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Please see the attached file and read the pages to answer the 5 questions at the end. The assignment answer should be detailed in paragraph forms. You must write each question then answer it below, then write another question and answer it, in sequence. Grammar and spelling mistakes must be checked. Make sure you answer each question in a paragraph.

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B CR Ca s pu t ut n Readings on Enterprise Resource Planning h en ts tm In ve s es Preliminary Version - send comments to pml@hec.ca nu DB CR /IR GR DB t p F-53 ay m en Po s R Ac c. Pa y. C In ve so nto ld ry pr ch od an uc ge t R co aw ns m um ate pt ria io l n 40 DB sa Do le m re es ve tic nu es DB at m Po M st IRO in vo ice CR Ra w CR /IR GR 6 40 t Go od sr ec ei p Po M s IG re t go O ce o ip ds ts In re dep qu e ire nd m en en t t 5 40 Pu r or cha de se r ERP System and Enterprise Architecture M pu Co E5 rc nv 9N ha er se t to or de r Ex M ec D ut 01 e M RP 30 5 C pr Con O15 od fi uc r m tio n CR DB en ts In ve st DB m Cr ea VL te 01 de N liv er y 41 CR 1 Ca sh 41 3 CR DB M pr od Re D0 l uc e a 7 tio se CR C CR R m Raw at er ia C l CR Fi pr nis h o DB d ed uc ts CR cc .R DB ec . DB CR ut P R Fa c pr tory od o uc ut tio p n CR Re ve nu 41 0 DB Ac c. Pa y. C o ro DB utp d. pr Ma CO od ss 4 uc re 1 tio lea n se or de r Fi pr nis od he uc d t o DB raw ns. DB In v ch en an tor ge y Pr od or uct de io r n DB DB PART 3 103 DB Kale - ERP System Architecture DB pr Ma CO od ss 4 uc re 1 tio lea n se or de r R DB M pr od Re D0 l uc e a 7 tio se C Pr od or uct de io r n DB CR Chapter Outline The relationship between the client and server is many to many i.e. a client can request services from many servers. A server can serve many clients. The actual computer or device that the client and server reside on is not critical to the discussion of architecture. The client and server are usually hosted on separate computers but they could be on the same computer. 1 41 CR DB Figure 1 - Client Server concept client network server Client and server processes are separate and autonomous even though the request is made by the client. The sharing of the processes between a client and a server is the basis for defining thin and fat clients (these correspond to fat and thin servers respectively). A thin client has minimal processing responsibilities, which implies that the corresponding fat server does the majority of processing. On the other hand, a fat client takes on a larger load of processing. The increase in inexpensive desktop processing has helped popularize fat clients. On the other hand, web based client/server architectures are pushing the thin client (sometimes mobile) paradigm. The client is often called the front-end or front-end application. The server is called the back-end application. The network provisions the transmission of data between clients and servers. A communications middleware it the software that orchestrates the communication over the network. The middleware plays an important role whereby client and server computers can run different operating systems, yet seamlessly channel requests and responses. 5 40 t 6 Go od sr ec ei p Po M st IRO in vo ice CR /IR 40 Po s R Ac c. Pa y. C Presentation Logic : The end user interacts with the presentation logic tier. t p F-53 ay m en DB The overall application logic that the client/server architecture is designed to support has several components that can be distributed across clients and servers. These components are: Presentation Logic, Processing Logic and Storage Logic (Fig 2). CR B CR Ca s pu t ut n nu es Preliminary Version - send comments to pml@hec.ca h In ve s Readings on Enterprise Resource Planning tm en ts DB GR /IR DB In ve so nto ld ry pr ch od an uc ge t R co aw ns m um ate pt ria io l n sa Do le m re es ve tic nu es DB In broad terms, a client is a process that makes service requests to a server. A server, therefore, is a process that responds with the requested service to a client (Figure 1). The third component of this architecture is the network. The network can provide communication to multiple servers that service multiple clients. 8.2 Components : Presentation, Processing, and Storage GR at CR m Ra w 8.1 What is Client/Server Architecture ? Po M s IG re t go O ce o ip ds ts In re dep qu e ire nd m en en t t Pu r or cha de se r M pu Co E5 rc nv 9N ha er se t to or de r Ex M ec D ut 01 e M RP Most current ERP systems utilize a relational database for the data layer in three-tier client/server architecture. The logic or processing layer is the second tier in such architecture. Herein lays the implementation of business logic, business processes, business rules, authentication and user management. The presentation layer forms the third tier. This is usually in the form of a user interface on a multitude of devices ranging from workstations to mobile devices. As users interact with the presentation layer, data is transmitted, read, written, deleted or updated in the data layer. The orchestration of the read/write/ update is done by the logic layer. In recent years, new technologies have developed that make ERP software less monolithic and more flexible. As the amount of data stored in the database and the number of sources of data increase, there is a need for efficient storage and retrieval of corporate data from a business intelligence perspective. Data warehouses have evolved to handle this explosive growth. Finally, advances in embedded and in-memory analytics are providing up to the minute business intelligence. 30 ERP systems are dependent on the consistent storage of large amounts of data: master and transactional data. An enterprise class relational database is used for this purpose. Examples of such databases are Oracle database, Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2. This data is processed by numerous programs within the ERP software and the results are presented to the end user through some user interface. The architecture that supports the connection between the database, processing, and presentation is called Client/Server architecture. 5 C pr Con O15 od fi uc r m tio n CR Cr ea VL te 01 de N liv er y In ve st DB m en ts 41 3 Ca sh This chapter introduces the system architecture that ERP systems are based upon. Understanding the system architecture in addition to ERP functionality (covered in other chapters) will provide a thorough understanding of ERP technology and how it benefits enterprises. 40 In v ch en DB an tor ge y CR Nitin Kale (University of Southern California) CR o DB raw ns. Fi pr nis od he uc d t Chapter 8 : ERP SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE m Raw at er ia C l CR Fi pr nis h o DB d ed uc ts CR P ut o ro DB utp d. R 41 0 Ac c. Pa y. C Fa c pr tory od o uc ut tio pu n t CR Re ve nu e DB ec . DB CR Ac c. R CHAPTER 8 104 DB DB R m Raw at er ia C l C Pr od or uct de io r n 41 1 Storage Logic : This component is responsible for handling data retrieval and storage (in the physical storage devices) requests from the processing logic component. The database management system (DBMS) is synonymous with storage logic. CR Ca sh CR o DB raw ns. CR DB CR DB 5 C pr Con O15 od fi uc r m tio n CR In ve st DB m Cr ea VL te 01 de N liv er y en ts Processing Logic : This component receives user input from the presentation logic component, validates the data, and applies 30 In v ch en DB an tor ge y 41 3 the majority of business rules. This will require communication with the storage logic to retrieve additional data. Business transactions are processed in this component. Results from the processing are written to the storage logic. DB Fi pr nis od he uc d t It is responsible for formatting the data, rendering the user interface, presenting the data and also accepting user input. These tasks are device dependent. Examples of devices include desktop computers, laptops, notebooks which all have a keyboard and mouse for input. Also included are mobile devices such as smart phones that have multi-touch screens which require different rendering and input logic compared to single touch screens. Figure 2 - Components to a Client Server System PRESENTATION LOGIC Processing Logic • User input M pr od Re D0 l uc e a 7 tio se pr Ma CO od ss 4 uc re 1 tio lea n se or de r CR P CR Fi pr nis h o DB d ed uc ts Kale - ERP System Architecture ut o ro DB utp d. R 41 0 Ac c. Pa y. C Fa c pr tory od o uc ut tio pu n t CR Re ve nu e DB ec . DB CR Ac c. R CHAPTER 8 Storage Logic • DBMS • Data Output • Business transactions and rues • Rendering the user interface • Communicating with storage logic • Data retrieval • Data storage • Read/write/update - Physical storage device • Managing and balancing load M pu Co E5 rc nv 9N ha er se t to or de r Ex M ec D ut 01 e M RP • Input/Output processing server. The processing logic server is separate from the storage logic server. Application partitioning is the process of writing programs that are distributed onto clients and servers as needed to maximize performance and data security. Partitioning the processing logic leads to two, three, and n-tier environments. 5 Po M s IG re t go O ce o ip ds ts In re dep qu e ire nd m en en t t Pu r or cha de se r It is important to note that the three logic components can be distributed across multiple tiers of an n-tier client/server system. In general, the presentation logic resides on the client. Storage logic resides on the server, which is usually a database server in close proximity to the data itself (physical storage). This leaves the processing logic to be placed on either the client or on the 40 8.3 N-Tier Approaches to C/S 6 40 OPTION 2 Po M st IRO in vo ice Client (fat) 40 • Presentation Logic • Processing Logic Po s CR B CR Ca s pu t ut n nu es Preliminary Version - send comments to pml@hec.ca h In ve s Readings on Enterprise Resource Planning tm en ts DB GR /IR DB • Storage Logic R • Storage Logic Server (thin) Ac c. Pa y. C • Processing Logic t p F-53 ay m en Server (fat) In ve so nto ld ry pr ch od an uc ge t R co aw ns m um ate pt ria io l n sa Do le m re es ve tic nu es DB • Presentation Logic CR Ra w m at Client (thin) DB GR OPTION 1 CR /IR Figure 3 - Option for Two-Tier C/S Architecture : Thin Client vs. Fat Client Go od sr ec ei p t Two-tier Client Server Architecture Three-tier 105 DB Kale - ERP System Architecture DB pr Ma CO od ss 4 uc re 1 tio lea n se or de r M pr od Re D0 l uc e a 7 tio se Pr od or uct de io r n CR C DB CR 1 • Processing Logic • Storage Logic • Application Server 30 5 C pr Con O15 od fi uc r m tio n • User Interface SERVER DB en ts CR In ve st DB m • Presentation Logic SERVER 41 Ca sh Three-tier Architecture CR In v ch en DB an tor ge y CR o DB raw ns. Figure 4 - Three-Tier C/S Architecture CLIENT 41 3 Cr ea VL te 01 de N liv er y R DB Fi pr nis od he uc d t Client Server Architecture m Raw at er ia C l CR Fi pr nis h o DB d ed uc ts CR P ut o ro DB utp d. R 41 0 Ac c. Pa y. C Fa c pr tory od o uc ut tio pu n t CR Re ve nu e DB ec . DB CR Ac c. R CHAPTER 8 • Database Server N-Tier Client Server Architecture Figure 5 - N-Tier C/S Architecture SERVER SERVER Pu r or cha de se r SERVER • Processing Logic • Processing Logic • User Interface • Web Server • Application Server 40 5 • Presentation Logic • Storage Logic • Database Server CR Po M st IRO in vo ice Ac c. Pa y. C Po s R CR B CR Ca s pu t ut n nu es Preliminary Version - send comments to pml@hec.ca h In ve s Readings on Enterprise Resource Planning tm en ts DB GR /IR DB In ve so nto ld ry pr ch od an uc ge t 40 The three-tier architecture is the main stay of ERP systems where thousands of end users may be accessing the application concurrently. Figure 6 shows a typical schematic of an ERP system. t p F-53 ay m en CR DB GR /IR A transaction processing monitor is used to monitor the load on an application server. Load balancing is thus achieved amongst several application servers as needed. R co aw ns m um ate pt ria io l n sa Do le m re es ve tic nu es DB Ra w m at As depicted in Figure 4, three-tier architecture has two server layers to manage the processing and storage logic. Generally, the processing logic resides on an application server that executes most application programs. The drive towards three and higher tiered architectures is driven by flexibility and scalability. By delineating the tiers, it is easier to swap out any one tier’s technology with a newer one without having to rewrite the code for the other tiers. Scalability is achieved by introduction of multiple application servers. 40 8.4 3-Tier C/S in ERP Systems 6 Go od sr ec ei p t Po M s IG re t go O ce o ip ds ts In re dep qu e ire nd m en en t t CLIENT M pu Co E5 rc nv 9N ha er se t to or de r Ex M ec D ut 01 e M RP N-tier Architecture 106 DB Kale - ERP System Architecture DB pr Ma CO od ss 4 uc re 1 tio lea n se or de r R m Raw at er ia C l CR Fi pr nis h o DB d ed uc ts CR P ut o ro DB utp d. R 41 0 Ac c. Pa y. C Fa c pr tory od o uc ut tio pu n t M pr od Re D0 l uc e a 7 tio se Pr od or uct de io r n CR C DB 1 41 CR DB M pu Co E5 rc nv 9N ha er se t to or de r 30 5 C pr Con O15 od fi uc r m tio n CR Ex M ec D ut 01 e M RP Each table of the database has rows of data for the configuration phase as well as the testing phase. They are identified by the client number field. The processing tier manages the database authorizations so that only rows with client number 100 will be seen by configuration personnel. 5 40 6 Go od sr ec ei p t The entire business logic resides in the application server. A dispatcher is the central control process. The dispatcher performs the following important tasks : • Together with the operating system, manages the resources for the ERP application. /IR Po M st IRO in vo ice • Evenly distributes the transaction load among the work processes. 40 GR • Interfaces with the presentation level. • Manages the buffer areas in the main memory. Ac c. Pa y. C • Organizes all communication activities. Po s R • Places the client requests in request queues, and then processes them in order. CR B CR Ca s pu t ut n nu es Preliminary Version - send comments to pml@hec.ca h In ve s Readings on Enterprise Resource Planning tm en ts DB GR /IR DB CR m Ra w DB In ve so nto ld ry pr ch od an uc ge t R co aw ns m um ate pt ria io l n sa Do le m re es ve tic nu es 40 8.4.2 ERP Business Logic at Before an ERP system is put into production, it must be implemented, configured, tested, and then deployed. Keeping the data of each phase of the implementation cycle separate from the other phases would require the use of multiple databases. This is inefficient and unnecessarily complicated. An innovative way to utilize the same database for all phases of implementation is to use a field (sometimes called client number) in all tables, making it a part of the primary key. A primary key is a field (or set of fields) that uniquely identifies each row in a table. In this way the configuration phase can use rows with client number 100 and the testing phase can use rows with client number 200. Po M s IG re t go O ce o ip ds ts In re dep qu e ire nd m en en t t Pu r or cha de se r Most ERP systems use a relational database to store data about their customers, vendors, materials etc. in hundreds of tables. This data is called master data. As the ERP system is put into production, every transaction that is saved (committed) to the database will update one or more tables. This data is called transactional data. As you can surmise, master data changes slowly, whereas transactional data changes rapidly, growing by large amounts depending on the volume of business. CR 8.4.1 Database Tier for ERP Systems DB Cr ea VL te 01 de N liv er y In ve st DB m en ts 41 3 Ca sh CR In v ch en DB an tor ge y CR o DB raw ns. DB Fi pr nis od he uc d t Figure 6 - ERP System Architecture t p F-53 ay m en CR Re ve nu e DB ec . DB CR Ac c. R CHAPTER 8 107 DB DB R Pr od or uct de io r n CR 41 1 Figure 7 and 8 show some sample UIs for ERP systems. DB Ca sh • Ensures proper lock management to maintain data integrity. en ts CR C DB CR In v ch en DB an tor ge y m Raw at er ia C l o DB raw ns. CR The client side user interface can be either a custom program or a web browser. Either way there is a rendering program that renders the appropriate look and feel of the UI on the client platform. Mobile apps have limited screen space so UIs have to be designed specifically for this limitation. • Distributes the pending requests to the appropriately defined work processes. 41 3 8.4.3 Presentation Tier DB Fi pr nis od he uc d t • Dispatches the requests to available work processes. A work process is specialized to process exactly one request type. M pr od Re D0 l uc e a 7 tio se pr Ma CO od ss 4 uc re 1 tio lea n se or de r CR P CR Fi pr nis h o DB d ed uc ts Kale - ERP System Architecture ut o ro DB utp d. R 41 0 Ac c. Pa y. C Fa c pr tory od o uc ut tio pu n t CR Re ve nu e DB ec . DB CR Ac c. R CHAPTER 8 Po M st IRO in vo ice CR DB 40 CR t p F-53 ay m en Po s CR B CR Ca s pu t ut n nu es Preliminary Version - send comments to pml@hec.ca h In ve s Readings on Enterprise Resource Planning tm en ts DB GR /IR DB In ve so nto ld ry pr ch od an uc ge t R Ac c. Pa y. C R co aw ns m um ate pt ria io l n sa Do le m re es ve tic nu es DB Ra w m at GR /IR 40 6 Go od sr ec ei p t Po M s IG re t go O ce o ip ds ts In re dep qu e ire nd m en en t t 40 5 Pu r or cha de se r M pu Co E5 rc nv 9N ha er se t to or de r 30 5 C pr Con O15 od fi uc r m tio n CR Ex M ec D ut 01 e M RP Cr ea VL te 01 de N liv er y In ve st DB m Figure 7 - SAP ECC Sales Order Transaction 108 DB Kale - ERP System Architecture DB pr Ma CO od ss 4 uc re 1 tio lea n se or de r R m Raw at er ia C l CR Fi pr nis h o DB d ed uc ts CR P ut o ro DB utp d. R 41 0 Ac c. Pa y. C Fa c pr tory od o uc ut tio pu n t CR Re ve nu e DB M pr od Re D0 l uc e a 7 tio se Pr od or uct de io r n CR C DB 1 41 CR DB Po M s IG re t go O ce o ip ds ts In re dep qu e ire nd m en en t t 40 5 Pu r or cha de se r M pu Co E5 rc nv 9N ha er se t to or de r 30 5 C pr Con O15 od fi uc r m tio n CR Ex M ec D ut 01 e M RP Cr ea VL te 01 de N liv er y In ve st DB m en ts 41 3 Ca sh CR 6 CR Po s CR B CR Ca s pu t ut n nu es Preliminary Version - send comments to pml@hec.ca h In ve s Readings on Enterprise Resource Planning tm en ts DB GR /IR DB In ve so nto ld ry pr ch od an uc ge t 40 Po M st IRO in vo ice • Asynchronous remote procedure call (RPC) : Client makes a request after establishing a point-to-point connection. Does not wait for response. R CR • Asynchronous  : In asynchronous communication, the client sends a message (request) to the server but does not wait for a response. Examples are email and file transfer. Middleware examples  : DB GR /IR Several types of middleware are available. Here are some important ones as classified by Hurwitz (Hurwitz, 1998) : Ac c. Pa y. C R co aw ns m um ate pt ria io l n sa Do le m re es ve tic nu es DB Ra w m at Applications need to connect and communicate to a source of data over a network. The mechanism for orchestrating this is called database connectivity. The data source is generally a relational database; however it could be any other form of data, such as a text file. Middleware is the glue that binds all client server applications. Interoperability is the reason why middleware exists. One or more middleware solutions are used within n-tiered client server applications to facilitate this interoperability amongst dissimilar operating systems and components. Go od sr ec ei p t 8.5 Database Connectivity ...
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