HTML and CSS formatting

Question Description

I’m studying and need help with a Programming question to help me learn.

Have a space between menu (<nav>) and header image and I don't know why. 

Also the CSS for h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, { ... 

doesn't seem to be formatting the headers correctly. See code below, thanks.




<meta charset="utf-8">


<link href='' rel='stylesheet' type='text/css'>

<style type="text/css">


body {

background: #42413C;

margin: 0;

padding: 0;

color: #000;

background-color: #F8EAC0;


/* ~~ Element/tag selectors ~~ */

ul, ol, dl { /* Due to variations between browsers, it's best practices to zero padding and margin on lists. For consistency, you can either specify the amounts you want here, or on the list items (LI, DT, DD) they contain. Remember that what you do here will cascade to the .nav list unless you write a more specific selector. */

padding: 0;

margin: 0;






h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, {

font-family: 'Sofia', cursive, Palatino Linotype, Book Antiqua, Palatino, serif;

color: #673B15;

margin-top: 0; /* removing the top margin gets around an issue where margins can escape from their containing block. The remaining bottom margin will hold it away from any elements that follow. */

padding-right: 15px;

padding-left: 15px; /* adding the padding to the sides of the elements within the blocks, instead of the block elements themselves, gets rid of any box model math. A nested block with side padding can also be used as an alternate method. */


p {

font: 100%/1.4 "Palatino Linotype", "Book Antiqua", Palatino, serif;

margin-top: 0; /* removing the top margin gets around an issue where margins can escape from their containing block. The remaining bottom margin will hold it away from any elements that follow. */

padding-right: 15px;

padding-left: 15px; /* adding the padding to the sides of the elements within the blocks, instead of the block elements themselves, gets rid of any box model math. A nested block with side padding can also be used as an alternate method. */


a img { /* this selector removes the default blue border displayed in some browsers around an image when it is surrounded by a link */

border: none;


/* ~~ Styling for your site's links must remain in this order - including the group of selectors that create the hover effect. ~~ */

a:link {

color: #F8EAC0;

text-decoration: underline; /* unless you style your links to look extremely unique, it's best to provide underlines for quick visual identification */


a:visited {

color: #E8DAAE;

text-decoration: underline;


a:hover, a:active, a:focus { /* this group of selectors will give a keyboard navigator the same hover experience as the person using a mouse. */

text-decoration: none;

color: #E8DAAE;


/* ~~ This fixed width container surrounds all other blocks ~~ */

.container {

width: 960px;

background: #FFFFFF;

margin: 0 auto; /* the auto value on the sides, coupled with the width, centers the layout */


/* ~~ The header is not given a width. It will extend the full width of your layout. ~~ */

header {

background: #A3704A; 


/* ~~ These are the columns for the layout. ~~ 

1) Padding is only placed on the top and/or bottom of the block elements. The elements within these blocks have padding on their sides. This saves you from any "box model math". Keep in mind, if you add any side padding or border to the block itself, it will be added to the width you define to create the *total* width. You may also choose to remove the padding on the element in the block element and place a second block element within it with no width and the padding necessary for your design.

2) No margin has been given to the columns since they are all floated. If you must add margin, avoid placing it on the side you're floating toward (for example: a right margin on a block set to float right). Many times, padding can be used instead. For blocks where this rule must be broken, you should add a "display:inline" declaration to the block element's rule to tame a bug where some versions of Internet Explorer double the margin.

3) Since classes can be used multiple times in a document (and an element can also have multiple classes applied), the columns have been assigned class names instead of IDs. For example, two sidebar blocks could be stacked if necessary. These can very easily be changed to IDs if that's your preference, as long as you'll only be using them once per document.

4) If you prefer your nav on the left instead of the right, simply float these columns the opposite direction (all left instead of all right) and they'll render in reverse order. There's no need to move the blocks around in the HTML source.


.sidebar1 {

float: right;

width: 180px;

background: #EADCAE;

padding-bottom: 10px;


.content {

padding: 10px 0;

width: 780px;

float: right;


/* ~~ This grouped selector gives the lists in the .content area space ~~ */

.content ul, .content ol {

padding: 0 15px 15px 40px; /* this padding mirrors the right padding in the headings and paragraph rule above. Padding was placed on the bottom for space between other elements on the lists and on the left to create the indention. These may be adjusted as you wish. */


/* ~~ The navigation list styles (can be removed if you choose to use a premade flyout menu like Spry) ~~ */

nav ul {

list-style: none; /* this removes the list marker */

border-top: 0px solid #666; /* this creates the top border for the links - all others are placed using a bottom border on the LI */

margin-bottom: 15px; /* this creates the space between the navigation on the content below */


nav ul li {

border-bottom: 0px solid #666; /* this creates the button separation */


nav ul a, nav ul a:visited { /* grouping these selectors makes sure that your links retain their button look even after being visited */

padding: 5px 5px 5px 15px;

display: block; /* this gives the link block properties causing it to fill the whole LI containing it. This causes the entire area to react to a mouse click. */

width: 160px;  /*this width makes the entire button clickable for IE6. If you don't need to support IE6, it can be removed. Calculate the proper width by subtracting the padding on this link from the width of your sidebar container. */

text-decoration: none;

background: #A3704A;


nav ul a:hover, nav ul a:active, nav ul a:focus { /* this changes the background and text color for both mouse and keyboard navigators */

background: #A3704A;

color: #F8EAC0;


/* ~~ The footer ~~ */

footer {

padding: 10px 0;

background: #CCC49F;

position: relative;/* this gives IE6 hasLayout to properly clear */

clear: both; /* this clear property forces the .container to understand where the columns end and contain them */


/*HTML 5 support - Sets new HTML 5 tags to display:block so browsers know how to render the tags properly. */

header, section, footer, aside, nav, article, figure {

display: block;



</style><!--[if lt IE 9]>

<script src=""></script>



<div class="container">


  <img src="chocol8-banner.png" alt="chocol8-banner" width="960" height="400"> 




        <li><a href="#">Home</a></li>

        <li><a href="#">About</a></li>

        <li><a href="#">Contact</a></li>

        <li><a href="#">Blog</a></li>



  <div class="sidebar1">


      <p> The above links demonstrate a basic navigational structure using an unordered list styled with CSS. Use this as a starting point and modify the properties to produce your own unique look. If you require flyout menus, create your own using a Spry menu, a menu widget from Adobe's Exchange or a variety of other javascript or CSS solutions.</p>

      <p>If you would like the navigation along the top, simply move the ul to the top of the page and recreate the styling.</p>


  <!-- end .sidebar1 --></div>

  <article class="content">



     <h2>How to use this document</h2>

      <p>Be aware that the CSS for these layouts is heavily commented. If you do most of your work in Design view, have a peek at the code to get tips on working with the CSS for the fixed layouts. You can remove these comments before you launch your site. To learn more about the techniques used in these CSS Layouts, read this article at Adobe's Developer Center - <a href=""></a>.</p>



      <h2>Clearing Method</h2>

      <p>Because all the columns are floated, this layout uses a clear:both declaration in the footer rule.  This clearing technique forces the .container to understand where the columns end in order to show any borders or background colors you place on the .container. If your design requires you to remove the footer from the .container, you'll need to use a different clearing method. The most reliable will be to add a &lt;br class=&quot;clearfloat&quot; /&gt; or &lt;div  class=&quot;clearfloat&quot;&gt;&lt;/div&gt; after your final floated column (but before the .container closes). This will have the same clearing effect. </p>



      <h2>Logo Replacement</h2>

      <p>An image placeholder was used in this layout in the header where you'll likely want to place  a logo. It is recommended that you remove the placeholder and replace it with your own linked logo. </p>

      <p> Be aware that if you use the Property inspector to navigate to your logo image using the SRC field (instead of removing and replacing the placeholder), you should remove the inline background and display properties. These inline styles are only used to make the logo placeholder show up in browsers for demonstration purposes. </p>

      <p>To remove the inline styles, make sure your CSS Styles panel is set to Current. Select the image, and in the Properties pane of the CSS Styles panel, right click and delete the display and background properties. (Of course, you can always go directly into the code and delete the inline styles from the image or placeholder there.)</p>




      <p>By nature, the background color on any block element will only show for the length of the content. This means if you're using a background color or border to create the look of a side column, it won't extend all the way to the footer but will stop when the content ends. If the .content block will always contain more content, you can place a border on the .content block to divide it from the column.</p>


    <!-- end .content --></article>


    <p>This footer contains the declaration position:relative; to give Internet Explorer 6 hasLayout for the footer and cause it to clear correctly. If you're not required to support IE6, you may remove it.</p>


      Address Content



<!-- end .container --></div>



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Final Answer


Farrukh (866)

Thanks for the help.

Outstanding. Studypool always delivers quality work.

Tutor was very helpful and took the time to explain concepts to me. Very responsive, managed to get replies within the hour.


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