Evaluation Research Paper (BSHS/435) Only 1 part needs to be done in 300 words


Question Description

Research in the University Library to locate at least two research studies on human services management that provide examples of the two types of evaluation research. (Articles have been picked)

Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper about research evaluation. Include the following topics in your paper: (only complete bullet 2)

  • Describe evaluation research and why it is important.
  • Describe the two types of evaluation research and provide examples for each type from the research studies you located in the University Library. (Only part needs to be done in 300 words)
  • Identify at least one example for each of the following topics that you plan to use for your research proposal due on Week Five:
    • Formative research
    • Proximal goal
    • Long-term goal

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines and include a title page and a reference page (No abstract is necessary).

This is a Group assignment and only the Bold bullet 2 part needs to be done in at least 300 words.

Please make sure that you provide correct citations and references for anything you cite in your work (whether it's from the book or articles) because I will have no idea which article or if you used the book that you used, so this is really important. Even if your paraphrasing you still need to cite that (e.g. authors last name, and year) for direct quotes you need quotation marks and (e.g. authors last name, year, and page number), please provide references at the bottom of your completed individual sections for any citations used.

The 2 articles to use are below

C-STARS. School Based Interprofessional Case Management: An Interagency Program for At-Risk Students and Their Families


Formative Evaluation of an Evidence-Based Intervention to Reduce Long-Term Foster Care: Assessing Readiness for Summative Evaluation.


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DOCUMENT RESUME UD 029 894 ED 405 392 AUTHOR TITLE INSTITUTION PUB DATE NOTE PUB TYPE EDRS PRICE DESCRIPTORS IDENTIFIERS Smith, Albert, Jr.; Oaks, Merrill C-STARS. School Based Interprofessional Case Management: An Interagency Program for At-Risk Students and Their Families. Washington Univ., Seattle. Center for the Study and Teaching of At-Risk Students. [92] 32p.; The attached list of suggested readings contains broken print. Reports General (020) Collected Works Descriptive (141) MF01/PCO2 Plus Postage. Academic Achievement; *Agency Cooperation; Attendance; *College School Cooperation; *Delivery Systems; Elementary Secondary Education; Family Programs; Formative Evaluation; Higher Education; *High Risk Students; Integrated Activities; Models; *Social Services; Student Behavior; Summative Evaluation; Urban Education *Case Management; C STARS ABSTRACT The documents in this collection provide information about the Center for the Study and Teaching of At-Risk Students (C-STARS), a center committed to meeting the challenge of providing integrated services for at-risk youth and their families. Because C-STARS is housed in a vn;varsity setting, it has the opportunity to promote interprofessiona and interagency cooperation. Fundamental to the operations of C-STARS is interprofessional case management (ICM). ICM attempts to ensure that services are provided in a supportive, efficient, and coordinated manner. Seven functions of the ICM model are described, and the structural components of its operation are presented. Preliminary results of a formative evaluation indicate that implementation of the model's functional and structural elements has been high in project sites. The summative evaluation design in progress suggests a positive impact on students, with reduced absenteeism and better student grades and conduct. Attachments include: (1) a list of 47 suggested readings, (2) a discussion of the C-STARS model, (3) anticipated benefits of the ICM approach, (4) background material on C-STARS, and (5) guidelines for ICM. (SLD) *********************************************************************** Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made from the original document. *********************************************************************** . "' 4.0-.. ;VW': ":4Zt.?;44,01.:.. U Office ED . DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Educatanai Research and Improvement ATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC) "PERMISSION TO MATERI L HAS REPRODUCE THIS NTED BY EN G is document has been reproduced as anted from the person or organzatoon originating 0 Minor changes have been made to Improve reproduction qualoty Paints PI view or opinions slated in this Poet, ment do not necessarily represent official OERI position or policy Contacts: RESOURCES TO THE EDUCATIONAL (ERIC)." INFORMATION CENTER Center for the Study and Teaching of At-Risk Students Dr. Albert Smith Jr. University of Washington GG-12 Seattle, WA 98195 (206) 543-3815 Dr. Merrill Oaks Washington State University 2122 Pullman, WA 99164 (509) 335-0184 BEST COPY AVAILABLE 1 SCHOOL BASED INTERPROFESSIONAL CASE MANAGEMENT AN INTERAGENCY PROGRAM FOR AT-RISK STUDENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES. Perspective On Need Virtually every person in this country is aware that increasing numbers of students are at risk of dropping out of school and of the disastrous results when students drop out and never return to school. At present approximately 25% of all school children are at risk of dropping out and never complete a secondary program (Soderberg, 1988). Many urban schools have dropout rates that far exceed national averages, for example, drop out rates of 40 to 50% are frequently reported (Cattrell, 1987). The Ford Foundation (1990) reports that one of every four teenagers will drop out of school before graduating, four of every ten girls will become pregnant during their teens, one of every four teenagers will become a problem drinker and one teenage suicide occurs every nine minutes. On January 30, 1991, National Public Radio announced that the national school dropout rate for all Hispanic males is now 44%. In New York City, one of every three children grows up in a single parent family. There are currently more than 20,000 homeless children who wander the streets, and between 60,000 and 125,000 students are absent from school each day. -For all students between the ages of 16 and 19,the unemployment rate is 35%, for Hispanic and black youth, the unemployment rate is approximately 50%. 2 Students who drop out pay a high price throughout their lives. For example, in the State of Washington, 50% of all adults receiving Families Aid, for with Children Dependent (AFDC) are school A recent survey of state prison inmates indicated that dropouts. 62% of that population are school dropouts. It is clear that responding to the needs of students at risk of dropping out is a crucial challenge for schools, families and communities in this country. To meet this challenge, schools, families, social service providers and communities must work together to develop new creative programs. This article provides information on the Center for the Study and Teaching of At-Risk Students (C-STARS), a center committed to meeting the challenge of providing integrated services for at risk youth and their families. Background - Center for the Study and Teaching of At-Risk Students (C- STARS). Definition/Mission The Center for the Study and Teaching of At-Risk Students (C- STARS) is a division of the Institute for the Study of Educational Policy located at the University of Washington and the College of Education at Washington State University.. The mission of C-STARS is to channel interdisciplinary university, research, training and technical assistance in support of school, social, and health service efforts to collectively redefine and reposition their 4 3 respective services to families with students at risk of school failure. 1. Rationale Assumptions which form the foundation of C-STARS include the: - no single institution, by itself, can effectively address the multiple needs of at-risk children and their families. At the center of our public service agencies sits a common client who must be housed, transported, educated, fed, and kept healthy. Professionals from diverse agencies must learn to collaborate for the sake of the clients we share. At risk students and their families need holistic, consistent, and enduring interventions, not the piecemeal interventions that are all too common. - Our schools, social and health service agencies receive inadequate funds to handle the increasing caseload of children and families with multiple public service needs. C-STARS does not provide direct service to students and their families. Rather C-STARS works with schools and community service agencies to develop, test, and document interagency prevention and intervention models. 2. Key Attributes Because C-STARS is housed in a university setting it has the unique ability to advance interprofessional and interagency collaboration: first, through research efforts, second through professional development (training), third and perhaps 5 5 Department of Community Development, Migrant Council. and the Washington State To facilitate school-based delivery of the multiple services needed by at-risk children and families, STAT advises and provides technical assistance to staff(s) of Washington State based C-STARS demonstration projects. Interprofessional Case Management (ICM) Definition Interprofessional Case Management (ICM) is fundamental to C-STARS. ICM nurtures a network of logical and appropriate interactions among schools, health and social service agencies in order to maximize opportunities for at-risk students and their families. In place of piecemeal and haphazard service delivery, devoted to providing services in a supportive, ICM is efficient and coordinated manner. Each professional who relies on case management, builds on his/her experiences and perspectives to understand this approach. Some professionals stress the C-STARS promise of linking the service system with a consumer, and coordinating the various systems components to achieve a successful outcome. Other professionals chose ICM because it offers an avenue to overcome existing rigidity and unnecessary red tape within and among educational and human services agencies. While case management will be interpreted different ways, there is increasing consensus on the importance in serving the multiple needs at-risk of 6 youth. No single 6 organization can effectively address all these needs. Consequently, at-risk youth must often access several different and often disconnected programs. As the number of organizations involved in serving a student grows, managing and implementing these services becomes more complex. Acting as a mentor, a case manager can help students identify and gain timely access to the services they need and can offer them support to complete these services. Seven Functions of Interprofessional Case Management After a thorough review of the literature and interviews with case managers from health, education, and social service agencies, seven primary components emerged as central to the concept and function of case management. These functions became the foundation for development of the school-based interprofessional case management model. 1. Accessing and Assessing Students. This component first involves reviewing program goals and objectives to develop criteria for identifying youth to be targeted for services. A system is then set in place to identify students, receive referrals and select those youth to be served. management team identifies the causes of the The case student's difficulties, both those unique to the student and those that are a consequence of family or environmental situations. 2. Development of a Service Plan. The service plan is one of 7 interventive action. It identifies: (1) the current situation, (2) goals and objectives, (3) needed or recommended services, (4) who is responsible for providing the service, (5) timeline, and (6) possible date for re-evaluation. 3. Brokering. Link the student to services that cannot be provided by the case management team. on the role of broker. simply making a referral. The case manager takes Brokering involves much more than Pre-referral counseling and family outreach activities helps students and families to accept services. In times of crisis, the case manager or a member of the team will accompany .the student to the referral agency. 4. Service Implementation, Coordination and Communication. role of the fold: (1) The interprofessional case management team is three- to deliver on-site services as specified in the service plan, (2) to ensure that all services to an individual student are coordinated for the student's benefit, and (3) to facilitate communication among service providers. 5. Advocacy. When taking on the role of advocate, the case manager assists schools, students communicate and helps families negotiate or in in outside the the community (society). 6. Mentoring. One member of the case management team takes primary responsibility for representing and caring for the 8 student within the school. This one person is charged with following through for the student. The at-risk student has usually not formed this kind of relationship with an adult. To provide at risk students an opportunity to trust the case management team identifies one member to become the adult to whom these students can turn. 7. Monitoring and Evaluation. Through ongoing monitoring and evaluation, the case management team stays abreast of services being delivered to the client and the client's progress and emerging needs. This information is used to modify the service plan as the situation involves. INTERPROFESSIONAL CASE MANAGEMENT (ICM) OPERATIONALIZED (How it Works) Three Basic Structural Components There are three structural components of this model at each school- community site. These are (1) the interprofessional case management team, case and manager, (3) (2) the the community service network. The case manager identifies students at risk of school failure, refers at-risk students to the interprofessional case management team, facilitates regular meetings of this team, monitors the multiple service plan developed for each student, advocates with service agencies on behalf of the student and his/her family, and 9 is often the single adult who maintains a sustained contact with the student and respective family throughout the delivery of the multiple services prescribed for the student. The school-based interprofessional case management team includes, at minimum, the case manager, a social worker, and a health service professional. This team of service providers meets regularly with the case manager to collaboratively exercise the seven functions of this case management model. Typically, the members of the team are employees of local health, education and/or social service agencies who, through interagency agreements with school districts, provide in-kind staff time as school team members. The community service network typically includes a range of service providers who agree to coordinate with case managers and school interprofessional case management teams in delivering specific services as needed by students beyond the professional expertise of the case managers. Examples may include: Juvenile Justice, Planned Parenthood, Council of Churches, and The Migrant Council. Role of the Case Manager Case Managers identify students at-risk of school failure associated with several personal, family, and/or school factors' assess multiple Health, Education, and Social Service needs of these students; develop an integrated school-community service delivery plan, and advocate on behalf of at-risk students. 10 10 Their specific kev roles and functions are to: 1. Conduct initial student screening for referral to the building CM team. 2. Facilitate regularly held meetings of the building CM team for the purposes of planning, monitoring, and adjusting coordinated interprofessional services to at-risk students and their families. 3. Link students and their families with needed health and social services that cannot be provided by the CM team in the school. 4. Determine the composition of each at-risk student's respective CM team in consideration of his/her holistic needs and the resources available and/or appropriate, e.g., family members, DSHS case workers, etc. 5. Insure through monitoring and evaluation that all services being delivered to an individual student are working together for that student's benefit and that appropriate communication is taking place between service providers, students, and family members. 6. Coach students in problem solving skills and in setting short and long term life goals for themselves. 11 11 7. Advocate on behalf of students in order to secure for him/her needed services and entitlement for them. 8. Insure that each student referred to the CM team has one team member identified to serve as the primary caring adult who will follow through with the student over a sustained period of time. 9. Anticipate potential student crisis situations that are likely to occur in the home, the school, and/or the community and develop crisis intervention strategies with CM team members and community service professionals. 10. Develop and maintain cooperative working relationships within the school between CM team members, teachers, counselors, administrators, etc.; and outside the school with the family members as well as appropriate health and social service providers. Case Managers Professional Development (Training) Prospective or practicing case managers typically come from a variety of professional backgrounds including social service, (social workers) education, (teachers, administrators, counselors, psychologists, already counselors), practiced in "role and health alike" 12 (nursing). positions and Many have have basic 12 understanding of one or more of the functions of interprofessional case management. For this reason the C-STARS professional training program was developed using a three dimensional approach. Case manager professional development starts with a thorough pretraining individual needs assessment. This important first step in the training process is designed to measure specific skills, knowledge and affective competencies including values, attitudes and behaviors associated with the role and responsibilities of interprofessional case managers participating in C-STARS school district programs. reporting; 2) assessment, AsSessment methodology includes: client satisfaction reporting; and standardized testing, ie, 3) 1) self supervisory knowledge measures. Skill competencies are assessed through observation, experience (client reporting) and simulation and role play activities. Affective competencies are assessed through interview formats addressing specific situational responses and open-ended questions. Once this initial assessment process is completed, each case manager has two professional development options available. The first of these is a continuing program of inservice workshops, colloquiums, seminars, and institutes developed to provide up to date information and skills in new or emerging needs for all case managers. These activities are offered throughout the school year and summer, and are typically one day to one week in length. Topics may include the latest legislative state and information on at risk and drop out programs, substance abuse issues, homeless 13 13 information or successful communication strategies when working in an ethnically diverse environment. One major inservice summer institute is typically arranged for all new case managers who need initial grounding prior to the start of the school year. A second professional development option available to case managers is professional graduate level course work. These courses are designed to strengthen case management skills and become a major course work component for case managers working toward advanced degree including the master's of social work (MSW) or the master's in education (M.Ed.). These courses are typically cross listed by both research universities and offered both during the summer and academic year. Plans are to develop a comprehensive "curriculum" for case managers based on a statewide research survey currently being conducted which involves five state agencies and school districts. Preliminary Research and Evaluation A. Formative Evaluation Preliminary results from a formative evaluation conducted by the University indicate respective site implementations of the model's functional and structural elements to be high, i.e., over .85 percent. In addition, the attainment of multiple service goals set for students and families has progressively risen over the initial implementation period. 14 14 B. Summative Evaluation The university-administered summative evaluation design suggests evidence of positive impact on students. Through the course of the projects initial fourteen months of coordinated multiple service delivery, percentages of students whose absenteeism exceeded designated risk ceilings declined by approximately 50 percent, percentages of students earning one or more unacceptable grades decreased by approximately 35 percent, and the percentage of students for whom one or more days of poor classroom conduct was recorded decreased by approximately 31 percen ...
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