systems engineering early planned and architecting


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please read the slides attached and answer the questions in the last page

just go through the the slides and answer each question in a paragraph

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Figure 3.1 Early system advanced planning and architecting. Info flow during formulation & concept design phases Customer Needs Formulation Concept Design Customer requirements Importance weights House of Quality Eng. characteristics Eng. Design Spec’s “Best”? Alternative Concepts 2 NEEDS STATEMENT •What is required of the system in “functional” terms? •What functions must the system perform? •What are the “primary” functions? •What are the “secondary” functions? •What must be accomplished to alleviate the stated deficiency? •When must this be accomplished? •Where is it to be accomplished? • •How many times or at what frequency must this be accomplished SYSTEM ARCHITECTING • The overall “program requirements” for bringing the capability into being initiate an advanced system planning activity and the development of a program management plan (PMP) •PMP guides the development of requirements for imple- mentation of a systems engineering program and the preparation of a systems engineering management plan (SEMP), or system engineering plan (SEP). •The “technical requirements” for the system are simultaneously determined. •This involves development of a system-level architecture (functional first and physical later) to include development of system operational requirements, determination of a functional architecture, proposing alternative technical concepts, performing feasibility analysis of proposed concepts, selecting a maintenance and support approach, and so on Figure 3.2 Major steps in the system requirements definition process. SELECTING DESIGN ALTERNATIVES • (1) identify various system- level design approaches or alternatives that could be pursued in response to the need; •(2) evaluate the feasible approaches to find the most desirable in terms of performance, effectiveness, maintenance and sustaining support, and lifecycle economic criteria; and • (3) recommend a preferred course of action •Ex. Crossing a river, materials for building a plane, 70 inch or 65 inch for your basement. What is an alternative concept design? For slowing and stopping a spinning shaft? Alternative Physical principle Abstract Embodiment 1 fluid friction fan blade on shaft 2 magnetic field re-generative brake 3 surface friction disk and caliper brake For fastening sheets of paper? Alternative Physical principle 1 spring force 2 bent clamp 3 bendable clamp 4 adhesion Abstract Embodiment paperclip staple cotter pin glue Function decomposition diagram method make coffee store water, filter, grounds brew coffee convert electricity to heat warm coffee pot boil water control electricity drip water on coffee conduct electricity Remove? Combine? Reorganize? “Developing” generated concepts Alternative Concepts Sub functions E.g. mini bike 1 2 3 Transmit Chain Belt Gearbox Brake Disc Drum Steer Handlebar Control stick Fly-by- wire Function structure diagrams show all inputs and outputs State 1 Inputs State 2 Outputs Energy Material Signal Energy Function Material Signal What does it mean to “evaluate” feasible concept designs? Feasible concept designs 9 9 7 1 0 “Evaluate” Best alternative concept design However: e-“valu”-ate = values? whose? Pugh’s evaluation method 1. Select criteria, 2. Establish datum column, 3. Rate alternatives (+, -, S) against datum 4. Select best, or better alternatives Concept Alternatives Criteria Gears V-belts Chain high efficiency high reliability low maintenance low cost light weight + + + 3 2 0 D A T U M NA NA NA + + S 2 2 1 + S Group discussion and decision Modified Pugh’s method Add new column Concept Alternatives Importance VCriteria Gears Chain Wt. (%) belts high efficiency 30 + D + high reliability 25 + A + low 20 + T S maintenance low cost 15 U light weight 10 M 100 + 75 NA 55 25 NA 25 S 0 NA 20 Weighted Rating evaluation method gears Criteria high efficiency high reliability low maintenance low cost light weight Importance Weight (%) 30 25 20 15 10 100 Rating 4 4 4 2 2 NA Rating Value Unsatisfactory 0 Just tolerable e 1 Adequate 2 Good 3 Very Good 4 Weighted Rating 1.20 1.00 0.80 0.30 0.20 3.50 Concept Alternatives v-belts Rating 2 3 3 4 4 NA Weighted Rating 0.60 0.75 0.60 0.60 0.40 2.95 chain Weighted Rating 3 0.90 3 0.75 2 0.40 3 0.45 3 0.30 NA best2.80 Rating method Defining Operational Requirements • Mission definition • Performance and physical parameters •Operational deployment or distribution •Operational life cycle (horizon) •Utilization requirements •Effectiveness factors: cost/system effectiveness, operational availability (Ao), readiness rate, dependability, logistic support effectiveness, mean time between maintenance (MTBM), failure rate , maintenance downtime (MDT), facility utilization (in percent), operator skill levels and task accomplishment requirements, and personnel efficiency. •Environmental factors: OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS • Once the need and technical approach have been defined, it is necessary to translate this into some form of an “operational scenario,” or a set of operational requirements. ▪ What are the anticipated types and quantities of equipment, software, personnel, facilities, information, and so on, required, and where are they to be located? ▪ How is the system to be utilized, and for how long? ▪ What is the anticipated environment at each operational site (user location)? ▪ What are the expected interoperability requirements (i.e., interfaces with other “operating” systems in the area)? ▪ How is the system to be supported, by whom, and for how long? Figure 3.3 System operational requirements (distribution and utilization). Figure 3.4 Typical aircraft operational profiles. Figure 3.5 Top-level system maintenance and support infrastructure Figure 3.6 Mission profile. Figure 3.7 Program schedule. Figure 3.8 Communication network (typical). Figure 3.9 Basic inventory requirements over the system life cycle. Figure 3.10 Projected passengerhandling requirement Figure 3.11 Program schedule. Figure 3.12 Community healthcare infrastructure. Figure 3.13 Multiple systems (system-of-systems). Figure 3.14 System operational and maintenance flow. Figure 3.15 Major levels of maintenance. Figure 3.16 System maintenance and repair policy. Figure 3.17 Prioritization of technical performance measures (TPMs). Figure 3.18 Modified house of quality (HOQ). Figure 3.19 The traceability of requirements through a “family of houses.” Figure 3.20 breakdown. System functional Figure 3.21 Functional block diagram expansion (partial). Figure 3.22 Health care functional flow diagram (extension of Figure 3.12) Figure 3.23 Progression from the “need” to the functional analysis. Figure 3.24 Functional interfaces in a system-of-systems (SOS) configuration. Figure 3.25 The functional breakdown of the system into components. Figure 3.26 process. Trade-off analysis Figure 3.27 Type A system specification format (example). Homework Slide • Why is the definition of system operational requirements important? What type of information is included? •What specific challenges exist in defining the operational requirements for a system-of-systems (SOS) configuration? What is meant by interoperability? Provide an example. •What is meant by a common function in the functional analysis? How are common functions determined? •Why is the development of technical performance measures (TPMs) important? •Why is it important to define specific mission scenarios (or operational profiles) within the context of the system operational requirements? ...
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School: UC Berkeley



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The system operation requirement is important because it outlines not only what elements
are required but also the methods of implementation and their feasibility. It paves the way for the
initiation of system planning and architecting. The information required entails mission definition,
performance and physical parameters, operation life cycle, utilization requirements, operation
distribution, effecti...

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