and fire reduction. Unnatural fires are caused by poachers who want to make it easier to see and catch their prey in the tall grasses. On the other end, the reduction of fire frequency in other areas causes woody thickening and forest encroachment which can cause a loss in biodiversity1. There are also positive human impacts where humans live in positive relationships with the plants and animals. For example, the Maasai Mara community in Kenya and Tanzania follow sustain hunting practices and agriculture practices by living off of the land. This is something that I practiced during my time travelling there. The variety of impacts on the tropical savannah are negatively effecting the diversity and survival of the species that reside in it. Taryn Pedersson 4 days ago RE: The Tropical Savannah Biome Citations: 1. Murphy BP, Andersen AN, Parr CL. The underestimated biodiversity of tropical grassy biomes. 2016;371(1703):20150319. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0319 2. Rainfall ­ Annual data for Vancouver. [accessed 2018 Jul 28]. https://vancouver.weatherstats.ca/charts/rain­yearly.html 3. Savanna Biomes. [accessed 2018 Jul 28]. http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/savanna.htm 4. Savanna Climates. [accessed 2018 Jul 29]. http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/savanna_climate.htm 5. The Grassland Biome. [accessed 2018 Jul 28]. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/grassland.html Hide 2 replies Nicole Bruce 1 day ago RE: The Tropical Savannah Biome Hey Taryn, I love that you chose the tropical savannah. It's a super interesting environment that we don't think about much in Canada so thank you for sharing your research. You did a great job of explaining the characteristics of this biome. For example, the explanation you gave as to why microclimates in shade have higher biodiversity rates than others made a lot of sense. It was also an interesting fact to share and showed that you have a good understanding of not only this biome, but of the rest of the course material. I also found the part about the impact of fires in the savannah interesting. The fact that both too many fires and too few fires can severely damage the savannah seems a bit confusing at first, but you explained the impacts well. Something I would be interested in researching further is what causes either a lack of fires or an excess of fires. I think it's fair to assume both of the impacts are human‑caused, but I'd love to learn more about if they are direct impacts of things such as humans encroaching further into the savannah or if they are the result of climate change or pollution. Overall, well done and fun to read! Nicole Melissa Pritchard 12 hours ago RE: The Tropical Savannah Biome Thanks Tayrn for the summary on the tropical savannah biome. It is very interesting to think about the small amount of rain that precipitates in this biome compared to the city of Vancouver. Another interesting fact that stood out to me is the wildfire situation. Living here is Canada, we have many fires of the summer months and it is very worrisome of how much forest is destroyed, how this will effect the forestry industry, and the threat it imposes on people and their houses. But in this case, because rainfall is minimal, shrubs and grass require the fire to replenish the soil for nutrients and its affect of herbivores that rely on it for forage. I would recommend mentioning how animals and plants survive and how they have adapted to long drought seasons. Overall this is a great summary and it was very educational.

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