Structure and Function of the Respiratory System

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Question Description

MN551-4: Evaluate the presence and effects of alteration in the homeostatic state secondary to gender, genetic, ethnic and temporal variables

Select one of the case studies below, and include in your discussion an evaluation of the presence and effects of alteration in the homeostatic state secondary to gender, genetic, ethnic, and temporal variables.

Requirements:

  1. Make sure all of the topics in the case study have been addressed.
  2. Cite at least three sources; journal articles, textbooks or evidenced-based websites to support the content.
  3. All sources must be within 5 years.
  4. Do not use .com, Wikipedia, or up-to-date, etc., for your sources.

Case Study 1

Structure and Function of the Respiratory System

Brad is 45 years old and has been working as a coal cutter in a mine for the last 25 years. He likes the job because it pays well and the same mine had employed his father. Like many of his colleagues, Brad has had problems with a chronic cough. He has avoided his annual checkups for fear that he will be told he has “black lung,” or coal worker’s pneumoconiosis. The disease causes fibrosis, decreased diffusing capacity, and permanent small airway dilation. In later stages, pulmonary capillaries, alveoli, and airways are destroyed.

  1. How can the disease described above create a mismatch between ventilation and perfusion? Use your understanding of alveolar dead space and physiologic shunt to explain your answer.
  2. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have more difficulty exhaling than inhaling. Why is this so?
  3. In general terms, what mechanisms in lung disease can affect diffusing capacity across alveolar membranes? Use the Fick law to explain your answer.
  4. Assignment Requirements:
  5. Before finalizing your work, you should:
    • Ensure you have written at least four double-spaced pages.
    • be sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above);
    • consult the Grading Rubric (under the Course Resources) to make sure you have included everything necessary; and
    • utilize spelling and grammar check to minimize errors.
    • follow the conventions of Standard American English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.);
    • be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful;
    • display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; and
    • use APA 6th Edition format.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Unit 4 Assignment (143 points) MN551-4:.Evaluate the presence and effects of alteration in the homeostatic state secondary to gender, genetic, ethnic and temporal variables Select one of the case studies below, and include in your discussion an evaluation of the presence and effects of alteration in the homeostatic state secondary to gender, genetic, ethnic, and temporal variables. Requirements: 1. Make sure all of the topics in the case study have been addressed. 2. Cite at least three sources; journal articles, textbooks or evidenced-based websites to support the content. 3. All sources must be within 5 years. 4. Do not use .com, Wikipedia, or up-to-date, etc., for your sources. Case Study 1 Structure and Function of the Respiratory System Brad is 45 years old and has been working as a coal cutter in a mine for the last 25 years. He likes the job because it pays well and the same mine had employed his father. Like many of his colleagues, Brad has had problems with a chronic cough. He has avoided his annual checkups for fear that he will be told he has “black lung,” or coal worker’s pneumoconiosis. The disease causes fibrosis, decreased diffusing capacity, and permanent small airway dilation. In later stages, pulmonary capillaries, alveoli, and airways are destroyed. 1. How can the disease described above create a mismatch between ventilation and perfusion? Use your understanding of alveolar dead space and physiologic shunt to explain your answer. 2. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have more difficulty exhaling than inhaling. Why is this so? 3. In general terms, what mechanisms in lung disease can affect diffusing capacity across alveolar membranes? Use the Fick law to explain your answer. Case Study 2 Respiratory Tract Infections, Neoplasms, and Childhood Disorders Patricia was called at work by a woman at the local daycare center. She told Patricia to come and pick up her son because he was not feeling well. Her son, three-and-a-half-year-old Marshall, had been feeling tired and achy when he woke up. While at daycare, his cheeks had become red and he was warm to touch. He did not want to play with his friends, and by the time Patricia arrived, he was crying. Later that afternoon, Marshall’s condition worsened. He had fever, chills, a sore throat, runny nose, and a dry hacking cough. Suspecting Marshall had influenza, Patricia wrapped him up and took him to the community health care clinic. 1. Why did Marshall’s presentation lead Patricia to think he had influenza and not a cold? Why is it important to medically evaluate and diagnose a potential influenza infection? 2. Describe the pathophysiology of the influenza virus. Outline the properties of influenza A antigens that allow them to exert their effects in the host. 3. Marshall may be at risk at contracting secondary bacterial pneumonia. Why is this so? Explain why cyanosis may be a feature associated with pneumonia. Case Study 3 Disorders of Ventilation and Gas Exchange Emmanuel and his mother live in an urban community housing complex. The building is worn down and dirty from the urban dust, cockroaches, and mold. Emmanuel is five years of age and has suffered from asthma for the last two years. One evening, his mother poured him some milk and put him to bed. Shortly afterward, Emmanuel woke up wheezing and coughing. As he gasped for air, he became more and more anxious. His mother ran for his inhaler, but he was too upset and restless to use it. Emmanuel’s skin became moist with sweat, and as he began to tire, his wheezing became quieter. His mother called 911 and waited anxiously for the ambulance to arrive. 1. Emmanuel uses a corticosteroid inhaler for the management of his asthma. What is the mechanism of action of this drug? How is its action different from the β2-agonist inhalants? 2. Why does someone with severe asthma become physically fatigued during a prolonged attack? What are the physiological events that occur during an attack? 3. One of the complications of respiratory fatigue is the development of hypercapnia. How does the body compensate for an increase in CO2? What are the effects of hypercapnia on the central nervous system? Assignment Requirements: Before finalizing your work, you should: • • • • • Ensure you have written at least four double-spaced pages. be sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above); consult the Grading Rubric (under the Course Home) to make sure you have included everything necessary; and utilize spelling and grammar check to minimize errors. follow the conventions of Standard American English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.); • • • be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful; display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; and use APA 6th Edition format as outlined in the APA Progression Ladder. How to Submit Submit your Assignment to the unit Dropbox before midnight on the last day of the unit. When you are ready to submit your Assignment, click the Dropbox tab and select this unit's basket from the dropdown menu, then attach your file. Make sure to save a copy of the Assignment you submit. Please be sure to confirm that your file uploaded correctly. ...
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Tutor Answer

Juniper
School: UIUC

Hello buddy, kindly find your paper attached below. Let me know what you think. Thank you

Running Head: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Structure and Function of the Respiratory System

Student Name

Institutional Affiliation

1

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

2

Structure and Function of the Respiratory System

1. How coal workers' pneumoconiosis creates a mismatch between ventilation and perfusion
based on alveolar dead space and physiologic shunt

What Brad suffers from is coal workers' pneumoconiosis, which is due to the accumulation
of coal dust in the lungs. Through normal processes of the body, and in this instance breathing in
of air in his lungs becomes limited due to the dust. Perret et al. (2017) explains how the
accumulated coal dust brings about a barrier which does not allow ventilation to happen on the
alveolar membrane in the lungs. The same barrier limits the perfusion process in which blood
full of carbon dioxide is blocked from moving from the capillaries to the alveolar. Hence the coal
dust accumulation does not allow purification of deoxygenated blood thus Brad experiences a
persistence cough. The reason for the mismatch is that this results in an increase of alveolar dead
space because the air in the lungs does not undergo the process of ventilation. The accumulated
coat dust is responsible for this because it forms a layer that does not allow passage of air from
the lungs to the blood capillaries. Eventually, this limitation makes it hard for Brad to breathe.
Hence he has constant coughing as a way of trying to shift the coal particles to create space for
air to diffuse into the capillaries. The accumulated dust does not allow proper ventilation which
in his case ventilation does not happen as it is supposed to happen since the lung’s normal
process cannot remove the accumulated coal dust which ...

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