Humanities
Read and summarize and then create a reading dependent question.

Question Description

Readings :

“Just Do What’s Right” by Plato ................................................38

Ideas of Interest from the The Apology, I...............................39

Reading Selection from The Apology, I .................................40

[Socrates Requests a Just Listening] .............................40

[Charges of the Older Accusers] ...................................41

[Defense Against Older Accusations] ...........................42

[Delphic Oracle] ............................................................43

[Socrates Cross-examines Others].................................44

[Why Socrates is Wise] .................................................46

[Prejudice Against Socrates] .........................................46

[Defense Against Corruption of the Youth] ..................47

[Defense Against Atheism] ...........................................50

[Do What’s Right, Regardless]......................................54

[Socrates, a Gadfly] .......................................................56

[Socrates’ Divine Sign] .................................................57

[Doing What’s Right, Regardless of Threat].................57

[The Defense Concluded]..............................................61

Related Ideas ..........................................................................61

Topics Worth Investigating.....................................................62

Please write 200-300 words please.

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Reading for Philosophical Inquiry A Brief Introduction to Philosophical Thinking ver. 0.21 An Open Source Reader Lee Archie John G. Archie Reading for Philosophical Inquiry: A Brief Introduction to Philosophical Thinking ver. 0.21; An Open Source Reader by Lee Archie by John G. Archie Version 0.21 Edition Published January, 2004 Copyright © 2004 by Lee Archie; John G. Archie Comments—The current version of this open source textbook in philosophy is a work-in-progress and is being released only in draft form. The collaborators would be grateful for corrections or other suggestions to this preliminary draft. Please address comments to philbook@philosophy.lander.edu . GNU Free Documentation License—© Lee Archie and John G. Archie. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is available at the GNU Free Documentation License (http://gnu.org/copyleft) Website. Image Credits—The following images are either in the public domain or are open-sourced for this publication. Antiquities Project (http://www.ironorchid.com/antiquity/). Aristotle; John Stuart Mill. Hélène Brown (http://philosophy.lander.edu/brown/). Camus’s Graveside, Lourmarin Cemetery. Balestrini, Bruno. The Erechtheion and Parthenon, (420-440 B.C.), Acropolis; Acropolis (about 500 B.C.) view from northwest. www.thais.it (http://www.thais.it). By kind permission. British National Space Centre (http://www.bnsc.gov.uk/).Solar System. BNSC © HMG. Goodrich, S. G. A History of All Nations, (New York: J. C. Derby & N. C. Miller, 1854). A Greek Galley. 710 Guillemin, Amédée. The Heavens: An Illustrated Handbook of Popular Astronomy, Ed. by J. Norman Lockyer, New York: G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1871. Plate IV: The Earth as Viewed from Space. Hopkins, George M., Experimental Science. New York: Munn & Co.,1902. Detail of Mount of Newton’s Rings for the Microscope. IIHR, University of Iowa—photographic detail from Pascal’s Traitez de l’Equilibre des Liqueurs et de la Pesanteur de la Masse de l’Air. IIHR—Hydroscience and Engineering: History of Hydraulics Collection (http://www.iihr.uiowa.edu/products/history/hoh/). India Post. Bertrand Russell, stamp commemorating 100 years birth-anniversary. Oct. 16, 1972 Library of Congress: P&P Online Catalog (http://lcweb2.loc.gov). Photographs of Road to Nicholson Hollow, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia (LC-USF34-T01-000355-D); Cathedral, Marseilles, France (LC-DIG-ppmsc-05106); Ullswater and Eamont from Pooley Bridge, River District, England; Dartford, Messrs. Burroughs, Wellcome &’s Factory, London and suburbs, England (LC-DIG-ppmsc-08610); Socrates standing before seated group, engravings by L. P. Boitard (LC-USZ61-1502 and LC-USZ61-1502); Trinity College, Cambridge (LC-DIG-ppmsc-08091); L.N. Tolstoi v kabinetie V IAsnoi polianie (LC-DIG-prok-01970); Peasants Haying, Russian Empire (LC-P87-5273); Dom L.N. Tolstogo, V IAsnoi polianie (LC-DIG-prok-01974); Kabinet L. N. Tolstogo, V IAsnoi polianic (LC-USZ62-69862); Albert Camus (LC-USZ62-108028); The Cemetery, Algiers, Algeria (LC-DIG-ppmsc-0552); General View from Mustapha, I, Algiers, Algeria (LC-DIG-ppmsc-00510); The Place Snamjensky, St. Petersburg, Russia (LC-DIG-ppmsc-03886); Ft. Defiance, Arizona (PAN US GEOG-Arizona no.2); Canterbury Cathedral, Norman Staircase ©Detroit Publishing (LC-D4-73175); Canterbury Cathedral ©Detroit Publishing (LC-D428-8770; Il Posillipo, Naples, Italy (LC-DIG-ppmsc-06566); Fish and Vegetable Market, Könisberg, Exat Prussia (LC-DIG-ppmsca-00741); University and Royal Gardens, Königsberg, East Prussia (LC-DIG-ppmsca-00738); Siberian Convict Colony (LC-USZ62-95043); Four Children in Hay Field, Russia (LC-USZ62-107826); Kasan Cathedral, St. Petersburg (LC-DIG-ppmsc-03396); As Auctioner Knocks Down, Douglas Georgia (LC-USF34-D18709-E); Crowds at Squires (PAN SUBJECT Sports no. 16); Hollis Hall, Harvard College (HABS,MASS,9-CAMB,3D-); The Parthenon, far view, Athens, Greece (LC-USZ262-44291); Athens, Greece, 400 BC, Book illustration by Theodor Horydczak (LC-H814-2654-002x); The Parthenon, far view, Athens, Greece (LC-USZ262-44292); A Tea Resale Establishment near Lincoln’s Inn Fields (LC-USZ62-77448-E); The Royal Gallery, House of Lords, London, England (LC-USZ62-77448); High Street, Oxford, England (LC-DIG-ppmsc-08764); Houses of Parliment from the River (LC-DIG-ppmsc-08560); The University of Bonn, the Rhine (LC-DIG-ppmsc-00789); Paris, France, Refugee Camp (LC-USW33-042487); Seven Bridges, Paris, France (LC-DIG-ppmsc-05162); Chemistry Laboratory at Howard University, Washington, D.C. (LC-USZ62-97168); Merton and Christ’s Church College, Oxford, England (detail) (LC-DIG-ppmsc-08766; The Boat Landing, Lake Chautauqua, New York (Lot 12006); Switchtender on Pennsylvania Railroad (LC-USW33-025829-C); Three Peasants Walking to Market, Hungary (LC-USZ62-113783); Steelworker with Daughter, Ambridge, Pennsylvania (LC-USF34-062196-D); Harvard Gate, Harvard College (Lot 12003); Harvard Medical College, Boston, Mass. (LC-D4-34452); Library at Greenhills School, Greenhills, Ohio (LC _USF33-T01-OO1183-M3); Scene from "Othello" with Paul Robeson and Margaret Webster (LC-USW33- 054945-C) College of the City of New York (LC-D4-500724). Library of Congress Rare Book & Special Collections Division (http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/). Isaac Newton, Philosophiciae naturalis principia mathematica, London: Royal Society, 3rd. ed., 1726 (123.1). Metropolitan Museum of Art (http://www.metmuseum.org). The Death of Socrates (1787), Jacques-Louis David (French, 1748-1825) Catherine Lorillard Wolfe Collection; Wolf Fund, 1931 (31.45). NASA—Jet Propulsion Laboratory (http://www.jpl.nasa.gov). National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)— California Institute of Technology Messier 81, Spitzer Space Telescope, JPL (SSC2003-06c); Gravity Wave Measurements over North America, JPL; Earth from Space, JPL (PIA-00232); Mosaic of Saturn’s Rings, JPL (P-23953C); Jupiter’s Great Red Spot and Surrounds, JPL (P-21151). National Institutes of Health (http://www.nih.gov) U. S. National Library of Medicine. [“Pragmatic Theory of Truth”] William James [15230]; Harvard Medical School (detail), Ernest David Roth [A02092]. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/index.html). Tabulae Rudolphinae: quibus astronomicae. . . by Johannes Kepler, 1571-1630 (Treasures Collection libr0312); Louis Agassiz (People Collection theb 3381); Chatham Strait (Corps Collection, John Bortnaik, corp1901); Hæmulon elegans, Drawing by H. L. Todd (NMFS Collection, Plate 145), [Island] (Corps Collection, John Bortnaik, corp2743); Wheel Barometer, from Edward J. Dent, A Treatise on the Aneroid (Library Collection); Title Page to Edward Saul’s A Historical and Philosophical Account of the Barometer1735, (Library Collection); Building the John N. Cobb (Ship Collection, ship0049). National Park Service (http://www.nps.gov) Clock Mechanism (detail), Jamie L. Clapper and Laura E. Schmidt, Livingston County Courthouse, Amaudville, Illinois [4112bxl.gif]. Fridtjof Nansen, Farthest North, Harper & Row, 1897. Engraving of Nansen, frontspiece; (detail) photograph of Fram, Nansen’s ship. Smith, William. A History of Greece. Boston: Hickling, Swan, and Brown, 1855. The Bema of the Pnyx at Athens, xxv; Homer Enshrined, 38; Coin of Athens, 107; The Propylæa of the Acropolis Restored, 255; Centaur from the Metopes of the Parthenon, 301; Erechthēum Restored, from Southwest, 356; Side View of Thesēum, 593. State Museum of Victoria. Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematics, title page, pages 354-355. State Treyakov Gallery—detail from Portrait of Dostoevsky by Vasily Perov. State Tretyakov Gallery (http:www.treyakov.ru) Russian National Art Gallery. Thoemmes Press: History of Ideas (http://www.thoemmes.com/gallery/). Socrates, Plato, Thomas Aquinas (detail), William Paley, David Hume, Blaise Pascal, Baruch Spinoza, William James, Relief of Plato, The Parthenon/ , Aristotle, Jeremy Bentham, Friedrich Nietzsche, René Descartes, Immanuel Kant. Centre for Social Philosophy (http://www.unipv.it/deontica/gallering.htm). University of Pavia Galleries. Jean-Paul Sartre. MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive (http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/). University of St. Andrews. Plato. Portraits of Well-known Economists (http://www.econ.duke.edu/Economists/). The Warren J. Samuels Portrait Collection at Duke University. Jeremy Bentham; August Comte. Non-U.S. Copyright Status—Status of text and images in this publication. All essays and images in this work are believed to be in the public domain or are published here under the fair use provision of the U.S. copyright law. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with anyone desiring to reuse the item under the GFDL. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or other rights holders (such as publicity and/or privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. An independent legal assessment has been made after a search for copyright status of text and images. No representation as to copyright status outside the United States is made. If an error occurs in spite of the good faith efforts, the offending item will be removed upon notice to philbook@philosophy.lander.edu . The U.S. Copyright Office Circular 22 points out, “Even if you conclude that a work is in the public domain in the United States, this does not necessarily mean that you are free to use it in other countries. Every nation has its own laws governing the length and scope of copyright protection, and these are applicable to uses of the work within that nation’s borders. Thus, the expiration or loss of copyright protection in the United States may still leave the work fully protected against unauthorized use in other countries.” DocBook—And related topics. This publication is based on Open Source DocBook, a system of writing structured documents using SGML or XML in a presentation-neutral form using free programs. The functionality of Docbook is such that the same file can be published on the Web, printed as a standalone report, reprinted as part of a journal, processed into an audio file, changed into Braille, or converted to most other media types. More information about DocBook can be found at DocBook Open Repository (http://docbook.openforge.net). Information concerning the processing of this book is in the Colophon. Table of Contents 1. “Preface” .............................................................................................1 Why Open Source? ...........................................................................1 A Note about Selections ...................................................................2 Part I. Personal Uses of Philosophy .......................................................1 2. The Nature of Learning: Recognition of Different Perspectives ..4 Ideas of Interest From “The Nature of Learning”....................4 The Role of Facts In Understanding ........................................5 “In the Laboratory With Agassiz,” by Samuel H. Scudder......7 Facts and Theories..................................................................13 Facts Are Often Theory-Dependent .......................................14 Related Ideas ..........................................................................18 Topics Worth Investigating.....................................................18 3. The Nature of Philosophical Inquiry ..........................................19 Ideas of Interest From “Nature of Philosophical Inquiry” .....19 Characterization of Philosophy ..............................................20 “The Barometer Story” by Alexander Calandra ....................25 Main Divisions of Philosophy................................................27 Epistemology: the Study of Knowledge........................29 Metaphysics (Ontology): the Study of Reality..............31 Axiology: the Study of Value ........................................32 Related Ideas ..........................................................................36 Topics Worth Investigating.....................................................37 4. “Just Do What’s Right” by Plato ................................................38 Ideas of Interest from the The Apology, I...............................39 Reading Selection from The Apology, I .................................40 [Socrates Requests a Just Listening] .............................40 [Charges of the Older Accusers] ...................................41 [Defense Against Older Accusations] ...........................42 [Delphic Oracle] ............................................................43 [Socrates Cross-examines Others].................................44 [Why Socrates is Wise] .................................................46 [Prejudice Against Socrates] .........................................46 [Defense Against Corruption of the Youth] ..................47 [Defense Against Atheism] ...........................................50 [Do What’s Right, Regardless]......................................54 [Socrates, a Gadfly] .......................................................56 [Socrates’ Divine Sign] .................................................57 vii [Doing What’s Right, Regardless of Threat].................57 [The Defense Concluded]..............................................61 Related Ideas ..........................................................................61 Topics Worth Investigating.....................................................62 5. “Seek Truth Rather Than Escape Death,” by Plato ....................64 Ideas of Interest from the The Apology, II .............................65 Reading from The Apology, II................................................66 [Response to the Verdict] ..............................................66 [Why Exile Is Not Acceptable] .....................................67 [Truth, More Important Than Life] ...............................69 [Socrates’ Advice].........................................................70 [Argument That Death Is a Good].................................71 Related Ideas ..........................................................................73 Topics Worth Investigating.....................................................74 6. “Enlargement of Self” by Bertrand Russell ................................77 Ideas of Interest From Russell’s Problems of Philosophy......78 The Reading Selection from Problems of Philosophy ...........78 [Indirect Values of Philosophy].....................................79 [The Practical Person] ...................................................79 [Philosophy and Science] ..............................................80 [Philosophical Questions]..............................................81 [The Values of Philosophy] ...........................................82 [Enlargement of Self] ....................................................83 [Freedom of Contemplation] .........................................85 Related Ideas ..........................................................................86 Topics Worth Investigating.....................................................86 7. "Only Faith Can Give Truth" by Leo Tolstoy .............................89 Ideas of Interest from A Confession .......................................90 The Reading Selection from A Confession ............................91 [Everyday Life] .............................................................91 [Being Undermined]......................................................92 [Truth of Death].............................................................95 [Art Is a Decoy].............................................................96 [Science Renders Life Meaningless].............................97 [Four Common Solutions].............................................99 [Rational Knowledge Is Indefinite] .............................101 [Faith’s Solution].........................................................103 Related Ideas ........................................................................104 Topics Worth Investigating...................................................105 viii Reading For Philosophical Inquiry: A Brief Introduction 8. Le Mythe de Sisyphe by Albert Camus - trans. by Hélène Brown 107 Ideas of Interest from Le Mythe de Sisyphe .........................108 The Reading Selection from Le Mythe de Sisyphe ..............109 [The Myth of Sisyphus]...............................................109 [Sisyphus: The Absurd Hero]......................................110 [The Absurd Victory] ..................................................112 [Absurdity and Happiness]..........................................113 [Sisyphus’ Fate]...........................................................114 Related Ideas ........................................................................114 Topics Worth Investigating...................................................116 Part II. Philosophy of Religion ...........................................................118 9. God and the World ....................................................................120 Meaning of Life and God’s Existence..................................120 Natural and Deductive Theology .........................................121 10. “The Ontological Argument by St. Anselm”..........................122 Ideas of Interest from the Proslogium..................................123 The Reading Selection from the Proslogium .......................124 Related Ideas ........................................................................126 Topics Worth Investigating...................................................127 11. “An Answer to Anselm” by Gaunilo ......................................129 Ideas of Interest from Pro Insipiente....................................130 The Reading Selection from Pro Insipiente.........................131 Related Ideas ........................................................................133 Topics Worth Investigating...................................................134 12. “Existence Is Not a Predicate” by Immanuel Kant................135 Ideas of Interest from The Critique of Pure Reason ............136 The Reading Selection from The Critique of Pure Reason..137 [Existence Is Not a Property] ......................................137 [The Notion of God Does Not Imply Existence] ........141 Related Ideas ........................................................................141 Topics Worth Investigating...................................................142 13. “From the Nature of the Universe” by Thomas Aquinas........145 Ideas of Interest from Summa Theologica ...........................146 The Reading Selection from Summa Theologica.................147 Whether God exists? ...................................................147 The Five Ways .............................................................147 [The Argument from Motion] .....................................148 [The Argument from First Cause] ...............................148 Reading For Philosophical Inquiry: A Brief Introduction ix [The Argument from Necessity]..................................149 [The Argument from Gradation] .................................150 [The Argument from Design]......................................150 Related Ideas .......................... ...
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