Water pollution is the emptying of unwanted toxic material in water bodies and is mainly
due to human activities. Water bodies faced by pollution are primarily surface water, marine
water, and groundwater. Pathogens, organic and microscopic contaminants mainly cause water
pollution, and finally changes in temperature. The extent to which water is contaminated can be
measured is done through sampling, physical testing, chemical testing, and biological testing.
After the contamination level has been determined, the control of pollution then follows being,
municipal wastewater treatment, on-site sanitation, industrial toxic waste treatment, agricultural
toxic waste, finally carrying of soil by the wind and sedimentation practice.
Surface water pollution is the general pollution of water bodies which are rivers, lakes,
and oceans. The other surface water contamination is the mass water pollution, which mainly
affects the sea. A perfect example of sea contamination is discharging sewage and industrial
waste into oceans, something experienced in developing countries. Groundwater pollution is,
however, a complicated thing to determine its contamination as it is not affected by those things
that cause surface water pollution. It is discovered that the leading causes of its pollution is soil
and site geology ( Peter Goel).
The extent to which water is contaminated can be measured through few wide spectrums
being sampling, physical testing, chemical testing, and biological testing. Sampling is carried out
through several ways depending on the accuracy aimed at. During the sampling process,
scientists employ auto-Samper devices which pump water to determine the discharge intervals.
Physical testing of water contamination is usually determined by temperature, solids concentrate,
and turbidity. Chemical testing is done through analytical chemistry. Most of the published tests
are available for both natural and chemical compounds. The methods practiced under this are
testing the PH, biochemical oxygen demand and testing for metals. Biological testing is done
through living, nonliving, and microbial indicators to help sturdy the well-being of aquatic life.
Some perfect examples of bioindicators are copepods and other minor water crustaceans that are
seen in water.
To control the pollution, the first step to take is municipal wastewater treatment. In all
industrialized countries waste is treated by centralized sewage treatment plants, which are well
structured systems. The more advanced systems are often known to remove about 90 percent of
pollutants in wastewater. The other alternative of treatment plants is the nature-based solution,
which is being preferred to centralized treatment plants. In those advanced cities with a couple of
sanitary sewer overflows employ more than one steps to reduce the disposal of toxic waste.
Some of the engineering methods are making use of the green infrastructure to work on mass
water control level throughout the systems. This also helps reduce the hydraulic overloading of
treatment plants. The other method is the repairing of the leaking equipment ...