Security Management Case Study Research Paper

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Case Study #2.Be sure to answer the following questions in the paper.No plagiarism tolerated!

Questions: 1. Read all of Mantri (2011). He discusses a variety of topics and sub-topics that characterize the “New Terrorism.” Mantri (2011) writes that the United States has been more successful in the socializing of immigrants than Europe has (pp. 90-91). This lack of social integration was in fact cited recently as a cause of the November 2015 Paris attacks, when it was discovered that the attackers hailed from a neighborhood in Brussels known to hold a largely disenfranchised population. Then: a. Identify three (3) social theories for terrorismb. Identify three (3) psychological theories for terrorism.

In your explanation, provide explanations where possible to help relate the concepts. Your response must be more than a mere listing or defining of terms, but should be well articulate, academic explanation of the theories presented by sociologists/psychologists.

2. Mantri (2011) explains that inside information from friends and family was the best intelligence to warn of impending terror incidences (p. 93).The two most-used tools in the fight against terrorism, however, have inarguably been the United States Department of Defense, and legislation such as the USA PATRIOT Act and USA FREEDOM Act.Given this, please: a. Briefly identify the primary legislation that is currently in place, and identify at least three tools of that legislation that are used as counterterrorism tools. b. Chose one (1) of the tools listed and identify one (1) case where it was used as a successful counterterrorism tool.

3. Mantri (2011) states, “The threat from Islamic terror is not going to be defeated by waging a conventional or sub-conventional war.” (p. 94) This leads to the point that the power behind jihadism is the ideology. Using all available resources: a. Identify any and all key components of jihadi ideology. (What is the core of ideas behind it?). b. Identify at least three key ways to deal with the ideology that are non-kinetic (done without bullets or bombs). (This can come from case examples, prominent theories, or your own concepts. There must be academic rooting in your response, however. Do not just make up ideas, but use valid examples, theories,

methods).

4. This article bounces around from domestic terrorism to international terrorism references, and covers a large part of history in a very short period of time. Please, using all available resources: a. Define domestic terrorism from a United States’ legal perspective. b. Define international terrorism from a United States’ legal perspective. c. Identify at least five (5) categories of terrorist groups and give at least two (2) groups as examples for each

You will provide a case study analysis report.

It must be a minimum of 3,000 words (excluding title page and references).

It must include a separate title page.

It must include a separate reference page.




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SPOTLIGHT AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL PRESENTS . . . Homegrown Terrorism Is There an Islamic Wave? GENEVE MANTRI U s Representative Peter King's congressional hearings—on Muslim radicalization, the war on terror, and the role of America's Muslims^proceed, provide an opportune time to take stock of a homegrown terrorist phenomenon that has gripped headlines across the country particularly since Christmas Day 2009, Even a cursory look at the past 18 months gives rise to a number of incidents that seem to reflect a view of the United States increasingly under attack, whether it be the Eort Hood shootings, the Christmas Day bomber Abdul Muttalab, or the attempted Times Square bombing by Faisal Shahzad, The most alarming things about these attempted attacks have been both the apparent ineffectiveness of the Homeland Security apparatus put in place post-9/11 and the rise in what is commonly termed homegrown terrorism: attacks conceived and launched by US citizens on US citizens. The link between some of these attacks and Anwar al-Awlaki—an American imam living in Yemen—highlights the new threat firom the United States' own. Even Michael Leiter, the head of the National Counterterrorism Center, recendy described al-Awlaki as the greatest threat to the United States, These attacks, albeit unsuccessful, have punctured a false sense of security that has developed post-9/11, and contested the commonly held narrative that the United States was free from attack for seven years, A History of Domestic Terror Eirstly, is domestic terrorism in the United States a new phenomenon? While the concept of international terrorism has resonated strongly for many European countries, especially those with post colonial histories, this heady mix of insurgency, terrorism, and bourgeois radicals, such as the Baader Meinhof gang and the Red Army Eaction, appears to have no parallel at home. However, previous waves of international terrorism have GENEVE MANTRI serves as the Government Relations Director for Terrorism, Counterterrorism, and Human Rights at Amnesty International. The views of this article do not represent the views of Amnesty International. both been launched from the United States and also terrorized Americans, Clan na Gael (United Irishmen), led by Jeremiah Donovan Rossa, organized and fimdraised from the United States in the 1870s, In today's parlance of material support they raised US$23,350 to fund a terrorist campaign. In January 1881, they bombed Salford Barracks, Manchester, killing a seven-year-old boy and injuring three people, Erom 1881 to 1883, they conducted an indiscriminate bombing campaign of underground and railway stations in the United Kingdom, Even the US homeland was not immune to violence. In May 1886, an anarchist threw a bomb at Haymarket in Chicago, killing eight police officers and an unknown number of civilians. US President William McKinley was assassinated in September 1901 by another anarchist, Leon Czolgosz, The attacks were linked to a global ideology, and they struck significant political and civilian targets both in the United States and across the world, including former Erench President Marie-Francois Sadi Carnot in 1894, Throughout the 20* century, US citizens continued to provide material support for terrorists, including arms for the Irish Revolutionary Army (IRA), even when it was abundantly clear they would be supporting a mainland bombing campaign aimed at civilian targets, Americans have also actively participated in supporting international terrorist groups, including Tupac Amaru in Peru, More recently, even the earlier Al-Qaeda operatives included some local recruits, Jose Padilla, "Abdullah al Muhajir," the millennium bomber Ahmed Ressam, an Algerian living in Montreal, and Ali Mohammed Abdelsoud Muhammed, a former Egyptian military officer who immigrated to America and became a sergeant in the US Army, all worked with Al-Qaeda long before 9/11, While these recruits were luckily few in number, it does belie the notion that the latest outbreak reflects a new tactic which has emerged from nowhere. There are conflicting opinions about the actual role and motivations ofJohn Walker Lindh (the "American Taliban"), but no one contests he was in Afghanistan training with the Taliban while they were supporting Al-Qaeda, three years after the US Embassy bombings in Nairobi and Tanzania in 1998, W^iile there are important differences, it is also worth noting that, apart from radical Islam, there are other major threats to the United States which have resulted in major acts of ter- HARVARD INTERNATIONAL R E VI E W • Spring 2011 SPOTLIGHT u s Attorney General Eric Holder (C) stands alongside top-ranking US security officials during a news conference at the Justice Department in Washington on May 4, 2010. As Holder and his colleagues comment on and answer questions about the failed New York Times Square bomb plot, a television screen displays an image of suspect Faisal Shahzad (R). ror—most notably Oklahoma City, and the 1996 Adanta Olympic bombing by Eric Rudolph. All this indicates that the United States is facing multidimensional threats which ought to be seen in the context of a much more varied and longstanding threat picture. Arkansas; after Fort Hood, there was the failed Christmas Day attack, the attempted Times Square bombing by Faisal Shahzad, and the attempted attack last Christmas in Portland, Oregon by Somali-bom Mohamed Osman Muhamad. Colleen La Rose, "Jihad Jane," was arrested for plotting to murder Swedish cartoonist Lars Vilks, and "... the United States is facing multidimensional threats which ought to be seen in the context of a much more varied and longstanding threat picture." The New Wave Is there truly a wave of homegrown terrorism? At first blush the answer appears to be yes. On the basis of simple cursory scans of headlines it appears that not only are there more attacks, but that a significant proportion of them appear to be led or conceived by Americans targeting other Americans. Before the Fort Hood shooting, there was an attack on a US recruiting station in Litde Rock, Photo Courtesy Reuters David Headley, "Daood Sayed Gilani," was arrested for his involvement in the Mumbai attacks, assisting Lashkar -E-Taiba, and for his involvement in plotting an attack on the Jyllands Posten newspaper in Copenhagen. Many of these cases, if not all, were under surveillance by law enforcement and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI); hence it is not clear if there are more plots or if the United States is simply getting better at disrupting them. Some included early FBI work to supply phony de- Spring2011 « HARVARD INTERNATIONAL REVIEW SPOTLIGHT Taking a Look at Totals Muslim-American Terrorism Suspects & Perpetrators Since 9/11 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Year Triangie Center on Terrorism and Homeiand Security; 20 i I vices, which raises civil libertarian concerns about the EBI both luring people who are susceptible, and simultaneously entrapping them. Regardless, if they are operadonally successfril, is this a cause for concern, celebradon, or both? The answer, unfortunately, is not clear, according to Mike German, a current member of the American Civil Liberdes Union (ACLU) and former EBI agent. What appears to be simple repeddon of headlines and court cases is, on closer examinadon, neither as clear cut, nor as linear as it appears. There were fewer plots in 2010 than in 2009, and of those, according to the Triangle Center on Terrorism and Homeland Security, there were over 20 terrorist plots by non-Muslims in the United States in 2010. Many Forms of the Wave In the years immediately before and afrer 9/11, there was a common assumpdon that the United States and its allies were facing a new and radical threat that was disdnct from modern international terrorism by its diffuse nature, vague obscurantist objectives, and total lack of proportionality. However, the wave was apparendy foreign-born and bred, and if the United States couldfigurativelyand perhaps literally seal its borders, the wave could be kept out, or at least displaced. This assumption, focusing on the 9/11 plotters, stemmed largely from foreign-born Al-Qaeda operadves who were able to enter and live in the United States relatively easily due to their lack of prior intelligence records. Other Al-Qaeda operatives involved in the 9/11 plot, such as Ramsi Bin al Shibh, had been denied entry to the United States due to immigration concerns related to their links to Yemen. The core 9/11 conspirators such as Mohammed Atta were attracdve to Al-Qaeda precisely because they were western-educated, could mix easily, and had "clean skins"—with no prior evidence of extremism. According to this narrative, the origin and development of the 9/11 plot tended to focus on disillusioned middle-class migrants, such as Mohammed Atta, alienated and living in a largely hedonistic western European sea that at once lured, enticed, and repelled them. The United States was immune in this schema. The European experience of post-colonial immigration has no reladon in the United States, where the melting pot of immigradon and integration largely worked in social- |90| HARVARD INTERNATIONAL R E VI E W • Spring2011 SPOTLIGHT Discerning Domestic Targets Muslim-American Terrorism Suspects & Perpetrators Since 9/11 Domestic Targets 20 ^ 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Year Triangle Center on Terrorism and Homeland Security; 201 I izing new immigrants to the American dream and offering them opportunities. A key proponent of this view has been Mark Sageman, a Erench-born American, who spent considerable time with former Jihadis in Erance, Spain, and Western Europe; he drew sharp contrasts between life chances on the margins of European society and the pathway offered by the Ainerican dream. The more recent US attacks belie this view in their nature as largely domestic and seemingly undirected by Al-Qaeda central. The domestic attacks disprove the idea that the United States, as a nation, is immune from radicalization at home. Even more disturbing has been the concept that this is driven by so called "lone wolf attacks, of people self-radicalizing through the internet and without the support of a much wider terrorist infrastructure or radical community. Paths Leading to Terror Regardless of anecdotes that give rise to concerns about lone wolves who are self-radicaUzing on the internet, as Peter Neumann ably points out, terrorism is a group activity. The concern is not only what triggers this involve- ment, but also what spurs terrorist activities and how they are operationalized. It is still highly improbable that lone individuals sitting in a basement or visiting Home Depot are going to construct terrorist devices for their own use. Much more of a concern are patterns of behavior indicating frequent visits to places where terrorist networks exist and evidence of personal connections that can lead them to institutional and operational help of whatever kind. David Headley's trip to Pakistan, like the 9/11 bombers before him, served to equip him for his journey into jihad. Military training and activity requires space and at least a semi-state willing to turn a blind eye. Experienced personnel are needed to train and nurture a terrorist along a path, and building and testing bombs takes space. Evidence suggests that there are myriad individual paths to violence that are neither linear nor rapid, and a number of thresholds have to be reached before recruits are able to carry out acts of violence. Where a willing state is available to provide a de facto sanctuary, the concern increases, as in the case of Pakistan and the border regions of Eederally Administered Tribal Areas (EATA), or in the case of Yemen. Pakistan's effec- Spring2011 »HARVARD INTERNATIONAL REVIEW SPOTLIGHT Pointing Out the Perpetrators Muslim-American Terrorism Suspects and Perpetrators, 2010 Name Location Alleged Plot Disrupted Status of Case*^ Zarein Ahmedza NY Planned subway attack in NYC Late Guilty Plea Adis Medunjani NY Planned subway attack in NYC Late Trial Pending Colleen R. LaRose PA Planned to attack cartoonists in Europe Early Trial Pending Jamie Paulin-Ramire CO Planned to attack cartoonists in Europe Early Trial Pending Sharif Mobley NJ Arrested in Yemen No Trial Pending Raja Lahrasib Kha IL Spoke of atacking a sports stadium Early Trial Pending Anwar al-Awlaki Yemen Incited terrorism in the US and Yemen No Convicted in Yemen Faisal Shahzad NY Times Square car-bomb, NYC No Guilty Plea Mohamed Aless NJ Planned to join a-Shabaab in Somaiia Early Trial Pending Carlos Almont NJ Planned to join a-Shabaab in Somalia Early Trial Pending Samir Khan NC Joined al-Oa'ida in Yemen No Not Yet Charged Zachary A. Chesse NY Planned to join a-Shabaab in Somalia Early Trial Pending Nadia Rockwood AK Passed along list of assassination targets Early Guilty Plea Paul G. Rockwood J AK Developed list of assasination targets Early Guilty Plea Shai
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