European History about sailor's method in fifteenth century.

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Review the texts found in Newitt, as well as text by Duarte Pacheco Pereira and the “Logbook” of Columbus (document 12 in Symcox, pp. 65-83). In all of these texts the authors describe their practices of navigation, that is, the way they guided their ships towards their destinations. Determine the skills required for navigation in the fifteenth century and describe the methods used by sea captains then. What were the most reliable practices used by these mariners? Were maps and charts, compasses and astrolabes useful? Or were the time-worn practices of observing natural phenomenon (birds, winds, tides) more useful? Assess the role of “science” in these early expeditions, deciding if these early voyages relied more on new techniques or on old sailors’ practices. Assume that the use of maps, compasses, astrolabes, charts, tables, and calculations—in sum, anything requiring numbers and abstract thought—pertain to “scientific” methods.

IAH 202A, Section 10-18: Fall 2018 Essay Assignment 1 Please read and contemplate the following questions. Answer one (1) of them in a 5-page paper. Submissions should be no shorter than five pages and no longer than five pages. Document formatting should be as follows: 1” (one inch) margins on all sides, double spacing, 12-point type, no title page, no “works cited”/bibliography/footnotes. Remember to proofread your work, eliminating any spelling or grammatical errors before submitting your paper. It is in your best interest to make an outline of your response prior to writing, since your papers will be judged on the basis of clarity and coherence. In general, it is best to begin each paragraph of your paper with a topic sentence and conclude each paragraph with a citation of evidence that supports the assertion you made in your topic sentence. No outside sources are necessary for this project. Cite (means to put in quotes) only the primary sources we have read for this course (Attention! Do not cite the professor’s lectures or the introductory material to our texts). Parenthetical references to our texts should be used: e.g. (Mandeville, 7). Papers will be due in section on Friday, October 5, via dropbox on D2L and in hardcopy. Early submissions also be accepted, late submissions without excuse will be penalized. All papers must be stapled when delivered. 1. Review the texts found in Newitt, as well as text by Duarte Pacheco Pereira and the “Logbook” of Columbus (document 12 in Symcox, pp. 65-83). In all of these texts the authors describe their practices of navigation, that is, the way they guided their ships towards their destinations. Determine the skills required for navigation in the fifteenth century and describe the methods used by sea captains then. What were the most reliable practices used by these mariners? Were maps and charts, compasses and astrolabes useful? Or were the time-worn practices of observing natural phenomenon (birds, winds, tides) more useful? Assess the role of “science” in these early expeditions, deciding if these early voyages relied more on new techniques or on old sailors’ practices. Assume that the use of maps, compasses, astrolabes, charts, tables, and calculations—in sum, anything requiring numbers and abstract thought—pertain to “scientific” methods. 2. Review the descriptions of exotic peoples found in the Newitt texts and the Columbus texts, as well as Mandeville’s book. Received wisdom asserts that Europeans who wrote about non-Europeans did so with disdain, that they assumed their own superiority. But this is manifestly not true, as any attentive reading of these sources bears out. Write a paper in which you identify what late medieval authors considered praiseworthy in other peoples. Remember to distinguish between the earlier Mandeville—who may not have ever traveled or even existed—and the accounts of later authors who did. Are these authors more praiseworthy than deprecatory toward their subjects? Do they appreciate some peoples more than others? Which ones? Defend your answer by citing evidence. 3. Review the documents created by authorities in Europe with regard to the fifteenthcentury discoveries. These documents include papal bulls, capitulations, and testimony from the texts in Newitt and Symcox, as well as that of Duarte Pacheco Pereira. How did these enterprises work in legal and financial terms? Analyze the documents to ascertain how lords, such as the princes of Portugal or Spain, encouraged individuals to sail for them on dangerous voyages into the unknown. How did they share in the benefit of these enterprises? Determine also how the claims to the lands that they discovered were protected from outside competition. Which mechanisms and authorities of international trade and law in the fifteenth century ensured the viability of the process of exploration and how did they do it?

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CASIMIR
School: UT Austin

Hi, is it possible you ...

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Anonymous
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