Unit 3 Assignment

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timer Asked: Aug 3rd, 2018
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Question number 3 has I download that I will send the attachment for its a research plan. The 1st attachment is the assignment and the 2nd attachment is for question 3 only. The 3rd attachment is the reading for the unit. Please make sure everything is own words and cited correctly.

Complete I: 1. Part A: Write the first draft of your research paper. Include in-text resources and a bibliography or list of references. 2. Part B: Create a formal outline of the first draft of your research paper. Review Chapter 4 for information on how to make a formal outline. 3. Part C: Fill out "My Research Schedule" Download "My Research Schedule" from COURSE MATERIALS. Check off the areas you have completed up through Unit 3 and upload it into the DROPBOX section for the course. Label it "Research Schedule" and make sure you include your name on the title as you upload it. Indicate in the COMPLETE section that you have put "My Research Schedule" into the DROPBOX. Complete II: Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences Re-write these sentences in the space provided so that they are correct: 4. 1. I am repairing the motorcycle myself it's not easy. 2. Those peaches are delicious they just arrived from Farmington, New Mexico. 3. While winter is my favorite season of cold weather. 4. The movie, "The Avengers," is a great movie it is a favorite of mine. 5. There are fewer than 1,000 giant pandas in existence some conversationalists think we should begin cloning them. 6. I lost my book John found it. 7. Tom watching baseball. 8. Going to the doctor. 9. Giving out candy on Halloween. 10. The dinner that I cooked. Journal Entry: 5. Journal Entry: What is your progress on your research paper? Write down two facts that you have found so far on your topic. Include the reference where you found these facts in the correct MLA or APA format.
MY RESEARCH PLAN ASSIGNMENT: Write a research paper of 5-15 pages, follow APA format with in-text citation and a reference list, and include five sources from different genres or types of references are required. RESEARCH PLAN: To manage your researching and writing time efficiently, make a schedule and follow it. Use the chart below to track the tasks involved in planning and writing your paper. The Due Date column refers to the unit in the course where the task is assigned. When a task is completed add the date completed to the Schedule of Tasks column and a response in the Summary of Your Work column. For tasks not yet completed, add estimated dates in the Schedule of Tasks column to plan and manage your time – you may adjust these dates when you finalize this document in Unit 5. REQUIRED TASKS DATE DUE Choose a topic for your research paper. Unit 1 Narrow your topic. Unit 1 Determine the audience and purpose of your paper. Unit 1 Write a working thesis statement and choose keywords to search for information. Unit 2 Gather and evaluate information on your topic. Unit 2 Compile a working reference list in APA format. Unit 2 Write your final thesis statement. Units 3 Synthesize, organize, and outline your information. Unit 3 Write the first draft of your paper. Unit 3 Revise, edit, and check paper for proper documentation. Unit 4 Write the second draft of your paper and proofread it. Revise, edit, and check for proper documentation. Unit 4 Write the final draft of your paper and proofread it. Unit 5 Make any last-minute changes or corrections. Unit 5 Submit your final research paper. Unit 5 SCHEDULE OF TASKS SUMMARY OF YOUR WORK
W I L L I S French novelist Anatole France once said that his first drafts could , have been written by a schoolboy, his next draft by a bright col- Drafting lege student, his third draft by a superior graduate, and his final draft “only by Anatole France.” Think in those terms K as you write your first draft. Your main objective is to get A ideas down; you’ll have a chance later to improve your S writing. S This chapter provides information and advice about drafting a college-level essay. You’ll find specific advice A for creating the three main parts and arranging inforN mation. D R A Learning Outcomes 1 2 Review your writing situation. 3 Middle: Develop and support your main points. 4 Closing: Complete, clarify, and unify your message. 5 Use sources effectively. Opening: Introduce your topic and line of thinking. 2 1 6 1 T S C h a p t e r 5 : D r a f t in g 53 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 5 Review the form and context. Are you writing as a student, a citizen, a friend, a member of a scholarly community or discipline? Use a voice that represents you well. Focus on your subject. As you develop your first draft, these strategies can help you keep your subject in focus. ■ Use your outline or writing plan as a general guide. Try to develop your main points, but allow new ideas to emerge naturally. ■ Write freely without being too concerned about neatness and correctness. Concentrate on developing your ideas, not on producing a final copy. ■ Include as much detail as possible, continuing until you reach a logical stopping point. ■ Use your writing plan or any charts, lists, or diagrams you’ve produced, but don’t feel absolutely bound by them. ■ Complete your first draft in one or two sittings. ■ Use the most natural voice you can so that the writing will flow smoothly. If your voice is too formal during drafting, you’ll be tempted to stop and edit your words. Reconsider your purpose. Briefly review (1) what you want your writing to do (your task), (2) what you want it to say (your thesis), and (3) how you want to say it. Reconsider your audience. Review who your readers are, including their knowledge of and attitude toward your topic. Then get ready to talk with them, person to person. 54 Part 1 : P ro ces s The following chart lists the main writing moves that occur during the development of a piece of writing. Use itW as a general guide for all of your drafting. Remember to I keep your purpose and audience in mind throughout the drafting process. L L I S , K A S S A N D R A 2 1 6 1 T S Engage your reader. Stimulate and direct the reader’s attention. Establish your direction. Identify the topic and put it in perspective. Get to the point. Narrow your focus and state your thesis. Advance your thesis. Provide background information and cover your main points. Test your ideas. Raise questions and consider alternatives. Support your main points. Add substance and build interest. Build a coherent structure. Start new paragraphs and arrange the support. Use different levels of detail. Clarify and complete each main point. Reassert the main point. Remind the reader of the purpose and rephrase the thesis. Urge the reader. Gain the reader’s acceptance and look ahead. Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Think about your role. Basic Essay Structure: Major Moves Opening As you prepare to write, think about the parts of the rhetorical situation: Middle 1 Make sure you understand the type of writing you should do, the weight of the assignment, and any assessment issues. Ending Review your writing situation. The information on the next two pages will help you develop your opening. You can refer to the sample essays in the handbook for ideas. Writing with Sources: Use sources that aid your purpose and connect to your audience. Also, make sure your sources do not crowd out your own reasoning and thinking—your role in the assignment. Your reader will be preoccupied with other thoughts until you seize, stimulate, and direct his or her attention. Here are some effective ways to “hook” the reader: ■ Mention little-known facts about the topic. Opening: Introduce your topic and line of thinking. W 2I The opening paragraph is one of the most importantL elements in any composition. It should accomplish atL least three essential things: (1) engage the reader; (2) I establish your direction, tone, and level of language; S and (3) introduce your line of thought. , Cautions: Don’t feel bound by the conventional pattern, which may sound stale if not handled well. Don’t let the importance of the first paragraph paralyze you. Relax and write. ■ Pose a challenging question. Why would human ancestors spend days carving something as frivolous as beads while Neanderthals spent days hunting mammoths? ■ Offer a thought-provoking quotation. “The key thing in human evolution is when people start devoting just ridiculous amounts of time to making these [beads],” says archeologist John Shea of Stonybrook University. K A S S A N D R A 2 1 6 1 T S ■ Tell a brief, illuminating story. When I walked into the room, I had only to show my hand to be accepted in the group of strangers there. The Phi Delta Kappa ring on my finger—and on all of our fingers—bound us across space and time as a group. Our ancestors discovered the power of such ornamentation forty thousand years ago. Establish your direction. michaeljung, 2011 / Used under license from Shutterstock.com Advice: The conventional way of approaching the first paragraph is to view it as a kind of “funnel” that draws a reader in and narrows to a main point. Often, the final sentence explicitly states your thesis. Beads may have been what separated human ancestors from their Neanderthal cousins. Yes, beads. The direction of your line of thought should become clear in the opening part of your writing. Here are some moves you might make to set the right course: ■ Identify the topic (issue). Show a problem, a need, or an opportunity. ■ Deepen the issue. Connect the topic, showing its importance. ■ Acknowledge other views. Tell what others say or think about the topic. C h a p t e r 5 : D r a f t in g 55 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Engage your reader. You may choose to state your main point up front, or you may wait until later to introduce your thesis. For example, you could work inductively by establishing an issue, a problem, or a question in your opening and then build toward the answer—your thesis—in your conclusion. (See page 12 for more on inductive reasoning.) Sometimes, in fact, your thesis may simply be implied. In any case, the opening should at least hint at the central issue or thesis of your paper. Here are three ways to get to the point: 1. Narrow your focus. Point to what interests you about the topic. 2. Raise a question. Answer the question in the rest of the essay. 3. State your thesis. If appropriate, craft a sentence that boils down your thinking to a central claim. You can use the thesis sentence as a “map” for the organization of the rest of the essay. (See pages 45–46, 58–61, and 312–314.) Weak Opening Although the opening below introduces the topic, the writing lacks interesting details and establishes no clear focus for the essay. I would like to tell you about the TV show The Simpsons. It’s about this weird family of five people who look kind of strange and act even stranger. In fact, the characters aren’t even real—they’re just cartoons. Strong Opening In the essay opener below, the writer uses his first paragraph to get his readers’ attention and describe his subject. He uses the second paragraph to raise a question that leads him to a statement of his thesis (underlined). The Simpsons, stars of the TV show by the same name, are a typical American family, or at least a parody of one. Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and Maggie Simpson live in Springfield, U.S.A. Homer, the father, is a boorish, obese oaf who works in a nuclear power plant. Marge is an overprotective, nagging mother with an outrageous blue hairdo. Ten-year-old Bart is an obnoxious, “spiky-haired demon.” Lisa is eight and 56 Part 1 : P ro ces s a prodigy on the tenor saxophone and in class. The infant Maggie never speaks but only sucks on her pacifier. What is the attraction of this yellow-skinned family that stars on a show in which all of the characters have pronounced overbites and only four fingers on each hand? Viewers see a little bit of themselves in everything the Simpsons do. The world of Springfield is a parody of the viewer’s world, and Americans can’t get enough of it. Viewers experience this parody in the show’s explanations of family, education, workplace, and politics. W I Insight: Note how, after stating the thesis, the Lwriter forecasts the method of developing that Lthesis. I S , Middle: Develop and support your K main points. A 3 S The middle of the essay is where you do the “heavy S lifting.” In this part you develop the main points that A support your thesis statement. N D Advice: As you write, you will likely make choices that were unforeseen when R you began. Use “scratch outlines” A (temporary jottings) along the way to show where your new ideas may take you. 2 Cautions: Writing that lacks effective detail 1 gives only a vague image of the writer’s intent. 6 1 Writing that wanders loses its hold on the essay’s purpose. T S For both of these reasons, always keep your thesis in mind when you develop the main part of your writing. For help, refer to the guidelines and models on the next five pages. You can refer to the sample essays in this book for additional ideas. Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Get to the point. Build a coherent structure. If you stated a thesis in the opening, you can advance it in the middle paragraphs by covering your main points and supporting them in these ways. Design paragraphs as units of thought that develop and advance your thesis clearly and logically. For example, look at the brief essay that follows, noting how each body paragraph presents ideas with supporting details that build on and deepen the main idea. Explain: Provide important facts, details, and examples. Seeing the Light Narrate: Share a brief story or re-create an experience to illustrate an idea. Describe: Tell in detail how someone appears or how something works. Define: Identify or clarify the meaning of a specific term or idea. Analyze: Examine the parts of something to better understand the whole. Compare: Provide examples to show how two things are alike or different. Argue: Use logic and evidence to prove that something is true. Reflect: Express your thoughts or feelings about something. Cite authorities: Add expert analysis or personal commentary. Christopher Ewing, 2011 / Used under license from Shutterstock.com Test your ideas. W I L L I S , K A S S A N D R A When you write a first draft, you’re testing your initial thinking about your topic. You’re determining whether your thesis is valid and whether you have enough2 compelling information to support it. Here are ways1 to test your line of thinking as you write: 6 Raise questions. Try to anticipate your readers’1 questions. T Consider alternatives. Look at your ideas from dif-S ferent angles; weigh various options; reevaluate your thesis. Answer objections. Directly or indirectly deal with possible problems that a skeptical reader might point out. All lightbulbs make light, so they’re all the same, right? Not quite. You have many choices regarding how to light up your life. Two types of bulbs are the traditional incandescent and the newer, more compact fluorescent. By checking out how they’re different, you can better choose which one to buy. While either incandescent or compact fluorescent bulbs can help you read or find the bathroom at night, each bulb makes light differently. In an incandescent bulb, electricity heats up a tungsten filament (thin wire) to 450 degrees, causing it to glow with a warm, yellow light. A compact fluorescent is a glass tube filled with mercury vapor and argon gas. Electricity causes the mercury to give off ultraviolet radiation. That radiation then causes phosphors coating the inside of the tube to give off light. Both types of bulbs come in many shapes, sizes, and brightnesses, but compacts have some restrictions. Because of their odd shape, compacts may not fit in a lamp well. Compacts also may not work well in very cold temperatures, and they can’t be used with a dimmer switch. On the other hand, while compact fluorescents are less flexible than incandescents, compacts are four times more efficient. For example, a 15-watt compact (A) The writer introduces the topic and states his thesis. (B) The writer starts with a basic explanation of how the two types of lightbulbs function differently. (C) The writer shifts his attention to weaknesses of compact bulbs. (D) He next explains the strengths of compacts. C h a p t e r 5 : D r a f t in g 57 1 (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Advance your thesis. (E) 6 (F) (E) He acknowledges that compacts cost more, but he justifies the cost. (F) The writer rephrases his thesis as a challenge. Arrange supporting details. Organizing information in a logical pattern within a paragraph strengthens its coherence. The following pages explain and illustrate organizational strategies, providing suggested transitions to go with them. (See also pages 75–76.) Definition A definition provides the denotation (dictionary meaning) and connotation (implied meaning) of a given term. It often provides examples, gives anecdotes, and offers negative definitions—what the thing is not. In the paragraph below, the writer begins his definition by posing a question. First of all, what is the grotesque—in visual art and in literature? A term originally applied to Roman cave art that distorted the normal, the grotesque presents the body and mind so that they appear abnormal— different from the bodies and minds that we think belong in our world. Both spiritual and physical, bizarre and familiar, ugly and alluring, the grotesque shocks us, and we respond with laughter and fear. We laugh because the grotesque seems bizarre enough to belong only outside our world; we fear because it feels familiar 58 Part 1 : P ro ces s enough to be part of it. Seeing the grotesque version of life as it is portrayed in art stretches our vision of reality. As Bernard McElroy argues, “The grotesque transforms the world from what we ‘know’ it to be to what we fear it might be. It distorts and exaggerates the surface of reality in order to tell a qualitative truth about it.” —John Van Rys Illustration An illustration supports a general idea with specific reasons, W facts, and details. I L L I S , As the years passed, my obsession grew. Every fiber and cell of my body was obsessed with the number on the scale and how much fat I could pinch on my thigh. No matter how thin I was, I thought I could never be thin enough. I fought my sisters for control of the TV and VCR to do my exercise programs and videos. The cupboards were stacked with cans of diet mixes, the refrigerator full of diet drinks. Hidden in my underwear drawer were stacks of diet pills that I popped along with my vitamins. At my worst, I would quietly excuse myself from family activities to turn on the bathroom faucet full blast and vomit into the toilet. Every day I stood in front of the mirror, a ritual not unlike brushing my teeth, and scrutinized my body. My face, arms, stomach, buttocks, hips, and thighs could never be small enough. —Paula Treick K A S S A N D R Illustration/Elaboration A additionally 2again along with 1also 6and 1another as well T S Analogy besides finally for example for instance in addition in other words moreover next other that is An analogy is a comparison that a writer uses to explain a complex or unfamiliar phenomenon (how the immune system works) in terms of a familiar one (how mall security works). The human body is like a mall, and the immune system is like mall security. Because the mall Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 5 produces as many lumens of light as a 60-watt incandescent! Why? Incandescents turn only about 5 percent of electricity into light and give off the other 95 percent as heat. But are compacts less expensive than incandescents? In the short run, no. A compact costs about $15 while an incandescent costs only a dollar. However, because compacts burn less electricity—and last 7 to 10 times longer—in the long run, compacts are less expensive. Now that you’re no longer in the dark about lightbulbs, take a look at the lamp you’re using to read this essay. Think about the watts (electricity used), lumens (light produced), efficiency, purchase price, and lamplife. Then decide how to light up your life in the future. —Rob King Cause and Effect as a result because consequently due to the fact that every time that Narration W I L L I S , Konstantin Remizov, 2011 / Used under license from Shutterstock.com Cause and Effect K Cause-and-effect organization shows how events areA linked to their results. If you start with effects, follow S with specific causes; if you begin with causes, follow with specific effects. The example below discusses theS A effects of hypothermia on the human body. Even a slight drop in the normal human body N temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit causes D hypothermia. Often produced by accidental or prolonged exposure to cold, the condition forces R all bodily functions to slow down. The heart rate A and blood pressure decrease. Breathing becomes slower and shallower. As the body temperature drops, these effects become even more dramatic until it reaches somewhere between 86 and 82 degrees Fahrenheit and the person lapses into unconsciousness. When the temperature reaches between 65 and 59 degrees Fahrenheit, heart action, blood flow, and electrical brain activity stop. Normally such a condition would be fatal. However, as the body cools down, the need for oxygen also slows down. A person can survive in a deep hypothermic state for an hour or longer and be revived without serious complications. inevitably resulting in since therefore 2 1 6 1 T S In the paragraph below, the writer uses narration and chronological order to relate an anecdote—a short, illustrative story. When I was six or seven years old, growing up in Pittsburgh, I used to take a precious penny of my own and hide it for someone else to find. It was a curious compulsion; sadly, I’ve never been seized by it since. For some reason I always “hid” the penny along the same stretch of sidewalk up the street. I would cradle it at the roots of a sycamore, say, or in a hole left by a chipped-off piece of sidewalk. Then I would take a piece of chalk, and, starting at either end of the block, draw huge arrows leading up to the penny from both directions. After I learned to write I labeled the arrows: surprise ahead or money this way. I was greatly excited, during all this arrow-drawing, at the thought of the first lucky passer-by who would receive in this way, regardless of merit, a free gift from the universe. But I never lurked about. I would go straight home and not give the matter another thought, until, some months later, I would be gripped again by the impulse to hide another penny. —W. Somerset Maugham, Of Human Bondage Process In the paragraph that follows, a student writer describes the process of entering the “tube,” or “green room,” while surfing. At this point you are slightly ahead of the barreling part of the wave, and you need to “stall,” or slow yourself, to get into the tube. There are three methods of stalling used in different situations. If you are slightly ahead of the tube, you can drag your inside hand along the water to stall. If you are a couple of feet in front of the barrel, apply all your weight onto your back foot and sink the tail of the board into the water. This is known as a “tail stall” for obvious reasons, and —Laura Black C h a p t e r 5 : D r a f t in g 59 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. has hundreds of employees and thousands of customers, security guards must rely on photo IDs, name tags, and uniforms to decide who should be allowed to open cash registers and who should have access to the vault. In the same way, white blood cells and antibodies need to use DNA cues to recognize which cells belong in a body and which do not. Occasionally security guards make mistakes, wrestling Kookie the Klown to the ground while DVD players “walk” out of the service entrance, but these problems amount only to allergic reactions or little infections. If security guards become hypervigilant, detaining every customer and employee, the situation is akin to leukemia, in which white blood cells attack healthy cells. If security guards become corrupt, letting thieves take a “five-finger discount,” the situation is akin to AIDS. Both systems—mall security and human immunity—work by correctly differentiating friend from foe. Narration/Process/Chronological a day before about after afterward as soon as at before during finally first in the end later meanwhile next second soon then today tomorrow until yesterday —Luke Sunukjian, “Entering the Green Room” Chronological Order Chronological (time) order helps you tell a story or present steps in a process. For example, the following paragraph describes how cement is made. Notice how the writer explains every step and uses transitional words to lead readers through the process. The production of cement is a complicated process. The raw materials that go into cement consist of about 60 percent lime, 25 percent silica, and 5 percent alumina. The remaining 10 percent is a varying combination of gypsum and iron oxide (because the amount of gypsum determines the drying time of the cement). First, this mixture is ground up into very fine particles and fed into a kiln. Cement kilns, the largest pieces of moving machinery used by any industry, are colossal steel cylinders lined with firebricks. They can be 25 feet in diameter and up to 750 feet long. The kiln is built at a slant and turns slowly as the cement mix makes its way down from the top end. A flame at the bottom heats the kiln to temperatures of up to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. When the melted cement compound emerges from the kiln, it cools into little marblelike balls called clinker. Finally, the clinker is ground to a consistency finer than flour and packaged as cement. —Kevin Maas Deyan Georgiev, 2011 / Used under license from Shutterstock.com 60 Part 1 : P ro ces s Classification When W classifying a subject, place the subject in its appropriate category and then show how this subject is I different from other subjects in the same category. In L the following paragraph, a student writer uses classifiL to describe the theory of temperament. cation I Medieval doctors believed that “four S temperaments rule mankind wholly.” According to this theory, each person has a distinctive , temperament or personality (sanguine, K A S S A N D R A phlegmatic, melancholy, or choleric) based on the balance of four elements in the body, a balance peculiar to the individual. The theory was built on Galen’s and Hippocrates’ notion of “humors,” which stated that the body contains blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile—four fluids that maintain the balance within the body. The sanguine person was dominated by blood, associated with fire: Blood was hot and moist, and the person was fat and prone to laughter. The phlegmatic person was dominated by phlegm (associated with earth) and was squarish and slothful—a sleepy type. The melancholy person was dominated by cold, black bile (connected with the element of water) and as a result was pensive, peevish, and solitary. The choleric person was dominated by hot, yellow bile (air) and thus was inclined to anger. 2 1 6 1 T Classification Sa typical type another kind a second variety in one category one type —Jessica Radsma rarest of all the third variety the most common the most popular Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. its purpose is to decrease your board speed. If you are moving faster than the wave is breaking, you need to do what is called a “wrap-around.” To accomplish this maneuver, lean back away from the wave while applying pressure on the tail. This shifts your forward momentum away from the wave and slows you down. When the wave comes, turn toward the wave and place yourself in the barrel. Climax Climax is a method in which you first present details and then provide a general climactic statement or conclusion drawn from the details. As I walked home, I glanced across the road to see a troubling scene unfold. A burly man strode along the curb, shoulders rounded and face clenched in anger or grief. Behind him, a slim little girl sat on her heels on the sidewalk, hands in her lap and tears streaming down white cheeks. I glanced back at that brute, who climbed into his big black truck and started up the engine. I almost ran across the road to stop him, to set right whatever he’d done. But then I spotted the little dog lying very still in the gutter. The man in the truck must have hit the poor creature, stopped to see if he could help, realized he couldn’t, apologized, and left the little girl to grieve. There was nothing I could do, either. Face clenched, I looked back to my side of the street and walked on. W I L L I S , Jiri Hera, 2011 / Used under license from Shutterstock.com —Jamal Kendal K A Compare-Contrast To compare and contrast, show how two or more sub-S S jects are similar and different. The old man behind the counter is no doubt A Pappy, after which Pappy’s Grocery is named. He N leans on the glass display case, world weary and watchful, tracking the youth by the snack display. D The folds deepen around Pappy’s intense eyes R as the young customer picks lightly at a bag of A potato chips, lifts a can of cashews, runs lithe fingers over the packs of gum. He crouches for a better look at the snack cakes, his pants sliding below colorful boxers. Pappy hitches his own belt higher over his tucked-in shirt. “You gonna buy anything?” The young customer startles, looks up with a smooth face and wide eyes, stands, and walks from Pappy’s Grocery. —Tina Jacobs 2 1 6 1 T S as also although both but by contrast even though however in the same way like likewise one way on the one hand on the other hand otherwise similarly still yet Writing with Sources: Advance and deepen your thesis with reliable reasons and evidence. A typical supporting paragraph starts with a topic sentence and elaborates it with detailed evidence and careful reasoning. Make sure to smoothly integrate quotations into the flow of the writing. Also, avoid dropping in quotations without setting them up and explaining them. Closing: Complete, clarify, and unify your message. 4 Closing paragraphs can be important for tying up loose ends, clarifying key points, or signing off with the reader. In a sense, the entire essay is a preparation for an effective ending; the ending helps the reader look back over the essay with new understanding and appreciation. Advice: Because the ending can be so important, draft a variety of possible endings. Choose the one that flows best from a sense of the whole. Cautions: If your thesis is weak or unclear, you will have a difficult time writing a satisfactory ending. To strengthen the ending, strengthen the thesis. You may have heard this formula for writing an essay: “Say what you’re going to say, say it, then say what you’ve just said.” Remember, though, if you need to “say what you’ve just said,” say it in new words. C h a p t e r 5 : D r a f t in g 61 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Comparison/Contrast I realize I’ve got to catch my bus. I’ve spent too much time talking to this woman whose life is a wreck. I give her some spare change and then head off. She doesn’t follow me. It’s kind of a relief. Toronto is a great city, but sometimes you have weird experiences there. Once a street vendor gave me a free falafel. I didn’t want to eat it because maybe something was wrong with it. What a weird city! Reassert the main point. If an essay is complicated, the reader may need reclarification at the end. Show that you are fulfilling the promises you made in the beginning. Remind the reader. Recall what you first set out to do; check off the key points you’ve covered; or answer any questions left unanswered. Rephrase the thesis. Restate your thesis in light of the most important support you’ve given. Deepen and expand your original thesis. Urge the reader. Your reader may still be reluctant to accept your ideas or argument. The ending is your last chance to gain the reader’s acceptance. Here are some possible strategies: Show the implications. Follow further possibilities raised by your train of thought; be reasonable and convincing. Look ahead. Suggest other possible connections. List the benefits. Show the reader the benefits of accepting or applying the things you’ve said. Insight: When your writing comes to an effective stopping point, conclude the essay. Don’t tack on another idea. Complete and unify your message. Your final paragraphs are your last opportunity to refocus, unify, and otherwise reinforce your message. Draft the closing carefully, not merely to finish the essay but to further advance your purpose and thesis. Weak Ending The ending below does not focus on and show commitment to the essay’s main idea. Rather than reinforcing this idea, the writing leads off in a new direction. 62 Part 1 : P ro ces s Strong Endings Below are final paragraphs from two essays in this W book. Listen to their tone, watch how they reconsidI the essay’s ideas, and note how they offer further er food L for thought. (The first example is a revision of the weak L paragraph above.) I S , K A S S A N D R A 2 1 6 1 T S I tell her I need to get going. She should go, too, or she’ll be late for the hearing. Before getting up, I reach into my wallet and give her two TTC passes and some spare change. I walk her to the street and point her toward Old City Hall. She never thanks me, only looks at me one last time with immense vulnerability and helplessness. Then she walks away. I wonder as I hurry towards the station if she’ll be okay, if her boyfriend really will get out of jail, and if her grandmother will ever take her back. Either way, I think as I cross Bay Street, what more can I do? I have a bus to catch. (See the full essay on pages 103–105.) Passion and power permeate all of Latin America’s music. The four major types of music— indigenous, Iberian and Mestizo folk, AfroAmerican, and popular urban—are as diverse as the people of Latin America, and each style serves a valued need or function in Latinos’ everyday lives. As a result, those listening to Latin American music—whether it is a Peruvian Indian’s chant, a Venezuelan farmer’s whistled tune, a Cuban mambo drummer’s vivacious beat, or the Bogotá rock concert’s compelling rhythms—are hearing much more than music. They are hearing the passion and power of the Latin American people. Writing with Sources: Save the best for last. Consider using an especially thought-provoking statement, quotation, or detail in your conclusion. Doing so can help you clinch your point. Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. The information on this page will help you develop your ending. For additional strategies, refer to the sample essays elsewhere in this book. 5 Working with Sources: If you are using sources, take care not to overwhelm your draft with source material. Keep the focus on your own ideas: ■ Avoid strings of references and chunks of source material with no discussion, explanation, or interpretation on your part in between. ■ Don’t offer entire paragraphs of material from a source (whether paraphrased or quoted) with a single in-text citation at the end. When you do so, your thinking disappears. ■ Be careful not to overload your draft with complex information and dense data lacking explanation. ■ Resist the urge to simply copy and paste big chunks from sources. Even if you document the sources, your paper will quickly become a patchwork of source material with a few weak stitches (your contribution) holding it together. ■ Note the careful use of source material in the following paragraph. (A) (B) (C) (D) W I L L I S , K A S Sample Paragraph Showing Integration of Source Material S Antibiotics are effective only against infections causedA by bacteria and should never be used against infections caused by viruses. Using an antibiotic against a viral infection is like throwing N water on a grease fire—water may normally put out fires but will onlyD worsen the situation for a grease fire. In the same way, antibiotics fight infections, but they cause the body harm only when they are usedRto fight infections caused by viruses. Viruses cause the common cold, A the flu, and most sore throats, sinus infections, coughs, and bronchitis. Yet antibiotics are commonly prescribed for these viral infections. The New England Journal of Medicine reports that 22.7 million 2 kilograms (25,000 tons) of antibiotics is prescribed each year in the 1 United States alone (Wenzel and Edmond, 1962). Meanwhile, the 6 CDC reports that approximately 50 percent of those prescriptions are completely unnecessary (“Antibiotic Overuse” 25). “Every year, 1 tens of millions of prescriptions for antibiotics are written to treat viral illnesses for which these antibiotics offer no benefits,”T says the CDC’s antimicrobial resistance director David Bell, M.D.S (qtd. in Bren 30). Such mis-prescribing is simply bad medical practice that contributes to the problem of growing bacterial infection. (A) Topic sentence: idea elaborating and supporting thesis (B) Development of idea through reasoning (C) Support of idea through reference to source material (D) Concluding statement of idea Critical-Thinking and Writing Activities As directed by your instructor, complete the following critical-thinking and writing activities by yourself or with classmates. 1. Patricia T. O’Connor says, “All writing begins life as a first draft, and first drafts are never any good. They’re not supposed to be.” Is this claim true? Why or why not? What do you hope to accomplish with a first draft? 2. Read the final paragraphs of any three essays included in this book. Write a brief analysis of each ending based on the information on pages 61–62. 3. Imagine that you are a journalist who has been asked to write an article about a wedding, a funeral, or another significant event you have experienced. Choose an event and sketch out a plan for your article. Include the main writing moves and the type of information at each stage of your writing. Checklist: Learning Outcomes Use the checklist below to assess what you have learned about taking a position in writing. I have reconsidered the rhetorical situation, thinking about my role, the subject, my purpose, my audience, the medium, and the context. I understand the essay structure—opening, middle, and closing. I have created a strong opening. n The opening engages the reader. n The opening establishes a focus and states a main point. I have developed the ideas in the middle of my essay. n The middle advances my thesis by developing and testing ideas. n The middle orders supporting details in a clear, logical way. I have created an effective closing. n The closing reasserts the main point and completes the message. I understand how to use sources to best effect in a draft. C h a p t e r 5 : D r a f t in g 63 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Use sources effectively. 3 32 Sentence Errors This chapter will help you familiarize yourself with common sentence errors, so that you will know what to watch for when editing your writing. Remember, sentence errors can derail the meaning of your writing, so be careful to avoid them. Learning Outcomes 418 1 2 3 4 Subject-Verb Agreement 5 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers 6 7 Ambiguous Wording Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Shifts in Sentence Construction Fragments, Comma Splices, and Run-Ons Nonstandard Language Part 3: Hand book Subject-Verb Agreement 1 The subject and verb of any clause must agree in both person and number. Person indicates whether the subject of the verb is first, second, or third person. Number indicates whether the subject and verb are singular or plural. Singular Plural WFirst Person I think we think I Second Person you think you think LThird Person he/she/it thinks they think L I Agreement in Number — A verb must agree in number (singular or plural) with its subject. S ,The student was rewarded for her hard work. K (Both the subject student and the verb was are singular; they agree in number.) Note: Do not be confused by phrases that come beA the subject and the verb. Such phrases may between S with words like in addition to, as well as, or togin gether S with. A The instructor, as well as the students, is expected to attend the orientation. N (Instructor, not students, is the subject.) D R Compound Subjects — Compound subjects connected A with and usually require a plural verb. Dedication and creativity are trademarks of 2successful students. Note: 1 If a compound subject joined by and is thought of 6 as a unit, use a singular verb. 1Macaroni and cheese is always available in the cafeteria. T S Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. WRITE Brooke Becker, 2011 / Used under license from Shutterstock.com part There are many nontraditional students on our campus. Here is the syllabus you need. (Students and syllabus are the subjects of these sentences, not the adverbs there and here.) Note: Using an inverted sentence, on occasion, will lend variety to your writing style. Simply remember to make the delayed subjects agree with the verbs. W However, included among the list’s topmost items I was “revise research paper.” (Because the true subject here is singular—one L item—the singular verb was is correct.) L I Titles as Subjects — When the subject of a sentence is the title of a work of art, literature, or music,S the verb should be singular. This is also true of a word, (or phrase) being used as a word (or phrase). K A (Even though the title of the book, Lyrical Ballads, is plural in form, it is still a single title being used S as the subject, correctly taking the singular verb S was.) A “Over-the-counter drugs” is a phrase that means N nonprescription medications. (Even though the phrase is plural in form, it is still D a single phrase being used as the subject, correctly R taking the singular verb is.) A Lyrical Ballads was published in 1798 by two of England’s greatest poets, Wordsworth and Coleridge. Singular/Plural Subjects — When one of the sub- jects joined by or or nor is singular and one is plural, the verb must agree with the subject nearer the verb. Neither the professor nor her students were in the lab. (The plural subject students is nearer the verb; therefore, the plural verb were agrees with students.) Neither the students nor the professor was in the lab. (The singular subject professor is nearer the verb; therefore, the singular verb was is used to agree with professor.) Collective Nouns — Generally, collective nouns (faculty, pair, crew, assembly, congress, species, crowd, army, team, committee, and so on) take a singular verb. However, if you want to emphasize differences among individuals in the group or are referring to the group as individuals, you can use a plural verb. My lab team takes its work very seriously. (Team refers to the group as a unit; it requires a singular verb, takes.) The team assume separate responsibilities for each study they undertake. (In this example, team refers to individuals within the group; it requires a plural verb, assume.) Note: Collective nouns such as (the) police, poor, elderly, and young use plural verbs. The police direct traffic here between 7:00 and 9:00 a.m. Singular Subjects with Or or Nor — Singular 2 subjects joined by or or nor take a singular verb. Plural Nouns with Singular Meaning — Some 1 6 Note: When the subject nearer a present-tense verb1 is the singular pronoun I or you, the correct singularT verb does not end in s. S Economics is sometimes called “the dismal science.” Neither a textbook nor a notebook is required for this class. Neither Marcus nor I feel (not feels) right about this. nouns that are plural in form but singular in meaning take a singular verb: mumps, measles, news, mathematics, economics, robotics, and so on. The economic news is not very good. Note: The most common exceptions are scissors, trousers, tidings, and pliers. Either Rosa or you have (not has) to take notes for me. The scissors are missing again. Either you or Rosa has to take notes for me. Are these trousers prewashed? Chapter 32: Sentence Errors 419 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Delayed Subjects — Delayed subjects occur when the verb comes before the subject in a sentence. In these inverted sentences, the true (delayed) subject must still agree with the verb. The cause of his problem was poor study habits. (Cause requires a singular verb, even though the predicate nominative, habits, is plural.) Indefinite Pronoun with Singular Verb — Many indefinite pronouns (someone, somebody, something; anyone, anybody, anything; no one, nobody, nothing; everyone, everybody, everything; each, either, neither, one, this) serving as subjects require a singular verb. Everybody is welcome to attend the chancellor’s reception. No one was sent an invitation. (Habits requires a plural verb, even though the predicate nominative, cause, is singular.) Nouns Showing Measurement, Time, and Money — Mathematical phrases and phrases that name a period of time, a unit of measurement, or an amount of money take a singular verb. Three and three is six. Eight pages is a long paper on this topic. In my opinion, two dollars is a high price for a cup of coffee. Relative Pronouns — When a relative pronoun (who, which, that) is used as the subject of a dependent clause, the number of the verb is determined by that pronoun’s antecedent. (The antecedent is the word to which the pronoun refers.) This is one of the books that are required for English class. (The relative pronoun that requires the plural verb are because its antecedent is books, not the word one. To test this type of sentence for agreement, read the of phrase first: Of the books that are . . . ) Note: Generally, the antecedent is the nearest noun or pronoun to the relative pronoun and is often the object of a preposition. Sometimes, however, the antecedent is not the nearest noun or pronoun, especially in sentences with the phrase “the only one of.” Dr. Graciosa wondered why Claire was the only one of her students who was not attending lectures regularly. (In this case, the addition of the modifiers the only changes the meaning of the sentence. The antecedent of who is one, not students. Only one student was not attending.) 420 Part 3: Hand book Note: Although it may seem to indicate more than one, each is a singular pronoun and requires a singuW lar verb. Do not be confused by words or phrases that I between the indefinite pronoun and the verb. come LEach of the new students is (not are) encouraged to Lattend the reception. I Indefinite Pronoun with Plural Verb — Some inS definite pronouns (both, few, many, most, and several) , are plural; they require a plural verb. Few are offered the opportunity to study abroad. K A Most take advantage of opportunities closer to home. S Indefinite Pronoun or Quantity Word with SinS gular/Plural Verb — Some indefinite pronouns or A quantity words (all, any, most, part, half, none, and N some) may be either singular or plural, depending on D nouns they refer to. Look inside the prepositional the phrase R to see what the antecedent is. A Some of the students were missing. (Students, the noun that some refers to, is plural; therefore, the pronoun some is considered plural, and the plural verb were is used to agree with it.) 2 1 Most of the lecture was over by the time we arrived. 6 (Because lecture is singular, most is also singular, 1 requiring the singular verb was.) T S cozyta, 2011 / Used under license from Shutterstock.com His poor study habits were the cause of his problem. Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. With Linking Verbs — When a sentence contains a linking verb (usually a form of be)—and a noun or pronoun comes before and after that verb—the verb must agree with the subject, not the predicate nominative (the noun or pronoun coming after the verb). Connie or Shavonn left her headset in the library. 2 A pronoun must agree in number, person, and gender (sex) with its antecedent. The antecedent is the word to which the pronoun refers. Yoshi brought his laptop and e-book to school. (The pronoun his refers to the antecedent Yoshi. Both the pronoun and its antecedent are singular, third person, and masculine; therefore, the proW noun is said to agree with its antecedent.) I Singular Pronoun — Use a singular pronoun toL refer to such antecedents as each, either, neither, one,L anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, somebody, anI other, nobody, and a person. S Each of the maintenance vehicles has their doors , locked at night. (Incorrect) Each of the maintenance vehicles has its doors locked at night. (Correct: Both Each and its are singular.) K A Somebody left his or her (not their) vehicle S unlocked. (Correct) S Plural Pronoun — When a plural pronoun (they,A their) is mistakenly used with a singular indefiniteN pronoun (such as everyone or everybody), you may D correct the sentence by replacing their or they with optional pronouns (her or his or he or she), or makeR A the antecedent plural. Everyone must learn to wait their turn. (Incorrect) Everyone must learn to wait her or his turn. (Correct: Optional pronouns her or his are used.) People must learn to wait their turns. (Correct: The singular antecedent, Everyone, is changed to the plural antecedent, People.) 2 1 6 1 T S Two or More Antecedents — When two or more antecedents are joined by and, they are considered plural. Tomas and Jamal are finishing their assignments. When two or more singular antecedents are joined by or or nor, they are considered singular. Note: If one of the antecedents is masculine and one feminine, the pronouns should likewise be masculine and feminine. Is Ahmad or Phyllis bringing his or her laptop? Note: If one of the antecedents joined by or or nor is singular and one is plural, the pronoun is made to agree with the nearer antecedent. Neither Ravi nor his friends want to spend their time studying. Neither his friends nor Ravi wants to spend his time studying. Shifts in Sentence Construction 3 A shift is an improper change in structure midway through a sentence. The following examples will help you identify and fix several different kinds of shifts. Shift in Person — Shift in person is mixing first, second, or third person within a sentence. Shift: One may get spring fever unless you live in California or Florida. (The sentence shifts from third person, one, to second person, you.) Corrected: You may get spring fever unless you live in California or Florida. (Stays in second person) Corrected: People may get spring fever unless they live in California or Florida. (People, a third person plural noun, requires a third person plural pronoun, they.) Shift in Tense — Shift in tense is using more than one tense in a sentence when only one is needed. Shift: Sheila looked at nine apartments in one weekend before she had chosen one. (Tense shifts from past to past perfect for no reason.) Corrected: Sheila looked at nine apartments in one weekend before she chose one. (Tense stays in past.) Chapter 32: Sentence Errors 421 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Pronoun–Antecedent Agreement passive voice. Usually, a sentence beginning in active voice should remain so to the end. Shift: As you look (active voice) for just the right place, many interesting apartments will probably be seen. (passive voice) Corrected: As you look (active voice) for just the right place, you will probably see (active voice) many interesting apartments. Unparallel Construction — Unparallel construction occurs when the kind of words or phrases being used shifts or changes in the middle of a sentence. Shift: In my hometown, people pass the time shooting pool, pitching horseshoes, and at softball games. (Sentence shifts from a series of gerund phrases, shooting pool and pitching horseshoes, to the prepositional phrase at softball games.) (Now all three activities are gerund phrases—they are consistent, or parallel.) 4 Except in a few special situations, you should use complete sentences when you write. By definition, a complete sentence expresses a complete thought. However, a sentence may actually contain several ideas, not just one. The trick is getting those ideas to work together to form a clear, interesting sentence that expresses your exact meaning. Among the most common sentence errors that writers make are fragments, comma splices, and run-ons. Fragments — A fragment is a phrase or dependent clause used as a sentence. It is not a sentence, however, because a phrase lacks a subject, a verb, or some other essential part, and a dependent clause must be connected to an independent clause to complete its meaning. 422 Part 3: Hand book (This is a sentence followed by a fragment. This error can be corrected by combining the fragment with the sentence.) Corrected: Pete gunned the engine, forgetting that the boat was hooked to the truck. Fragment: Even though my best friend had a little boy last year. (This clause does not convey a complete thought. We need to know what is happening despite the birth of the little boy.) W though my best friend had a little ICorrected: Even boy last year, I do not comprehend the L full meaning of “motherhood.” L Comma Splices — A comma splice is a mistake I made when two independent clauses are connected S (“spliced”) with only a comma. The comma is not , enough: A period, semicolon, or conjunction is needed. Parallel: In my hometown, people pass the time shooting pool, pitching horseshoes, and playing softball. Fragments, Comma Splices, and Run-Ons Fragment: Pete gunned the engine. Forgetting that the boat was hooked to the truck. K Splice: A S Corrected: S A N DCorrected: R A 2Corrected: 1 6 1 T S People say that being a stay-at-home mom or dad is an important job, their actions tell a different story. People say that being a stay-at-home mom or dad is an important job, but their actions tell a different story. (The coordinating conjunction but, added after the comma, corrects the splice.) People say that being a stay-at-home mom or dad is an important job; their actions tell a different story. (A semicolon—rather than just a comma—makes the sentence correct.) People say that being a stay-at-home mom or dad is an important job. Their actions tell a different story. (A period creates two sentences and corrects the splice.) Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Shift in Voice — Shift in voice is mixing active with Run-on: The Alamo holds a special place in American history it was the site of an important battle between the United States and Mexico. Corrected: The Alamo holds a special place in American history because it was the site of an important battle between the United States and Mexico. (A subordinating conjunction is added to fix the run-on by making the second W clause dependent.) I Run-on: Antonio de Santa Anna, the president of Mexico who once held a funeral for his amputated leg, is the same Santa Anna who stormed the Alamo he led his troops to victory over the Texan rebels defending that fort. Two famous American frontiersmen died they were James Bowie and Davy Crockett. Santa Anna enjoyed fame, power, and respect among his followers. He died in 1876 he was poor, blind, and ignored. Corrected: Antonio de Santa Anna, the president of Mexico who once held a funeral for his amputated leg, is the same Santa Anna who stormed the Alamo. He led his troops to victory over the Texan rebels defending that fort. Two famous American frontiersmen were killed in the battle; they were James Bowie and Davy Crockett. Santa Anna enjoyed fame, power, and respect among his followers. When he died in 1876, he was poor, blind, and ignored. L L I S , K A S S A N D R A The writer corrected the run-on sentences in the para-2 graph above by adding punctuation and making one 1 sentence a dependent clause. The writer makes further improvements in the paragraph below by revising one6 sentence and by combining two sets of short sentences1 into one stronger sentence. T Improved Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers 5 Writing is thinking. Before you can write clearly, you must think clearly. Nothing is more frustrating for the reader than having to reread writing just to understand its basic meaning. Look carefully at the common errors that follow. Then use this section as a checklist when you revise. Always avoid leaving misplaced or dangling modifiers in your finished work. Misplaced Modifiers — Misplaced modifiers are descriptive words or phrases so separated from what they are describing that the reader is confused. Misplaced: The neighbor’s dog has nearly been barking nonstop for two hours. (Nearly been barking?) Corrected: The neighbor’s dog has been barking nonstop for nearly two hours. (Watch your placement of only, just, nearly, barely, and so on.) Misplaced: The commercial advertised an assortment of combs for active people with unbreakable teeth. (People with unbreakable teeth?) Corrected: The commercial advertised an assortment of combs with unbreakable teeth for active people. (Combs with unbreakable teeth) Misplaced: The pool staff gave large beach towels to the students marked with chlorineresistant ID numbers. (Students marked with chlorine-resistant ID numbers?) Corrected: The pool staff gave large beach towels marked with chlorine-resistant ID numbers to the students. (Towels marked with chlorine-resistant ID numbers) S Antonio de Santa Anna, the president of Mexico who once held a funeral for his amputated leg, is the same Santa Anna who stormed the Alamo. He led his troops to victory over Texan rebels defending that fort. Two famous American frontiersmen, James Bowie and Davy Crockett, were killed in the battle. Santa Anna enjoyed fame, power, and respect among his followers; but when he died in 1876, he was poor, blind, and ignored. Chapter 32: Sentence Errors 423 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. tences (two independent clauses) joined without adequate punctuation or a connecting word. Smit, 2011 / Used under license from Shutterstock.com Run-Ons — A run-on sentence is actually two sen- Dangling Modifiers — Dangling modifiers are descriptive phrases that tell about a subject that isn’t stated in the sentence. These often occur as participial phrases containing ing or ed words. Dangling: After standing in line all afternoon, the manager informed us that all the tickets had been sold. Incomplete: After completing our lab experiment, we concluded that helium is lighter. Corrected: After we had stood in line all afternoon, the manager informed us that all the tickets had been sold. Dangling: After living in the house for one month, the electrician recommended we update all the wiring. (It sounds as if the electrician has been living in the house.) Corrected: After living in the house for one month, we hired an electrician, who recommended we update all the wiring. 6 Sloppy sentences confuse readers. No one should have to wonder, “What does this writer mean?” When you revise and edit, check for indefinite pronoun references, incomplete comparisons, and unclear wording. Indefinite Pronoun References — An indefinite reference is a problem caused by careless use of pronouns. There must always be a word or phrase nearby (its antecedent) that a pronoun clearly replaces. Corrected: After completing our lab experiment, we concluded that helium is lighter than oxygen. Unclear Wording — One type of ambiguous writWis wording that has two or more possible meanings ing I to an unclear reference to something elsewhere in due the L sentence. L Unclear: I couldn’t believe that my sister bought a cat with all those allergy problems. I (Who has the allergy problems—the cat or the sister?) S ,Corrected: I couldn’t believe that my sister, who is very allergic, bought a cat. K Unclear: A S SCorrected: A N D R A Dao intended to wash the car when he finished his homework, but he never did. (It is unclear which he never did—wash the car or finish his homework.) Dao intended to wash the car when he finished his homework, but he never did manage to wash the car. Nonstandard Language 7 Indefinite: When Tonya attempted to put her dictionary on the shelf, it fell to the floor. Nonstandard language is language that does not conform 2 to the standards set by schools, media, and public institutions. It is often acceptable in everyday con1 versation and in fictional writing but seldom is used 6 formal speech or other forms of writing. in Corrected: When Tonya attempted to put her dictionary on the shelf, the shelf fell to the floor. 1 Colloquial Language — Colloquial language is T wording used in informal conversation that is unacS ceptable in formal writing. (The pronoun it could refer to either the dictionary or the shelf since both are singular nouns.) Indefinite: Juanita reminded Kerri that she needed to photocopy her résumé before going to her interview. (Who needed to photocopy her résumé— Juanita or Kerri?) Corrected: Juanita reminded Kerri to photocopy her résumé before going to her interview. 424 Part 3: Hand book Colloquial: Hey, wait up! Cal wants to go with. Standard: Hey, wait! Cal wants to go with us. Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. (Lighter than what?) (It sounds as if the manager has been standing in line all afternoon.) Ambiguous Wording Incomplete Comparisons — Incomplete comparisons—leaving out words that show exactly what is being compared to what—can confuse readers. Double Preposition: Pick up the dirty clothes from off the floor. Double Negative — A double negative is a sentence that contains two negative words used to express a single negative idea. Double negatives are unacceptable in academic writing. Standard: Pick up the dirty clothes from the floor. Substitution — Avoid substituting and for to. Substitution: Try and get to class on time. Double Negative: After paying for essentials, I haven’t got no money left. Standard: I haven’t got any money left. / I have no money left. Standard: Try to get to class on time. W Avoid substituting of for have when combining withI could, would, should, or might. L Substitution: I should of studied for that exam. L Standard: I should have studied for that exam. I S , K A Problems S Does every subject agree with its verb? (See pages 418–420.) S A ■ In person and number? ■ When a word or phrase comes between the N subject and the verb? D ■ When the subject is delayed? R ■ When the subject is a title? A ■ When a compound subject is connected Quick Guide: Avoiding Sentence with or? ■ When the subject is a collective noun (faculty, team, or crowd)? ■ When the subject is a relative pronoun (who, which, that)? ■ When the subject is an indefinite pronoun (everyone, anybody, or many)? 2 1 6 1 T S Does every pronoun agree with its antecedent? (See page 421.) ■ When the pronoun is a singular indefinite pronoun such as each, either, or another? ■ When two antecedents are joined with and? ■ When two antecedents are joined with or? Slang — Avoid the use of slang or any “in” words in formal writing. Slang: The way the stadium roof opened was way cool. Standard: The way the stadium roof opened was remarkable. Did you unintentionally create inappropriate shifts? (See pages 421–422.) ■ ■ ■ ■ In person? In tense? From active voice to passive voice? In another unparallel construction? Are all your sentences complete? (See pages 422– 423.) ■ Have you used sentence fragments? ■ Are some sentences “spliced” or run together? Did you use any misplaced modifiers or ambiguous wording? (See pages 423–424.) ■ Have you used misplaced or dangling modifiers? ■ Have you used incomplete comparisons or indefinite references? Did you use any nonstandard language? (See pages 424–425.) ■ Have you used slang or colloquial language? ■ Have you used double negatives or double prepositions? Chapter 32: Sentence Errors 425 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Double Preposition — The use of certain double prepositions—off of, off to, from off—is unacceptable.

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