Here is your completed work. Please let me know if there are any question.
Running head: STATISTICS
Exercises 6, 8, 9 and 27
1. What are the frequency and percentage of the COPD patients in the severe airflow limitation
group who are employed in the Eckerblad et al. (2014) study?
Frequency = 7
Percentage = 14%
2. What percentage of the total sample is retired? What percentage of the total sample is on sick
The retired as a percentage of the total sample
Those on sick leave as a percentage of the total sample
𝑠𝑖𝑐𝑘 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑒 ×100
3. What is the total sample size of this study? What frequency and percentage of the total sample
were still employed? Show your calculations and round your answer to the nearest whole
Whole Sample = 91
Freq. of employed to date= 14
The employed as a percentage of whole sample = 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒 =
4What is the total percentage of the sample with a smoking history—either still smoking or
former smokers? Is the smoking history for study participants clinically important? Provide a
rationale for your answer.
Those with smoking history as a percentage of the whole sample
𝑠𝑚𝑜𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 ℎ𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑦 ×100
Finding out if a patient has a smoking history is clinically significant in designing a
treatment plan, more so because as the number of pack-years increases the median overall
survival for most patients decreases.
5. What are pack-years of smoking? Is there a significant difference between the moderate and
severe airflow limitation groups regarding pack-years of smoking? Provide a rationale for your
Pack years is a measure of exposure to tobacco and its harmful effects.
Pack years= 𝑐𝑖𝑔. 𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑘𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑎𝑦 × 𝑛𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑠 𝑠𝑚𝑜𝑘𝑒𝑑
Some patients recorded a moderate number of pack-years, 29.1 or severe levels of 34.0.
As is seen from the figures, there is not much difference, 4.9%, between the two types of
smokers because they have consumed tobacco for many years and exposed their lungs to
damage. Only that one is more advanced than the other, and given how hard it is to drop
the vice, the moderate patient is bound to join the severe pack in a matter of days.
6. What were the four most common psychological symptoms reported by this sample of patients
with COPD? What percentage of these subjects experienced these symptoms? Was there a
significant difference between the moderate and severe airflow limitation groups for
The sample reported several common psychological problems, 52% reported having
difficulties sleeping, 33% said they worry too much, 28% were ...