ITMG481 - week 8 forum please read belwo

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timer Asked: Aug 3rd, 2018
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Question description

1. What are some issues of property ownership in cyberspace?

2. Do we need to recognize the power of information in a larger environment?

should be at least 250 words

CHAPTER 12: Ethical Aspects of Emerging and Converging Technologies In Chapter 12, the final chapter of Ethics and Technology, we examine some ethical and social issues that arise in connection with emerging and converging technologies. In particular, we analyze the following questions: What do we mean by “convergence” in the context of cybertechnology? What is ambient intelligence (AmI), and which kinds of social and ethical concerns does it raise? Do ethical concerns affecting bioinformatics research and development deserve special consideration? What is nanotechnology, and why are certain aspects of this technology controversial from an ethical perspective? What are “autonomous machines,” and what kinds of ethical challenges do they pose? Can/Should we design “machines” capable of making moral decisions? In this chapter, we analyze key social and ethical issues that arise in connection with three relatively recent technologies that have resulted from technological convergence: ambient intelligence, bioinformatics/computational genomics, and nanocomputing. We also examine some ethical concerns affecting another emerging technology—autonomous machines—that comprise a relatively new subfield of cyberethics called “machine ethics.” Finally, we propose an ethical framework to guide research and inform policies affecting new and emerging/converging technologies. We begin with a brief analysis of the concept of technological convergence. 12.1: CONVERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE What, exactly, do we mean by “convergence” in the context of cybertechnology? Howard Rheingold describes technological convergence as a phenomenon that occurs when “apparently unrelated scientific and technological paths” cross or intersect “unexpectedly to create an entirely new field.”1 As we move forward in the twenty-first century, cyber and noncyber technologies are converging at a pace that is unprecedented. However, we saw in Chapter 1 that technological convergence as it pertains to cybertechnology is hardly new. For example, we saw that early computer networks became possible because of the convergence of computing and communication technologies in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Consider that many of the ethical issues we examined in the preceding chapters of this textbook arose because of convergent aspects of computing/information and communication technologies. Arguably, convergence within the domain of cybertechnology itself— i.e., the unforeseen blending or merging of disparate, and initially distinct, computing and information technologies—has been continuous and ongoing. One example of this can be found in virtual reality (VR) technology, which, as Rheingold notes, resulted from the convergence of video technology and computer hardware in the 1980s. (Recall our discussion of ethical aspects of VR in Chapter 11.) However, cyber and cyber-related technologies are now converging with non-cyber technologies in ways that challenge our ability to identify and articulate many of the social and ethical issues that also arise either because of, or in connection with, this kind of convergence. One ethical/social concern that cuts across the converging technologies examined in this chapter has to do with the new kinds of privacy threats that are now possible. Because Chapter 5 was devoted to privacy concerns pertaining to cybertechnology, you might assume that the appropriate place to discuss these privacy issues would have been in that chapter. There, however, we examined privacy concerns that tend to fit mainly within the category of “informational privacy.” For example, those privacy issues typically involve concerns that have resulted from exchanging electronic records (of personal information in databases), which were acquired through explicit transactions on the part of users. Although some privacy concerns affecting the converging technologies that we examine in this chapter also fall within the category of informational privacy, many do not. The reason for this is not simply because these privacy issues are associated with newer technologies, but because they introduce different kinds of privacy concerns than those examined in Chapter 5. For example, some privacy issues affecting research in bioinformatics and computational genomics tend to fall under the category of medical/genetic privacy; these issues, as a result of the computational tools and techniques used, also sometimes stretch and strain the traditional boundaries of medical privacy and genetic privacy. We will also see that some privacy issues generated by developments in ambient intelligence technology and nanotechnology introduce a relatively new category of privacy concern called “location privacy,” because these technologies can disclose the precise spatial location of an individual at a particular point in time. Thus, many of the privacy concerns identified and analyzed in this chapter are sufficiently different from those examined in Chapter 5 to warrant a separate context for analysis. However, as you examine the privacy-related issues discussed in this chapter, especially those affected by data mining technology, you may find it helpful to refer back to relevant sections of Chapter 5. 12.2: AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE (AmI) AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING We begin our examination of social and ethical aspects of converging technologies in the twenty-first century with a look at some controversies associated with ambient intelligence (or AmI)—a technology that enables people to live and work in environments that respond to them in “intelligent ways.” 2 AmI has been made possible, in large part, because of the convergence of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies (described in Chapter 11) with (miniaturized) electronic sensing and surveillance technologies. Before describing the technological components comprising AmI, we briefly consider a scenario in which a young mother and her baby arrive at their “intelligent home.” Illustrating some of the promises that AmI’s proponents envision for the near future, Raisinghani et al. (2004) describe a situation that we could call “a day in the life of a smart home”: Arriving home, a surveillance camera recognizes the young mother, automatically disables the alarm, unlocks the front door as she approaches it and turns on the lights to a level of brightness that the home control system has learned she likes. After dropping off her daughter, the young mother gets ready for grocery shopping. The intelligent refrigerator has studied the family’s food consumption over time and knows their preferences as well as what has been consumed since the last time she went shopping. This information has been recorded by an internal tracking system and wireless communication with the intelligent kitchen cabinets. Based on this information, the refrigerator automatically composes a shopping list, retrieves quotations for the items on the list from five different supermarkets in the neighborhood through an Internet link, sends an order to the one with the lowest offer and directs the young mother there. When arriving at the supermarket, the shopping cart has already been filled with the items on her shopping list. Spontaneously, she decides to add three more items to her cart and walks to the check-out. Instead of putting the goods on a belt, the entire cart gets checked out simply by running it past an RFID transponder that detects all items in the cart at once and sends that information to the cash register for processing. 3 Is the scenario described by Raisinghani et al. based on science fiction? Or does it portray a real-world situation in the not-too-distant future? Consider that a 5,040-square-foot “aware home” was developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology over a decade ago and has continued to serve as a laboratory for AmI research and development. Research in ambient intelligence is also underway at other academic institutions, such as the MIT, as well as at companies in the private sector such as Philips Electronics. AmI’s optimists predict that intelligent homes will be available to consumers within the next few years. Whereas proponents of AmI are enthusiastic about many of the conveniences made possible by this technology, critics worry about AmI’s dark side. We should note that some analysts use the expression “ubiquitous computing,” or ubicomp, to describe what we refer to in this chapter as AmI. However, ubicomp can easily be confused with “ubiquitous communication,” a technological component of AmI, which we describe in Section 12.2.2. So we use the expression AmI in this chapter to avoid any confusion between the two terms. To better understand ambient intelligence, including the ethical and social challenges it poses, we briefly describe three key technological components that make AmI possible: pervasive computing, ubiquitous communication, intelligent user interfaces (IUIs). (Tavani 368-371) Tavani, Herman T. Ethics and Technology: Controversies, Questions, and Strategies for Ethical Computing, 4th Edition. Wiley, 2012-11-26. VitalBook file.

Tutor Answer

masterjoe
School: UIUC

Thank you for working with me

Running head: PROPERTY OWNERSHIP IN CYBERSPACE

Property Ownership in Cyberspace

Name:

Institution:

1

PROPERTY OWNERSHIP IN CYBERSPACE

2

Property Ownership in Cyberspace
Intellectual property means the creation of the mind, and it is divided into two broad
categories that are copyright which protects artistic works and literary and industrial property that
protects inventions. Most governments enact copyright legal concept giving exclusive rights to the
original creator. Specific media items like music, movies, and even public domain books are
available for everyone to download and enjoy literary and artistic creation opportunities of...

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