1- Why does George write that Americans have not "fully trusted" liberty?

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1- Why does George write that Americans have not "fully trusted" liberty?

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Voices of Freedom The pover embrutes me from a denial ral opportun fundamenta 106. Henry George, Progress and Poverty (1879 Source: Henry George, Progress and Poverty (1879) (New York, 1884), pp. 489-96. Dissatisfaction with social conditions in the Gilded Age extended well beyond aggrieved workers. Alarmed by fear of class warfare and they ing power of concentrated wealth, social thinkers offered numerous plans for change. Among the most influential was Henry George, whose Progress and Poverty became one of the era's great best sellers. Its extraordinary cess testified to what George called "a widespread consciousness...that there is something radically wrong in the present social organization." George's book began with a famous statement of the problem" sug- gested by its title--the expansion of poverty alongside material progress. His solution was the single tax," which would replace other taxes with a levy on increases in the value of real estate. The single tax would be so high that it would prevent speculation in both urban and rural land, and land would then become available to aspiring businessmen and urban working men seeking to become farmers. Whether or not they believed in George's solution, millions of readers responded to his clear explanation of economic relationships and his stirring account of how the "unjust and unequal distribution of wealth" long thought to be confined to the Old World had made its appearance in the New. things upon universe. Bu of all men to law-we si the distribt the ruthles light in da Suc tion and a political The ref socially, for it will out in let Indepen the Decl by their liberty, Thes and by rights bount denie mere THE EVILS ARISING from the unjust and unequal distribution of wealth, which are becoming more and more apparent as modern civilization goes on, are not incidents of progress, but tendencies which must bring progress to a halt; that they will not cure them- selves, but, on the contrary, must, unless their cause is removed, grow greater and greater, until they sweep us back into barbarism by the road every previous civilization has trod. But it also shows that these evils are not imposed by natural laws; that they spring solely from social mal-adjustments which ignore natural laws, and that in remov- ing their cause we shall be giving an enormous impetus to progress. This out who that ters and U Poverty New York, 1884) America's Gilded Age, 1870-1890 43 Age extended well warfare and the grom ered numerous plans eorge, whose Progress s extraordinary su sciousness... that organization: e problem” sug material progress ther taxes with a x would be so 1 rural land, and en and urban they believed in ar explanation the "unjust and The poverty which in the midst of abundance, pinches and embrutes men, and all the manifold evils which flow from it, spring from a denial of justice. In permitting the monopolization of the natu- ral opportunities which nature freely offers to all, we have ignored the fundamental law of justice--for so far as we can see, when we view things upon a large scale, justice seems to be the supreme law of the universe. But by sweeping away this injustice and asserting the rights of all men to natural opportunities, we shall conform ourselves to the Jaw-we shall remove the great cause of unnatural inequality in the distribution of wealth and power; we shall abolish poverty; tame the ruthless passions of greed; dry up the springs of vice and misery; light in dark places the lamp of knowledge; give new vigor to inven- tion and a fresh impulse to discovery; substitute political strength for political weakness; and make tyranny and anarchy impossible. The reform I have proposed accords with all that is politically, socially, or morally desirable. It has the qualities of a true reform, for it will make all other reforms easier. What is it but the carrying out in letter and spirit of the truth enunciated in the Declaration of Independence-the "self-evident" truth that is the heart and soul of the Declaration—"That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among them are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness!” These rights are denied when the equal right to land on which and by which men alone can live-is denied. Equality of political rights will not compensate for the denial of the equal right to the bounty of nature. Political liberty, when the equal right to land is denied, becomes, as population increases and invention goes on, merely the liberty to compete for employment at starvation wages. This is the truth that we have ignored. And so there come beggars in our streets and tramps on our roads; and poverty enslaves men whom we boast are political sovereigns; and want breeds ignorance that our schools cannot enlighten; and citizens vote as their mas- ters dictate; and the demagogue usurps the part of the statesman; and gold weighs in the scales of justice; and in high places sit those d to the Old stribution of tas modern tendencies cure them oved, grow ism by the that these olely from in remov- progress. Am 44 Voices of Freedom either compel u nation, as civil before. It is the the popular un ing, only the cratic ideas an irreconcilable it may be see and forcing t1 girls in our pl an honest liv of man and t Creator. who do not pay to civic virtue even the compliment of hypocrisy, and the pillars of the republic that we thought so strong already bend under an increasing strain. The fiat has go We honor Liberty in name and in form. We set up her statues and powers born of sound her praises. But we have not fully trusted her. And with our growth so grow her demands. She will have no half service! Liberty! it is a word to conjure with, not to vex the ear in empty boastings. For Liberty means Justice, and Justice is the natural law the law of health and symmetry and strength, of fraternity and co operation. They who look upon Liberty as having accomplished her mission when she has abolished hereditary privileges and given men the bal- lot, who think of her as having no further relations to the every day affairs of life, have not seen her real grandeur-to them the poets who have sung of her must seem rhapsodists, and her martyrs fools! As the sun is the lord of life, as well as of light; as his beams not merely pierce the clouds, but support all growth, supply all motion, and call forth from what would otherwise be a cold and inert mass, all the infinite diversities of being and beauty, so is liberty to mankind. It is not for an abstraction that men have toiled and died; that in every age the witnesses of Liberty have stood forth, and the martyrs 2. What doe of Liberty have suffered. We speak of Liberty as one thing, and virtue, wealth, knowledge, invention, national strength and national independence as other things. But, of all these, Liberty is the source, the mother, the neces- sary condition. She is to virtue what light is to color; to wealth what sunshine is to grain; to knowledge what eyes are to sight. She is the genius of invention, the brawn of national strength, the spirit of national independence. Where Liberty rises, there virtue grows, wealth increases, knowledge expands, invention multiplies human powers, and in strength and spirit the freer nation rises among her neighbors as Saul amid his brethren--taller and fairer. Where Liberty sinks, there virtue fades, wealth diminishes, knowledge is forgotten, invention ceases, and empires once mighty in arms and arts become a helpless prey to freer barbarians! Questior 1. Why does 107. EC (1888) Source: E pp. 42-59 Even my novelb tiences dasss America's Gilded Age, 1870-1890 45 hypocrisy ng already tatues and a with our ce! in empty arallaw- ty and co- The fiat has gone forth! With steam and electricity, and the new powers born of progress, forces have entered the world that will either compel us to a higher plane or overwhelm us, as nation after nation, as civilization after civilization, have been overwhelmed before. It is the delusion which precedes destruction that sees in the popular unrest with which the civilized world is feverishly puls- ing, only the passing effect of ephemeral causes. Between demo- cratic ideas and the aristocratic adjustments of society there is an irreconcilable conflict. Here in the United States, as there in Europe, it may be seen arising. We cannot go on permitting men to vote and forcing them to tramp. We cannot go on educating boys and girls in our public schools and then refusing them the right to earn an honest living. We cannot go on prating of the inalienable rights of man and then denying the inalienable right to the bounty of the Creator. er mission en the bal every day the poets yrs fools ot merely tion, and Questions mass, all nankind. 1; that in martyrs 1. Why does George write that Americans have not "fully trusted" Liberty? 2. What does he see as the major threats to American freedom? owledge as other de neces- Ith what he is the 107. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward (1888) Source: Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward 2000–1887 (Boston, 1888), pp. 42-55, 262-63. spirit of grows, human ong her Where Even more influential than Progress and Poverty was Looking Backward, a novel by Edward Bellamy published in 1888. The book recounts the expe- riences of Julian West, who falls asleep in the late nineteenth century only to awaken in the year 2000, in a world where cooperation has replaced class strife and cutthroat competition. Inequality has been banished and ledge is ms and
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